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'O'/ 'iCO.i cy^yA- ^^^^^^^1 


fiarbarl) College libtan) 


(CUM Ol iSm) 




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The Japan Society, London 




Chronicles of J apart/ f from the Earliest Times to a,d. 697. 


L \ , W. G.J 


W. G.^STON,,C.M.G. 

I I Honorary Member of the Japan Society , 6r*r. 

VOLUMfi^ I. 

LONDON, 1896. ii 



{All Rights Resented.] 

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1 \ 


The chief object of preparing this translation of the standard 
native history of Ancient Japan, known as the Nihongi^ was to 
make accessible to European scholars the verj' considerable 
store of material for the study of mythology, folk-lore, early 
civilization, and manners and customs which it contains. It 
may also prove of interest to those numerous Japanese who are 
acquainted with the English language, and who may have the 
curiosity to learn in what light their ancient history and 
traditions are viewed by a Western student. 

As only a limited sale of a work of this kind could be ex- 
pected, the translator was fortunate in being relieved from 
all pecuniary responsibility for its publication by the Japan 
Society. His special acknowledgments are due to those mem- 
bers by whose liberality a guarantee fund for this purpose has 
been provided. 

It remains for him to express his indebtedness to other 
workers, by whose labours in the field of Japanese and Chinese 
learning he has freely profited. The writings of Messrs. 
Chamberlain and Satow * have been placed under frequent con- 
tribution, and for the latter part of the work, the scholarly 
German translation of the Nihongi, by Dr. Florenz, has been of 
the greatest possible assistance. He should also mention the 
names of Williams, Giles, Parker, Mayers, Gubbins, Hepburn, 
Anderson, Legge, and Eitel, whose writings are the indis- 

* Now Sir Ernest Satow, K.C.M.G., H.M.'s Minister Plenipotentiary to 

viii Preface. 

pensable companions of all students of Far-Eastern subjects* 
Other sources of information are acknowledged in the notes. 

Amongst native Japanese writers the chief authorities have 
been the famous scholars Motoori and Hirata. Their religious 
and patriotic prejudices often lead them to take views from 
which a European reader is forced to dissent, but no Western 
scholar can hope to rival or even to approach their vast eru- 
dition, clothed as it is in an easy and graceful style, undisfigured 
by pedantry. The translator gladly seizes this opportunity of 
expressing the strong admiration which he has long entertained 
for them. For the Notes, the Shukai edition of the Nihongi 
and the Tsuslto Commentary have been largely drawn upon. 
The references to Chinese literature have been usually taken 
from these last-named sources. It is unnecessary to enumerate 
more particularly the other native works of reference which 
have been utilized. A copious list of them will be found in 
Dr. F*lorenz's Introduction. 

The translator should not omit to express his thanks to Mr. 
W. Gowland for the use of the drawings and photographs 
relating to the Imperial Misasagi and sepulchral mounds, from 
which a number of the illustrations have been reproduced. 

The vital importance of a good Index is fully recognized. 
No 'pains will be spared to make this part of the work as 
complete and satisfactory as possible. 



I. Age of the Gods 
































Chiuai „ 
Jingo Kogu 
OjIN Tennd 


Hanzei „ 




Part I. 


Part II. 


Accession B.C. 


























. '31 


. 191 


. 201 




. 3'i 


. 400 


. 406 


. 412 


. 454 





Accession A.D. 




. 457 




. 480 




. . 485 




. 488 




. 499 



Writing. — The art of writing is one of the numerous ele- 
ments of civilization for which Japan is indebted to China. 
The date of its first introduction is not definitely known. 
There are indications that some acquaintance with the Chinese 
wTitten character was possessed by individuals in Japan during 
the early centuries of the Christian era, but the first positive 
information on the subject belongs to a.d. 405, for which an 
erroneous date corresponding to a.d. 285 is given in the Ni/wngt. 
In this year a Corean named Wani or Wangin was appointed 
tutor in Chinese to a Japanese Imperial Prince. He was the 
first of a succession of teachers from that country whose 
instructions paved the way for a revolution in Japanese 
institutions and manners, not less profound and far-reaching 
than that produced in our own time by the influence of 
European ideas. 

From its geographical position, Corea was the natural inter- 
mediary by which China became known to Japan. In these 
early times there was no direct sea communication between the 
two last-named countries. Travellers crossed the Strait from 
Japan to Corea, and pursued the rest of their journey by the 
circuitous overland route. But the Corean national genius 
seems to have left no .impress of its own on the civilization 
which it received from China and handed on to Japan. 
Medicine, Buddhism, painting, and the mechanic arts were 
transmitted, as far as we can see, without modification, and 
there is little trace of any special Corean character in the 
knowledge of Chinese literature and science which Coreans 
communicated to Japan. They had themselves taken up this 
study only thirty years before Wani's departure.* 

1 c. 

See a paper on ** Writing, Printing, and the Alphabet in Corea," in the 
•*J.R.A.S.,"July, 1895. 

xii Introduction. 

The newly-acquired Chinese characters were soon put to 
practical use. Wani himself is said to have been employed to- 
keep the accounts of the Treasur}\ In the reign of Nintoku we 
are told that Ki no Tsuno no Sukune committed to writing an 
account of the productions of the Corean kingdom of Pekch^. 
The date given for this in the NihoNgi is a.d. 353, to which, as 
in the case of other events of this period, two cycles or 120 
years should probably be added. In the following reign 
(Richiu's) " recorders were appointed in the provinces in order 
to note down words and events." But from the specimens of 
their reports which are preserved in the Nihongi, these officials 
do not seem to have contributed much of importance to his- 
torical knowledge. Fabulous stories and accounts of mon- 
strosities and portents form the staple of their compositions. 
It may be* inferred, however, that such functionaries were 
already in existence at the capital, and indeed \ve find mention 
at this time of hereditary corporations of fumi-bito or scribes, 
known as the Achiki Be and Wani Be, the successors of Atogi 
and Wani, the Corean scholars who first taught Chinese at the 
court of the Mikado. 

History- The Kiujiki. — The first literary efforts of the 
Japanese took the direction of history. No doubt the Norito 
or rituals of the Shinto religion and some poetical composi- 
tions date from an earlier period. But they do not seem to 
have been committed to writing. The earliest book of which we 
find mention is the Kiujiki or Kujiki (Chronicle of old matters 
of former ages), which was compiled in a.d. 620 under high 
official auspices, as indeed were all the historical works which 
have come down to us from these ancient times. The writing 
of history was, and still is, regarded as pre-eminently a matter 
of State concern in all those Eastern countries where Chinese 
ideas are predominant. The Kiujiki was entrusted to the 
keeping of the Soga House, but on its downfall in 645, a large 
portion was destroyed by fire, a part only, described as Kokuki 
or national annals, having been saved from the flames^ 
Whether this work is or is not identical with the Kiujiki of 
our own day, is a question on which I shall have more to say 
afterwards. At present it is sufficient to note that the latter 
work contains nothing which is not also to be found in the 
Kojiki or Nihongi except a few passages in the mythological 

Introduction. xiii 

portion and a list of local governors. The historical part is 
almost word for word the same as the Nihongi, which, how- 
ever, is very much fuller, and is brought down to a much later 

The Kojiki. — In a.d. 682 a number of Princes and High 
Officials were formally commissioned by the Emperor Temmu 
to prepare a " History' of the Emperors and of matters of high 
antiquity." Nothing is known of the result of their labours, 
but this measure led eventually to the compilation of the Kojiki^ 
as we learn from a passage in the Preface to that work.* It 
was not completed, however, until a.d. 712. The Kojiki has 
fortunately been preserved to us. If the Kiujiki is excepted, 
as of doubtful authenticity, it is the earliest product of the 
Japanese historical muse, and indeed the oldest monument of . 
Japanese literature. It presents many features of the highest 
interest, but it is needless to dwell here on a subject which 
has been so thoroughly dealt with by Chamberlain in the 
Introduction to his admirable translation of this work. 

In 714, or two years after the completion of the Kojiki^ the 
Empress Gemmid gave orders for the preparation of a national 
history. We hear nothing more of this project, which may or 
may not have served to provide materials for the Nihongi. 

I The Nihongi — Date and Authorship. — We now come to 

the Xihongi itself. It has no title-page or preface, and our 
information as to its date and authorship is derived from other 
sources. The Konin Shiki (commentary on the Nihovgi, of 
the period 810-824) informs us that it was completed and laid 
before the Empress Gemmio in a.d. 720 by Prince Toneri and 
Yasumaro Futo no Ason. In addition to the thirty books 
which have come down to us, there was originally a book of 
genealogies of the Emperors which is no longer extant. The 
term used by the Shiki in speaking of its preparation is " selected 
afresh/' which points obviously to compilation rather than 
original composition. An examination of the work itself favours 
this view. It consists of detached passages linked together by 
chronological sequence, and some endeavour is visible to shape 
the materials into a consistent whole, but the result has a more 
or less patchwork appearance, and falls far short of the st an - 

* See Ch. K., p. 9. 

xiv Introduction. 

dard of uniformity of style and method which we are accus- 
tomed to look for in historical compositions. 

Materials for the Nihongi. — The remains of the Kiujiki 
must have formed a very important element of the authors' 
material. Indeed I lean to the belief that whether the present 
Kiujiki is authentic or not, much of the earlier part of the 
Nihongi (except the first two books) is practically the composi- 
tion of the illustrious Shotoku Daishi, its reputed author* 
It is recorded that he was a profound student of Buddhism and 
of Chinese classical literature, and internal evidence shows 
that the writer of this part of the Nihongi was well versed in 
these subjects. The Kojiki is not directly referred to, and 
little use seems to have been made of it. But it was well known 
to the authors. Indeed one of them, Yasumaro, was the very 
person who took down the Kojiki from the lips of Hiyeda no 
Are, a man (or woman) who had a remarkable memory, well 
stored with the ancient traditions of the Japanese race. That 
no community of style can be traced between the two works is 
easily explained by the circumstance that Yasumaro was in the 
first case little more than an amanuensis, and in the second a 
compiler. It is possible, too, that his associate. Prince Toneri, 
vyas the guiding spirit of the undertaking, and that Yasumaro 
simply carried out his directions. 

The Nihongi contains a few phrases which show that the 
Norito or Rituals of the Shinto cult were familiar to the authors, 
but nothing of importance is drawn from this source. 

Another stock of information which was probably at their 
disposal is referred to in the History of the reign of Jito Tenno 
(A.D. 694), where it is stated that orders were given to eighteen 
of the principal noble Houses to deliver to the Government 
their genealogical records. Other historical works, notably a 
certain Kana Nihongi^ have been spoken of as in existence 
before the date of the Nihongi, and that there was a copious 
historical or legendary literature accessible to the authors 
cannot be doubted. The work itself, as we have it, contains 
ample evidence of this in the numerous quotations from other 
writings, added, as most Japanese critics think, by the authors 
themselves, or, as I prefer to believe, by subsequent scholars 
soon after its appearance. These extracts are always referred 
to in later times as if they formed part of the Nihongi, and 

Introduction. xv 


there can be no harm in accepting them as of equal authority 
with it. Some are, no doubt, of still greater antiquity. 

An institution which must have contributed substantially, 
though perhaps indirectly, to the collection and conservation 
of the materials for the more legendary part of the Nihongi 
was the Katari Be, or hereditary corporation of reciters. Un- 
fortunately we know very little about it. Hirata, in his Koski- 
choy states, on what authority does not appear, that the Katari 
Be came forward and recited " ancient words " before the 
Emperor at the festival of Ohonihe when he inaugurated his 
reign by sacrifices to the Gods. It is not probable that their 
services were confined to this occasion. 

Character and Contents of the Nihongi. — The Nihongi 

consists of very heterogeneous elements which by no means all 
answer to our i(ieas of history. The earlier part furnishes a very 
complete assortment of all the forms of the Untrue of which the 
human mind is capable, whether myth, legend, fable, romance, 
gossip, mere blundering, or downright fiction. The first two 
books are manifestly mythological. They are followed by an 
account of Jimmu's Conquest of Yamato, which has probably 
a basis of truth, though the legendary character obviously 

Most of the meagre details given us of the reigns of the next 
eight Emperors have a Chinese stamp, and must, I fear, be 
pronounced simply fictitious. Nor need this greatly surprise 
us. There are other countries where 

Mortal men are ever wont to lie, 
Whene'er they speak of sceptre-bearing kings. 

A portrait gallery in Holyrood Palace illustrates the same 
principle, though in a different way. 

Then we have a series of legendary stories full of miraculous 
incidents, but in which grains of truth may here and there be 
discerned. The value of this early part of the work is enhanced 
by the numerous poems of great antiquity which have been 
incorporated into it, arid which have considerable antiquarian 
and philological interest. 

The narrative becomes more and more real as it goes on, 
until about the 5th century we find ourselves in what, without 
too violent a departure from the truth, may be called genuine 



xvi Introduction. 

history, while from the beginning of the 6th century until 
A.D. 697, when it is brought to a close, the Nihongi gives us 
what is to every appearance a trustworthy record of events. 
We must still, however, be on our guard against the Chinese 
diction and sentiments which are put into the mouths of the 
Mikados and their Ministers, and there are some strange stories 
of a kind not likely to impose on our credulity. This part of 
the Nihongi is of very great value, comprising as it does a 
period of the highest importance in the life of the Japanese 
nation. It was at this time that the Japanese adopted 
and assimilated the civilization of China, material, moral, 
and political, together with the Buddhist religion, thereby 
, profoundly modifying the entire course of their future history. 

The defects of the Nihongi are due partly to the uncritical 
spirit of the age when it was written, but mainly to the circum- 
stance that the authors were accomplished scholars deeply 
imbued with ideas derived from the classical and historical 
literature of ancient China. With exceptions to be noticed 
presently, the work is composed in the Chinese language. 
This is in itself an obstacle to the faithful representatfon of 
things Japanese. But unfortunately it is not all. Chinese ideas 
and traits of Chinese manners and customs are frequently 
brought in where they have no business. In the very first para- 
graph we have an essay spiced with Chinese philosophical 
terms which reads strangely incongruous as a preface to the 
native cosmogonic myth. Battle axes are mentioned at a time 
when no such weapons were in use by the Japanese, stone 
mallets are converted into swords, and we hear continually of 
the Temples of the Earth and of Grain, a purely Chinese 
metaphor for the State. No inconsiderable part of the work 
consists of speeches and Imperial decrees interlarded with 
quotations from Chinese literature, and evidently composed for 
the occasion in imitation of Chinese models. In one case the 
authors have gone so far as to attribute to the Emperor Yiiriaku 
a dying speech of several pages, which is taken with hardly 
any alteration from a history of the Chinese Sui dynasty, 
where it is assigned to an Emperor who died 125 years later. 

But what is far more misleading than these naive inventions 
is the confirmed habit common to the writers both of the Kojiki 
and of the Nihongi, though the latter are the greater offenders, of 

Introduction. xvi 

throwing back, no doubt more or less unconsciously, to more 
ancient times the ideas of their own age, when the national 
thought and institutions had become deeply modified by Chinese 
influences. As Dr. Florenz very justly remarks, '* The little 
which European inquiry has hitherto been able to teach us of 
the real condition of Japan in the most ancient times shows 
that the historical representation of this period in the Kojiki 
and Nihonf^i (upon which rest all the later statements of the 
Japanese) is most profoundly penetrated^ by false principles. 
The newer relations, partly developed from native material, 
partly influenced by Chinese culture, are reflected back upon 
the oldest without due distinction, and the result is a confused 
picture in which the critical inquirer can, it is true, frequently 
separate what is original from subsequent additions, but must 
. often let fall his hands in despair." A conspicuous instance of 
this is the way in which the Imperial theory of the universal 
authority of the Mikados is extended backwards to a time when 
their sway was really restricted to the provinces round the 
capital and a few other places. It is also exemplified by the 
treatment of territorial and official designations in the older 
part of the history as if they were already family names, which 
they did not become until a later period. 

Chronology, — The Kojiki wisely has no chronology. But 
the authors of the A-ifiongi, or more probably of some of the 
works on which it is based, thought it necessary, in imitation 
of their Chinese models, to provide a complete system of dates 
extending as far back as the middle of the 7th century B.C., 
and giving the exact years, months, and even days for events 
which are supposed to have happened in this remote period. 
When it is remembered that there was no official recognition 
of the art of writing in Japan until a.d. 405, and that the 
first mention of calendar-makers belongs to a.d. 553, the 
:: historical value of such chronology may be readily estimated. 
After the Christian epoch there may have been some blunder- 
ing and unsuccessful endeavours to give the right years, but for 
several centuries longer the months and days must have been 
simply supplied from the writers* imagination. Even so late 
as the beginning of the 5th century the chronology can be shown 
to be wrong in several cases by no less an interval than 120 
years. Abundant proofs of its inaccuracy are revealed by a 
'^ a 


comparison with the contemporary histories of Corea and China, 
and an examination of the Nihongi itself yields many more. 
The impossible lengths attributed to the Emperors' reigns are 
a well-known example, and some, but by no means all, of the 
other evidence to this effect is indicated in the notes to the 
present version. 

The first date in the Nihongi which is corroborated by 
external evidence is a.d. 461, but the chronology is not a little 
vague for some time longer. Perhaps if we take A.D. 500 as the 
time when the correctness of the Nihongi dates begins to be 
trustworthy, we shall not be very far wrong. 

In an essay contributed to a Japanese magazine called Bun^ in 
1888, Mr. Naka has brought together absolutely overwhelming 
ex-idence of the utter inaccuracy in matters of chronology of the 
early part of the Nihongi^ and I may be allowed to refer the 
reader to a paper on ** Early Japanese History " read before 
the J.A.S. in December, 1887, in which the same thesis is 
maintained. Such scholars as Satow, Chamberlain, Bramsen, 
Griffis and others have expressed themselves to a similar effect, 
and it may be hoped that we have now heard the last of the 
thoughtless echoes of old Kaempfer's audacious assertion that 
since the time of Jimmu Tenno, the Japanese have been 
'* accurate and faithful in writing the history of their country 
and the Hves and reigns of their monarchs.*' 

But enough has been said of the defects of the Nihongi. The 
above strictures apply almost exclusively to the earlier half of 
the work, and they must not be allowed to blind us to the fact 
that it after all presents a ver>' full and varied picture of the 
civilization, manners and customs, and political, moral, and 
religious ideas of the ancient Japanese. Even the large untrue 
element which it contains is not without its value. Bad 
history may be good mythology or folk-lore, and state- 
ments the most wildly at variance with fact often throw a 
useful light on the beliefs or institutions of the age when they 
became current. 

Estimation in which the Nihongi was held. — The 

importance of the Nihongi was at once recognized by the 
somewhat narrow circle of corirtiers and officials for whom 
it was intended. Subseiiuent history contains frequent 
mention of its being publicly read and expounded to the 

Introduction. xix 

Mikado's Court, one of these notices belonging to the very next 
year after its completion. It threw wholly into the shade its 
predecessor the Kojiki and superseded the recitations of the 
Katari Be and other similar customs. Another testimony to its 
value is the series of commentaries which began to be written 
upon it immediately after its appearance. Some of these notes, 
known as Shiki or " private notes/* have been preserved to us 
in a work called Shaku-nihongi, written about the end of the 
13th century. They are described as of the periods Yoro, 
(714 — 724), Konin (810 — 824), and Yengi (901 — 923). 

This high estimation for the i\7//<?«^/ has lasted until our own 
day. Its pre-eminence as a source of knowledge of Japanese 
antiquity was never contested until quite recent times. Even 
Motoori * acknowledges its value, although his religious and 
patriotic prejudices lead him to give a preference to the Kojiki^ 
which is less profoundly tainted by an admixture of Chinese 
The Kojiki and the Nihongi. — Both the Kojiki and the 

Nihongi present to the eye a series of Chinese characters. A 
closer examination, however, reveals a marked difference in the 
way in which they are used by the respective authors. In the 
Kojiki, which was taken down from the mouth of a Japanese 
by a man with some tincture of Chinese learning, the Chinese 
construction is every now and then interrupted or rather helped 
out by Japanese words written phonetically, the result being a 
very curious style wholly devoid of literary qualities. It is in 
fact possible to restore throughout the original Japanese words 
used by Hiyeda no Are with a fair degree of probabilit}*, and 
this has actually been done by Motoori in his great edition of 
the work known as the Kojikiden, This feature gives the 
Kojiki a far greater philological interest than the Nihongi. The 

' Motoori has left a poem to the follo\vin;< effecl : — 

In all their fulness 

How should we know 

The days of old, 

Did the august Yamato writing (the Xi/ioni^i) 

Not exist in the world ? 

Hirata says (" Kodo Taii," I. 36), " If we put aside the ornaments of style 
of Chinese fashion, there is none among all the writings in the world so noble 
and important as this classic.'' 

a 2 

XX Introduction. 

latter is composed almost wholly in the Chinese language, the 
chief exception being the poems, for which it was necessary to 
use the Chinese characters with a phonetic value so as to give 
the actual words and not simply the sense, as is the case when 
they are employed as ideographs. The proper names in both 
w^orks are naturally Japanese. 

As a repertory of ancient Japanese myth and legend, there is 
little to choose between the Kojiki and Nihongi, The Kojiki 
is on the whole the fuller of th^ tw o , and contains legends 
which the Nihongi passes over ^^ jflEHjIb^^ ^^ latter work, 
as we now have it, is enriched b^^H^^K ^^ ^^ early myths, 
the value of which for purposes oNHII^rison will be recog- 
nized by scientific inquirers. 

But there can be no comparison between the two works 
when viewed as history. Hiyeda no Are's memory, however 
well-stored, could not be expected to compete in fulness and 
accuracy with the abundant written literature accessible to the 
wTiters of the Nihongi^ and an examination of the two works 
shows that, in respect to the record of actual events, the latter 
is far the more useful authority. It should be remembered, too, 
that the Nihongi is double the size of its predecessor, and that 
whereas the Kojiki practically comes to an end with the close 
of the 5th century, the Nihongi continues the narrative as 
far as the end of the 7th, thus embracing an additional 
space of two hundred years of the highest importance in 
the history of Japan. 

Text and Editions. — The class of readers for whom the 
present work is intended would be little interested in an account 
of the text of the Nihongi and of its Various manuscripts and 
printed editions. In any case this subject has been so 
exhaustively treated by Dr. Florenz in his Introduction as to 
render research by other inquirers a superfluous labour. 

A few words, however, should be said respecting the Shukai 
(or Shilge^ i.e. collected interpretations) edition, which has been 
taken as the basis of the present version. There are a few 
departures from it, chiefly where the translator has restored 
passages of the ** Original Commentary '' which the Shf/kai 
editor has struck out or relegated to his notes. 

The Shukai edition is on the whole the most useful one, 
being well printed, and provided with a copious Chinese com- 

Introduction. xxi 

mentary. To facilitate reference to it the book and page of 
this edition have been noted throughout in the margin of the 
present translation. 

The large black type of the Skukai is the text. The 
** Original Commentary" and the quotations from other books 
are printed in a smaller type. Both of these are usually 
assumed to be part of the Nihongi^ and are quoted as such. 
They have been included in the present translation, but they 
are distinguished from the Nihongi proper by being indented, 
or in the case of some very short passages, enclosed in square 
brackets. Still smaller characters are used by the editor for 
his notes. In addition to these, small Katakana characters 
may be seen at the side of many of the characters of the 
original text and commentary. They are frequently referred 
to in the notes of the present version under the description of 
the ** interlinear Kana" or the "traditional Kana rendering," and 
consist of translations into Japanese of the Chinese characters 
alongside of which they stand, or add particles which are 
necessary to complete the sense in a Japanese translation. 
These glosses are of considerable but unknown antiquity. 
They are sometimes useful, especially in giving obsolete words 
and the pronunciation of proper names, but they cannot be 
implicitly relied on. They are often wrong, and still more 
frequently inadequate. 

Spelling. — In transliterating Japanese words, the method 

adopted by the Japan Society has been followed pretty closely. 
It is nearly identical with that which is recommended by the 
Royal Geographical Society, and which may be briefly described 
as — " the vowels as in Italian, the consonants as in English." 
There are no silent letters. 

Some inconsistencies will doubtless be observed in the spell- 
ing of proper names, in regard to which the Japanese them- 
selves are often very vague. There is a good deal of confusion 
between the hard and soft consonants t and d, ch or sh andy, // 
and b^ and k and g, which it is difficult for a European scholar 
always to avoid. 

The spelling in the case of words of Japanese derivation 
follows the Japanese written language in representing an older 
pronunciation than that now current. 

Corean proper names are spelt after the system described by 


Sir E. Satow in his " List of Corean Geographical Names." 
It is based on the principle of the Royal Geographical Society's 
method above-mentioned. But the true pronunciation of these 
names is involved in much obscurity, and the rendering 
adopted is in many cases merely provisional. 

In spelling Chinese proper names, the ordinary authorities 
have been followed. They do not agree very well among 
themselves, but it is hoped that the inconsistencies which have 
resulted will not occasion any difficulty to the reader. 


T.A.S.J. — Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan. 

Ch. K. — The translation of the " Kojiki " by Hasil Hall Chamberlain in 

*' T.A.S.J.," Vol. X. Supplement. 
J.K..A.S. — Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

SAi. — Attention is drawn to the Table of Errata and Addenda in the 
second volume 

"• I 
• • f 

I ' * 

I » 

N I H O N G 1/ 

BOOK 1/ 


Part I. 

Of old, Heaven and Earth were not yet separated, and the lit 
and Y6 ' not yet divided. They formed a chaotic mass like an 

* Nihon, otherwise Nippon, the Niphon of our older maps, where it is. 
wrongly limited to the main island of Japan. Japan is merely a Chinese 
pronunciation of this word, modified in the mouths of Europeans. Nihon,. 
in Chinese g Jfi^ means sun-origin, i.e. sunrise. The country received' 
this name from its position to the east of the Asiatic continent. China being 
the Great Central Land, other countries were given names with reference to 
it. Corea, for example, is the Tong-Kuk or East-Country. These Chinese 
characters are sometimes used to represent Yamato, the true old Japanese 
name of the country, as in the name of the first Emperor, Kamu-yamato-- 
ihare-biko-hoho-demi, better known as Jimmu Tenno. I have little doubt 
that Nihon, as a name for Japan, was first used by the Corean scholars who 
came over in numbers during the early part of the seventh century. Perhaps 
the earliest genuine use of this term occurs in the lament for the death 
of Shotoku Daishi by a Corean Buddhist priest in a.d. 620. 

In 670 it was formally notified to one of the Corean kingdoms that this 
would be the name of the country in future, and from about the same time 
the Chinese also began to use it officially. 

There are several cases of its being used retrospectively in places where it 
has no business, as in a supposed letter from the King of Koryo to the 
Emperor of Japan quoted in the " Nihongi " under 297 a.d. 

" Nihongi,** or the Chronicles of Japan, is the proper and original name of 
this work. But later editors and writers have introduced the syllable sho, 
writing, styling it the Nihon-shoki, which is its most usual literary designa- 
tion at the present time. It is also spoken of as the ^^ Sboki.*' 

' The first two books of the " Nihongi " contain the myths which form the 
basis of the Shinto religion. For the further study of this subject, Chamber- 
lain's admirably faithful translation of the Kojiki, and Satow's contributions 
to the " J.A.S.T." will be found indispensable. Grifiis's " Religions of Japan " 
may also be consulted with advantage. 

' The Yin and Yang, or female and male principles of Chinese philosophy 
See '* Mayer's Chinese Manual," p. 293. 



egg which was of obscurely defined limits and contained 

The purer and clearer part was thinly drawn out, and formed 
Heaven, while the heavier and grosser element settled down 
and became Earth. 

The finer element easily became a united body, but the 
consolidation of the heavy and gross element was accomplished 
with difficulty. 

Heaven was therefore formed first, and Earth was established 

Thereafter Divine Beings were produced between them.* 

Hence' it is said that when the world began to be created, 
the soil of which lands were composed floated about in a manner 
which might be compared to the floating of a fish sporting on 
the surface of the water. 

At this time a certain thing was produced between Heaven 
and Earth. It was in form like a reed-shoot. Now this 

* These opening sentences of the " Nihongi "have been justly condemned 
by modern Shinto scholars such as Motowori and Hirata as an essay of the 
Chinese rationalistic type, which has been awkwardly prefixed to the genuine 
Japanese traditions. Hirata mentions two Chinese works named j|g ]§ ^ 
and ^ J] B |R, ^s among the originals from which the author of the 
"Nihongi" borrowed these ideas. See Satow's "Revival of Pure Shinto,*' 
pp. 19 and 51 (reprint), "Japan Asiatic Society's Transactions," 1875, 
Appendix. I take this opportunity of referring the reader to this treatise, 
which is much the most instructive and accurate work that has yet appeared 
on the ancient Japanese religion and mythology. No serious student of 
this subject can afford to neglect it. 

The corresponding passage of the " Kiujiki" {I'ide Index) is as follows : — 
" Of old, the original essence was a chaotic mass. Heaven and Earth had 
not yet been separated, but were like an ^^%^ of ill-defined limits and con- 
taining germs. Thereafter, the pure essence, ascending by degrees, became 
thinly spread out, and formed Heaven. The floating grosser essence sank 
heavily, and, settling down, became Earth. What we call countries were 
produced by the opening, splitting up, and dividing of the earth as it floated 
along. It might be compared to, the floating of a fish which sports on the 
surface of the water. Now Heaven was produced first, and Earth after- 

* Motowori points out that hence has no meaning here. It is inserted 

clumsily to make it appear as if there were some connection between the 

Chinese essay which precedes and the Japanese tradition which follows. 

The author is fond of this word and frequently brings it in without much 


The Age of the Gods. 3 

-became transformed into a God, and was called Kunitoko- I. 2.* 
tachi no Mikoto." 

[ The character jg: is used owing to the extreme dignity of this 
Deity. For the others the character ^ is used: Both are read 
Mikoto, This rule is followed below^"] 

Next there was Kuni no sa-tsuchi no -Mikoto/ and next 
Toyo-)cumu nu no Mikoto,* in all three deities/ 

' The marginal references are to the Shukai edition of the original. 

* Land-etemal-stand-of-august-thing. 

' This distinction is, of course, an invention of the persons who committed 
•the myths to writing, and it is by no means consistently -adhered to even in 
Abe *• Nihongi '' 

The passage in italics is from what is called the " Original Commentary," 
f T which see introduction. 

*• Land-of-right-soil-o^'-augustness, i.e. his augustncss the true soil of the 
land. Sa, which I have rendered \*Vight," is a mere honorific. Tsuchi is 
written with a Chinese character which means " mallet," but it must be taken 
Jhere as put phonetically foPtsjichi) land or soil. 

* Rich-form -plain- of augustn/qs;§. The meaning of .many of the names of 
the gods is obscure, and these renderings must, be accepted with caution. 
Compare the notes to Chamberlain's. " Kojiki," where n-^uch attention has 
"been given to this subject. It may be remarked that there is great and 
inextricable confusion as to the early deities between the various ancient 
authorities, the " Kojiki," the " Kiujiki," the " Kogqjiui," the various docu- 
ments quoted in the " Nihongi," and the " Nihongi " itself. 

* The Chinese ^ jpA means simply three deities. But the interlinear 
'Kana has mi-bashira no Kami, i.e. Deities, three pillars, hashira or 
bashira being the usual auxiliary numeral (like our head of cattle, saiPof 
ships, etc.) for gods in the ancient literature. Historical Shinto has no idols," 
but does not this use of the word hashira suggest a time when the gods of 
Japan were wooden posts carved at the top into a rude semblance of the 
*hunian countenance, such as are seen at this day in many savage lands } In 
Corea, closely related to Japan, there are gods of this kind. The mile-posts 
there have their upper part fashioned into the shape of an idol, to which some 
pompous title is given, and at a village not far from Soul, on the Wonsan 
road, I have seen a group of a dozen or more of these pillar-gods, set up, 
I was told, as guardians to the inhabitants during an epidemic of small-pox. 

The word Kami, deity, has a very wide application in Japanese. It 
Aieans primarily upper, and hence nobles, the sovereign, gods, and generally 
any wonderful or mysterious thing. The leopard and wolf are Kami, the 
peach with which Izailagi put to flight the thunders which pursued him in 
the land of Yomi,- etc. See Hirata's interesting remarks translated by 
Satow in ** Revival of Pure Shinto," " J.A.S.T.," p. 42 (reprint). 

The Aino ideas regarding Kamui are very similar. See Batchelor in 
**J.A.S,T.,"XV1., Ft. I., p. 17. 

B 2 


These were pure males spontaneously developed by the 
operation of the principle of Heaven.' 

In one writing it is said :* — " When Heaven and Earth 
began, a thing existed in the midst of the Void.* Its shape 
may not be described. Within it a Deity was sponta- 
neously produced, whose name was Kuni-toko-tachi no 
Mikoto, also called Kuni-soko-tachi * no Mikoto. Next 
there was Kuni no sa-tsuchi no Mikoto, also called Kuni 
no sa tachi* no Mikoto. Next there was Toyo-kuni- 
nushi" no Mikoto, also called Toyo-kumu-nu '^ no Mikoto, 
Toyo-ka-fushi-no * no Mikoto, Uki-fu-no-toyo-kahi* no 
Mikoto, Toyo-kuni-no '" no Mikoto, Toyo-kuhi-no " no 
Mikoto, Ha-ko-kuni-no '^ no Mikoto, or Mi-no " no 

In one writing it is said : — " Of old, when the land was 
young and the earth young, it floated about, as it were float- 
ing oil. At this time a thing was produced within the land, 
in shape like a reed-shoot when it sprouts forth. From this 
there was a Deity developed, whose name was Umashi- 
I. 3. ashi-kabi-hiko-ji^ no Mikoto. Next there was Kuni no toko- 

tachi no Mikoto, and next Kuni no sa-tsuchi no Mikoto." 

* The principle of Heaven is the same thing as the Y6 or male principle 
of Chinese philosophy. This <igain is no part of the old tradition. 

•These quotations are usually referred to as part of the " Nihongi.** 
They were, in my opinion, added at a somewhat (but not much) later date. 
They afford some indication of the mass of written literature which existed 
on this subject 

' In Japanese' J^m, to be distinguished from ame or a ma, the hesLven or 
firmament, which was regarded as a plain, as in the expression takama no 
hara, the plain of high heaven. 

* Soko means bottom. • Tachi means stand 

** Rich-country-master. ^ Rich form-moor. 

*♦ Rich-perfume-joint-plain. * Float-pass-plain- rich -buy. 

»o Rich-land-plain. " Rich-bite (?) plain. 

** Lcaf-tree-land-plain. 

^ Mino is written with characters which suggest the derivation see-plain. 
But mi is more probably a honorific, to be rendered " august." 

^^ Sweet- reed-shooi-princc-elder. There is some doubt about the precise 
signification of the word ii here rendered elder. It is the same root which 
we have in chichi father ; wo-ji, uncle ; orochi, serpent, and tsutsu ortsuchi, 
which is found in many names of gods. It is probably little more than a 
mere honorific. 

The Age of the Gods. 5 

In one writing it is said : — ** When Heaven and Earth 
were in a state of chaos, there was first of all a deity,' 
whose name was Umashi-ashi-kabi-hiko-ji no Mikoto. 
Next there was Kuni-soko-tachi no Mikoto." 

In one writing it is said : — " When Heaven and Earth 
began, there were Deities produced together, whose names 
were, first, Kuni-no-toko-tachi no Mikoto, and next Kuni 
no sa-tsuchi no Mikoto." It is further stated : — ** The 
names of the Gods which were produced in the Plain of 
High Heaven were Ama no mi-naka-nushi ' no Mikoto, 
next Taka-mi-musubi * no Mikoto, next Kami-mi-musubi * 
no Mikoto." 

In one writing it is said : — " Before Heaven and Earth 
were produced, there was something which might be corri^ 
pared to a cloud floating over the sea. It had no place of / 
attachment for its root. In the midst of this a thing was / 
generated which resembled a reed-shoot when it is first 
produced in the mud. This became straightway trans- I 
formed into human * shape and was called Kuni no toko- \ 
tachi no Mikoto." \J 

In one writing it is said : — ** When Heav'en and Earth 
began, a thing was produced in the midst of the Void, 
which resembled a reed-shoot. This became changed 
into a God, who was called Ama no toko- tachi '* no 
Mikoto. There was next Umashi-ashi-kabi-hiko-ji no 
Mikoto." It is further stated : — ** There was a thing 
produced in the midst of the Void like floating oil, from 

* Lit. a Divine man. 

' Hcaven-of-august-cent re-master. The Pole-star god, according to 
O'Neill, yiife " Night of the Gods," pp. 535, 536. 

' High-august-gro\vth. " Personifications of highly abstract ideas are not 
unknown in myths of savages. The South Sea islanders have personified 
* the very beginning,' and * space.' " Lang's " Myth, Religion, and Ritual," 
Vol. L, p. 196. It is not quite clear whether this is the same as the Musubi 
or Musubu no Kami, a god who unites lovers, and to whom the rags hung 
on trees by the roadside are offered. 

* Divine-august-growth. This corresponds nearly with the Kojiki myth. 

* The Chinese character is A, which the interlinear Kana coolly renders 
by Kami, deity. 

* Heaven-of- eternal-stand. 

• ■■ ^ 


which a God was developed, called Kuni toko-tachi no- 
The next Deities who came into being were Uhiji-ni * no 
Mikoto and Suhiji-ni no Mikoto, also called Uhiji-ne no 
I. 4. Mikoto and Suhiji-ne no Mikoto; 

The next Deities which came into being were Oho- to nochi 
no Mikoto and Oho-to mahe no Mikoto. 

One authority says Oho-to no he no Mikoto, otherwise 

called Oho-to-ma-hiko no Mikoto and Oho-to-ma-hime 

no Mikoto. Another says Oho-tomu-chi no Mikoto and 

Oho-tomu-he no Mikoto.'* 

The next Gods which came into being were Omo-taru no 

Mikoto and Kashiko-ne no Mikoto, also called Aya-kashiko-ne 

no Mikoto, Imi kashiki no Mikoto, or Awo-kashikine no Mikoto, 

or Aya-kashiki no Mikoto.* 

The next Deities which came into being were Izanagi no 
Mikoto and Izanami no Mikoto.* 

One writing says: — '* These two Deities were the 
children of Awo-kashiki-ne no Mikoto." 

One writing says : — ** Kuni no toko-tachi no Mikoto 
produced Arne kagami no Mikoto, Ame kagami no 
Mikoto produced Ame yorodzu no Mikoto, Ame yorodzu 

* The names of these two Deities are of doubtful meaning. According to- 
the Chinese characters Uhiji should mean mud-earth, and Suhiji sand-earth. 
Ni or nc is a honorific particle. Vide Chamberlain's " Kojiki," p. 17. 

* These names are somewhat obscure. Oho-to means great door or 
house ; nochi, after, and mahe, before. He, is place ; toma, a coarse kind of 
mat ; tomu, wealthy ; and chi, ground. The other elements of these names 
have occurred above. » 

' Omo-taru means face-pleasing, and Kashiko, awful. Ne is a honorific 
suffix ; aya, an interjection like our ah ! Imi means avoidance, religious* 
abstinence, taboo. Kashiki is probably only another fonn of Kashiko, 
awful. A wo is green. 

* Izana is the root of a verb izanafu, to invite ; gi, a masculine, and mi, a • 
feminine termination. These two names may therefore be rendered male- 
who-invites and female-who-invites. But it may be suspected that this is,. 
after all, merely a volks-etymologie, and that Iza or Isa is simply the name, 
of a place, na being another form of no, the genitive particle. Isa is known 
to Japanese myth. We shall find an Isa well in Heaven spoken of 
below. There are two places called Isa in Hitachi, and an Isa no Jirja in 


The Age of the Gods. f 

no Mikoto produced Aha-nagi no Mikoto, and Aha nagi <^ 
no Mikoto produced Izanagi no MikotOi*' ' . 
These make eight Deities in all. Being formed by the 
mutual action of the Heavenly and Earthly principles, they 
were made male and female.' From Kuni no toko-tachi no 
Mikoto to Izanagi no Mikoto and Izanami no Mikoto are called 
the seven generations of the age of the Gods.' 

* Ame-kagami, heaven-mirror ; Ame-yorodzu, heaven-myriad ; Aha-nagi, 
foam -calm. 

' This sentence is obviously from the pen of a student of Chinese 

* The eight Gods specially worshipped by the Jingikwan, or Department of 
the Shinto Religion in the Yengi period — 901-922 — were Takami-musubi 
no Kami, Kamimi-musubi no Kami, Tama-tsume musubi no Kami, Iku 
niusubi no Kami, Taru musubi no Kami, Oho-miya no me no Kami, Mi 
Ketsu Kami, and Koto-shiro-nushi no Kami. 

For the sake of comparison the Kiujiki scheme of the generations of early 
Deities is herewith added. It will still further exemplify the confusion of 
these traditions. 

** Therefore a God was developed in the Plain of High Heaven whose 

name was Ame - yudzuru - hi - ame no sa- giri kuni-yudzuru-tsuki kuni no 

heaven transfer sun heaven ri^ht mist land transfer moon land of 

sa- giri no Mikoto, who was produced alone. After him, were born two 

rijiht mist 

generations of companion Gods and five generations of mated Deities. 
These make up what is called the seven generations of the Gods. 

Genealogy of the Age of the Gods. 

The Heavenly parent, Ame yudzuru hi ame no sa-giri kuni yudzuru tsuki 
kuni no sa-giri no Mikoto. 

1ST Generation. 

Companion-born heavenly Gods. 

Ame no mi-naka-nushi no Mikoto. 
heaven middle master 

Umashi - ashi-kabi hikoji no Mikoto. 

sweet reed' shoot prince elder 

2ND Generation. 

Companion- born heavenly Gods. 

Kuni no toko tachi no Mikoto.* 
land eternal stand 

Toyo-kuni-nushi no Mikoto. 
rich land mas/er 


In one writing it is said : — ** The gods that were pro- 
duced in pairs, male and female, were first of all Uhiji ni 

' A Branch. 

Ame - ya - kudari no Mikoto. 
heaven eight descend 

3RD Generation. 

Heavenly Gods bom as mates. 

Tsuno • gui no Mikoto. 
horn stake (name of place ?) 

Iku • gui no Mikoto, his younger sister of wife. 
live stake 

A Branch. 
Ame mi kudari no Mikoto. 
heaven three descend 

4TH Generation. 
Heavenly Gods bom as mates. 

Uhiji - ni no Mikoto. 

ftmd earth i honorific affix) 

Suhiji - ni no Mikoto, his younger sister or wife. 
sand earth 

A Branch. 
Ama - ahi no Mikoto. 
heaven meet 

5TH Generation. 
Heavenly Gods born as mates. 

Oho-toma-hiko no Mikoio. 
great mat prince 

Oho - toma - he no Mikoto, his younger sister or wife. 
great mat place 

A Branch. 

Ame ya - wo - hi no Mikoto. 
heaven eight hundred days 

6th Generation. 

Heavenly Gods born as mates. 

A wo - kashiki ne no Mikoto. 
green awful (honorific; 
Aya-kashiki ne no Mikoto, his younger sister or wife. 
un I awful 

A Branch. 
Ame no ya-so-yorodzu-dama no Mikoto. 
eighty myriads spirits 

The Age of the Gods. 9 

no Mikoto and Suhiji ni no Mikoto. Next there were 
Tsuno-^hi no Mikoto and Iku-guhi no Mikoto, next 


Heavenly Gods born as mates. 

Uanagi no Mikoto. 
Izanami no Mikoto, his younger sister or wife. 

A Branch. 
Taka mi - musubi no Mikoto. 
hi^k august growth 

Ama no omohi-game) no Mikoto. 
heaven thought-compriser 

Ama no futo-dama no Mikoto. 

big jewel 
Ama no woshi - hi no Mikoto. 

endure sun 
Ama no kamu-dachi no Mikoto. 
god stand 
Next there was — 

Kamu mi musubi no Mikoto. 
abo7'e growth 

Ame no mi ke mochi no Mikoto. 
august food hold 
Ame no michi ne no Mikoto. 

ro€ui (honorific) 
Ame no kami-dama no Mikoto. 
god jewel 

Iku-dama no Mikoto. 
live jewel 

Next there was — 

Tsu-haya-dama no Mikoto. 
port quick jewel 

Ichi - chi - dama no Mikoto. 
market thousand jewel 

Kogoto-dama no Mikoto. 


Omo-taru qo Mikoto and Kashiko-neno Mikoto, and next 
Izanagi no Mikoto and Izanami no Mikoto." 

IiAiiEigi nnd Iianami on the FloRting Bridge of Heaven. 

Izanagi no Mikoto and Izanami no Mikoto stood on the 
1-5 floating bridge of Heaven, and held counsel together, saying : 
" Is there not a country beneath ? " 

Ama no ko-yane no Mikoto. 

Takechi - nokori no Mikoto. 
brave milk Teiiinant 
Next there was— ■ * 

Furu-dama no Mikoio. 
shake jewel 

S»ki-dama no Mikoto. 
first jewtl 
Ama no woshi - dacht no Mikoto. 
endure stand 

Yorodzu-dama no Mikoto. 
myriad jewel 
Anna no koha-kaha no Mikoto." - * 

A number of these Deities are staled to be ihe ancestors of noble 
Japanese families. The explanation of the meaning of these names is often 

The Age of the Gods. 

I r 

Thereupon they thrust down the jewel-spear of Heaven/ and 
groping about therewith found the ocean. The brine which 

very conjecturaL Some are probably names of places. Possibly some of 
the obscurer names are Corean. The " Seishiroku " speaks of a Corean 
Sagiri no Mikoto, and other known Corean Deities were worshipped in 
Japan. The reader will do well to consult here Satow's " Japanese Rituals" 
in ** J.A.S.T.," Vol. VI., Pt. II., p. 120, where he makes the pregnant sug- 
gestion that the sun was the earliest among the powers of nature to be 
deified, and that the long series of gods who precede her in the cosmogony 
of the '* Kojiki " and " Nihongi," most of whom are shown by their names to 
have been mere abstractions, were invented to give her a genealogy. 

' Hirata conjectures that the jewel-spear (nu-boko or tama-boko) of 
Heaven was in form like a wo-bashira. Wo-bashira means literally male- 
pillar. This word is usually applied to the end-posts 
or pillars of a railing or balustrade, no doubt on 
account of the shape of the top, which ends in a sort 
of a ball (the nu or tama), supposed to resemble the . 
glans. That by wo-bashira Hirata means a phallus 
is clear from his quoting as its equivalent the 
Chinese expression 5 M> ie. jewel-stalk, an 
ornate word for the penis. A Japanese word for 
this is wo-hashi, or wo-bashi, which contains nearly 
the same etymological elements as wo-bashira. 

A writer quoted in the Tsu-sho commentary 
on the " Nihongi," says that the Tama-boko (or 
nu-boko) is it^rooTof coition. 
The late Mr. J. O'Neill, in his " ^ght of the Gods '*\ (pp. 31, 37, 67), pro- 
posed the theory that this spear anJolher spears of myth " are but symbols 
of the Earth-axis and its prolongation," an idea which is worked out with 
much ingenuity and learning in that remarkable work. At p. 88 he argues 
that this view is not inconsistent with the phallic interpretation. 

There are other indications in the '* Nihongi" and " Kojiki " of phallic 
worship in Ancient Japan, although, probably owing to the influence of 
Chinese ideas of literary propriety, there are fewer than might have been 
expected, y/de Index— Phallic worship. 

All travellers in Japan, especially before the Revolution of 1868, must 
have observed numerous evidences of a phallic cult. The Government have . 
of recent years done their best to suppress this very gross form of nature 
worship, but it still exists in out-of-the-way places, as has been shown in an 
interesting Essay by Dr. Edmund Buckley, of the University of Chicago, 
who has collected numerous facts relating to this subject. Dr. Griffis, in 
his " Religions of Japan," has also noticed several evidences of it. 

Travelling from Utsunomiya to Nikko, in 1871, 1 found the road lined at 
intervals with groups of phalli, connected, no doubt, with the worship of the 
Sacred Mountain Nan-tai (male-form), which was visited every summer by 


12 NiHONGI. 

dripped from the point of the spear coagulated and became 
an island which received the name of Ono-goro-jima.* 

The two Deities thereupon descended and dwelt in this 
island. Accordingly they wished to become husband and wife 
together, and to produce countries. 

So they made Ono-goro-jima the pillar of the centre of the 

Now the male deity turning by the left, and the female * 

hundreds of pilgrims of the male sex, access to females being at that time 
rigorously prohibited. 

A cave at Kamakura formerly contained scores of phalli carved in stone. 

I once witnessed a phallic procession in a town some miles north of Tokio. 
A phallus several feet high, and painted a bright vermilion colour, was 
being carried on a sort of a bier by a crowd of shouting, laughing coolies 
with flushed faces, who zig-zagged along with sudden rushes from one side 
of the street to another. It was a veritable Bacchic rout. The Dionysia, 
it will be remembered, had their phalli. A procession of this kind invaded 
the quiet thoroughfares of the Kobe foreign settlement in 1868, much to 
the amazement of the European residents. 

That there are domestic shrines in the lupanars where these objects of 
worship are propitiated by having a small lamp kept constantly burning 
before them is, perhaps, not to be wondered at. 

Is it a mere coincidence that wo-bashira, male pillar, should contain 

the element hashira which is used as a numeral for deities ? See above, 
p. 5. 

Some of the Rai-tsui, or thunder-clubs, figured in Kanda's " Ancient Stone 
Implements," Plate VII., are probably phalli. Their size precludes the 
view that they were used as weapons. 

It may be, however, that both the Earth-axis and the phallic interpreta- 
tions of the nu-boko are too subtle. The Hoko may after all be a spear and 
nothing more, and the nu or jewel merely an ornate epithet, as indeed Hirata 

* Spontaneous! y-congeal-island. Cf. Ch. ** Kojiki," p. 19. Identified with a 
small island near Ahaji. 

^ The "Kiujiki" mentions a tradition according to which the two gods made 
the jewel-spear the central pillar of their house. 

• The words for male and female are in the original Y6 and In. It greatly 
excites the indignation of the Motowori and Hirata school to have these 
Chinese philosophical terms applied to Japanese deities. I cannot help 
thinking that some early marriage ceremony is adumbrated by this 
circumambulation. We have the ceremony of divorce further on. The 
erection of a house is not merely for practical reasons. It appears from 
several passages that a special building was a necessary preliminary to the 
consiunmation of a marriage in proper form. 


The Age of the Gods. 13 

deity by the right, they went round the pillar of the land 
separately. When they met together on one side, the female 
deity spoke first and said : — ** How delightful ! I have met I, 6. 
with a lovely youth." The male deity was displeased, and 
said : — " I am a man, and by right should have spoken first. 
How is it that on the contrarv thou, a woman, shouldst have 
been the first to speak ? This was unlucky. Let us go 
round again." Upon this the two deities went back, and 
having met anew, this time the male deity spoke first, and 
said : — ** How delightful ! I have met a lovely maiden." 

Then he inquired of the female deity, saying : — ** In thy body 
is there aught formed ? " She answered, and said : — ** In my 
body there is a place which is the source of femineity." The 
male deity said : — ** In my body again there is a place which is 
the source of masculinity. I wish to unite this source- 
place of my body to the source-place of thy body." Hereupon 
the male and female first became united as husband and 

Now when the time of birth arrived, first of all the island of 
Ahaji was reckoned as the placenta, and their minds took no 
pleasure in it. Therefore it received the name of Ahaji no 

Next there was produced the island of Oho-yamato no 

Here and elsewhere "ig^ (Nippon) is to be read Yama'o? 

Next they produced the island of lyo no futa-na,* and next I. 7. 
the island of Tsukushi.* Next the islands of Oki and Sado 

* " The island which will not meet," i.e. is unsatisfactory. Ahaji may also 
be interpreted as " my shame." The characters with which this name is 
written in the text mean "foam-road." Perhaps the true derivation is 
" millet-land." Cf. Ch. " Kojiki," p. 2 1 . 

* Rich-har\est (or autumn)-of- island. 

' Yamato means probably mountain-gate. It is the genuine ancient name 
for the province which contained Nara and many of the other capitals of 
Japan for centuries, and it was also used for the whole country. Several of 
Mikados called themselves Yamato-neko. It is mentioned by the historian 
of the Later Han dynasty of China (a.d. 25-220) as the seat of rule in Japan 
at that time. (See above, p. i .) 

* Now called Shikoku. 

* Nc^jcalled Kiushiu. 



14 NiHONGI. 

were born as twins. This is the prototype of the twin-births 

which sometimes take place among mankind. 

Next was born the island of Koshi,' then the island of Oho- 

shima, then the island of Kibi no Ko.*^ 

Hence first arose the designation of the Oho-ya-shima ' 


• Then the islands of Tsushima and Iki, with the small islands 

in various parts, were produced by the coagulation of the 

foam of the salt-water. 

It is also stated that they were produced by the coagu- 
lation of the foam of fresh water. 

In one writing it is said : — *' The Gods of Heaven 
addressed Izanagi no Mikoto and Izanami no Mikoto, say- 
I. 8. • ing : * There is the country Toyo-ashi-hara-chi-i-wo-aki no 
midzu-ho.* Do ye proceed and bring it into order.' They 
then gave them the jewel-spear of Heaven. Hereupon 
the two Gods stood on the floating bridge of Heaven, and 
plunging down the spear, sought for land. Then upon 
stirring the ocean with it, and bringing it up again, the 
brine which dripped from the spear-point coagulated and 
became an island, which was called Ono-goro-jima. The 
two gods descended, dwelt in this island, and erected there 

/ an eight-fathom palace.'^ They also set up the pillar 
of Heaven." 

Then the male Deity asked the female Deity, saying : — 
*' Is there anything formed in thy body ? " She answered 
and ^aid : — ** My body has a place completely formed, and 
called the source of femineity.'' The male god said : — 
** My body again has a place completely formed, and called 
the source of masculinity. I desire to unite my source of 

' Koshi is »ot an island. It comprises the present provinces of Ettchiu, 
Echigo, and Echizen. 

- These two are not clear. Kibi is now Bingo, Bizen, and Bittchiu. Ko, 
** child or small," perhaps refers to the small islands of the Inland Sea. 

•' Oreat-eight-island. 

"* Abundant-reed-plain, thousand-five-hundrcd-harvest (or autumn) fair- 

* The " Kiujiki " makes the nu-boko or jewel-spear the central pillar of 
the house which they erected. Eight-fathom is simply a poetical expression 
for large. There is no special sacredness attached to the number eight. 

The Age of the Gods. 


masculinity to thy source of femineity." Having thus 
spoken, they prepared to go round the pillar of Heaven, 
and made a proipise, saying : — " Do thou, my younger 
sister, go round from the left, while I will go round from 
the right." Having done so, they went round separately and 
met, when the female Deity spoke first, and said : — " How 
pretty ! a lovely youth ! " The male Deity then answered 
,and said: — "How pretty! a lovely maiden!" Finally 
they became husband and wife. Their first child was the 

The Leech Child as Vebisu. 

leech, whom they straightway placed in a reed-boat and sent 
adrift.' Their next was the Island of Ahaji. This also was i, 9. 
not included in the number of their children. Wherefore 
they returned up again to Heaven, and fully reported the 
circumstances. Then the Heavenly Gods divined this by 
the greater divination. Upon which they instructed them, 
saying : — " It was by reason of the woman's having spoken 
first ; ye had best return thither again." Thereupon 
having divined a time, they went down. The two deities 

' The leech was identified in after limes with (he God Yebisu. See 
Anderson's Catalogue of Paintings in the Urilish Museum, p. 36. Hirata 
attempts to show that he was the same ns Sukuna-bikona, but is tiol con- 
vincing. The reed boat recalls the AccadJan legend of Sargon and his ark 
of nishes, the Biblical story of Moses as an infant and many more, for which 1 
the curious reader may consult the late John O'Neill's " Night nf Ihe Gods," 
p. 410. 

l6 NiHONGl. 

accordingly went again round the pillar, the male Deity 
from the left,' and the female Deity from the right. 
When they met, the male Deity spoke first and said : — 
** How pretty ! a lovely maiden ! " The female Deity 
next answered and said : — ** How pretty ! a lovely youth ! " 
Thereafter they dwelt together in the same palace and had 
children, whose names were Oho-yamato no Toyo-aki-tsu- 
shima, next the island of Ahaji, next the island of lyo no 
futa-na, next the island of Tsukushi, next the triplet 
islands of Oki, next the island of Sado, next the island of 
Koshi, next the island of Kibi-no-ko. The country was 
accordingly called the " Great-Eight-Island Country." 

In one writing it is said : — ** The two Deities Izanagi no 
Mikoto and Izanami no Mikoto stood in the midst of the 
mist of Heaven, and said : — * We wish to find a country.' 
So they thrust down the jewel-spear' of Heaven, and 
groped about till they found the island of Ono-goro. 
Then they drew back the spear and rejoiced, saying : — 
* Good ! there is a country ! ' " 

In one writing it is said : — *' The two Deities Izanagi 
no Mikoto and Izanami no Mikoto satin the Plain of High 
Heaven, and said : — * There must surely be a country.' 
So with the jewel spear of Heaven they scraped together 
the island of Ono-goro." 

In one writing it is said : — " The two Deities Izanagi no 
Mikoto and Izanami no Mikoto spoke to one another, 
saying : — * There is something resembling floating oil. In 
the midst of this there is perhaps a country.' So they 
I. lo. took the jewel-spear of Heaven and groping about formed 

with it an island which was called Ono-goro." 

In one writing it is said : — ** The female Deity spoke 
first and said : — * How pretty ! a handsome youth ! ' Now 
it was considered unlucky that the female Deity should 
have spoken first. Accordingly they went round again. 

^ Hirata says that as the left is superior to the right, and the man to the 
woman, it is proper that the man should go round from the left, and the 
woman from the right. He strongly condemns the Kojiki version of the 
story which reverses this order. The notion of the superiority of the left is 
really Chinese. 

The Age of the Gods. 17 

when the male Deity spoke first and said: — "How. 
pretty ! a lovely maiden ! " Postemo cupiebant coire, sed 
artis nescii erant. Tum erat motacilla* quae advolavit, 
atque concussit suum caput et suam caudam. Quod cum 
vidissent duo Dei, imitati sunt eam, et in hoc modo 
artem coeundi potiti sunt. 

In one writing it is said : — ** The two Deities were 
united and became husband and wife. First of all, the 
islands of Ahaji and Aha being considered the placenta,* 
they produced the island of Oho-yamato no Toyo- 
aki-tsu^-shima, next the island of lyo, next the island of 
Tsukushi, next, as twins, the islands of Oki and Sado, 
next the island of Koshi, next Oho-shima, and next 

In one writing it is said : — " First there was born the 
island of Ahaji, next the island of Oho-yamato no Toyo- 
aki-tsu-shima, next the island of lyo no futa-na, next the 
island of Oki, next the island of Sado, next the island of 
Tsukushi, next the island of Iki, and next the island of 

In one writing it is said : — " The island of Ono-goro 
being considered the placenta, there was born the island 
of Ahaji, next the island of Oho-yamato no Toyo-aki- 
tsu, next the island of lyo no futa-na, next the island 
of Tsu-kushi, next the island of Kibi no ko, next, as 
twins, the islands of Oki and Sado, and next the island 
of Koshi." 

In one writing it is said : — ** The island of Ahaji being 
considered the placenta, there was born the island of 
Oho-yamato Toyo-aki-tsu, next the island of Aha, next 
the island of lyo no futana, next the triplet islands of 
Oki, next the island of Sado, next the island of Tsukushi, 
next the island of Kibi no ko, and next Oho-shima." 

In one writing it is said: — "The female Deity spoke 
first and said : — * How pretty ! a lovely youth ! ' She 

* Anglice, wagtail. 

' The Japanese word for placenta \sye or yena. Ye is -also Japanese for 
elder brother. The Kiujiki has in the corresponding passage 5t or elder 



18 NiHONGI. 

forthwith took the hand of the male Deity, and they at 
length became husband and wife. There was born to 
!• "• them the island of Ahaji, and next the leech-child." 

They next produced the sea, then the rivers, and then the 
mountains. Then they produced Ku-ku-no-chi, the ancestor 
of the trees, and next the ancestor of herbs, Kaya no hime.* 
Also called Nudzucki. 

After this Izanagi no Mikoto and Izanami no Mikoto con- 
sulted together, saying : — ** We have now produced the Great- 
• eight-island country, with the mountains, rivers, herbs, and 
trees. Why should we not produce someone who shall be 
. lord of the universe ? * They then together produced the Sun- 
Goddess, who was called Oho-hiru-me no muchi.* 
* '* ' Called in one writing Ama-terasu no Oho kami.^ 

In one writing she is called Ama-terasu-oho-hiru-me no 
The resplendent lustre of this child shone throughout 
all the six quarters.* Therefore the two Deities rejoiced, say- 
ing: — **We have had many children, but none of them have 
been equal to this wondrous infant. She ought not to be 
kept long in this land, but we ought of our own accord to 
send her at once to Heaven, and entrust to her the affairs of 
yi At this time Heaven and Earth were still not far separated,' 

/ and therefore they sent her up to Heaven by the ladder of 
^ I^eaven. 

They next produced the Moon-god. 

^ Ku-ku is evidently for kiki, trees. Chi is the same root which we have 
in the modem chichi, father, and kaya is the name of a kind of rush used 
for thatching. Nu-dzu-chi, moor-of-father. 

' Universe. In the original, tenka, i.e. that which is under Hea\'en, sub- 
sequently the usual word for the Empire. 

• Oho-hiru-me no muchi. Great- noon-female-of- possessor. 

* Heaven-illumine-of-great-deity. 

* Heaven-illumine-great-noon-fcmale-of- augustness. 

• North, South, East, West, Above, Below. 

7 " In the beginning the Heaven, Rangi, and the Earth, Papa, were the 
father and mother of all things. In those days the Heaven lay upon the 
Earth, and all was darkness. They had never been separated." 

Maori myth, quoted by Lang, " Custom and Myth," p. 45. 


The Age of the Gods. iq 

Called in one writing Tsuki-yumi * no Mikoto, or Tsnki- 

yomi no Mikoto. !• 12. 

His radiance was next to that of the Sun in splendour. 

This God was to be the consort of the Sun-Goddess, and to 

share in her government. They therefore sent him also to 


Next they produced the leech-child, which even at the age 
of three years could not stand, upright. They therefore placed ^ 
it in the ro cl^-Q ar pphor-w nod boat of Heaven, and abandoned 

it to the winds. 

Their next child was Sosa no wo no Mikoto.* 

Called in one writing Kami Sosa no wo no Mikoto or 
Haya Sosa no wo no Mikoto.' 
This God had a fierce temper and was given to cruel acts, j 
Moreover he made a practice of continually weeping and 
wailing. So he brought many of the people of the land to an 
untimely end. Again he caused green mountains to become 
withered. Therefore the two Gods, his parents, addressed* 

* Yumi means bow, yomi darkness. Neither is inappropriate as applied 
to the moon. 

- This name is written indifferently Sosa no wo and Susa no wo. The 
accepted derivation refers Susa to Susamu, a' verb which means "to be 
impetuous." Hence the " Impetuous Male" of Chamberlain's and Satow's 
translations. I am disposed to prefer a derivation suggested by the " Idzumo 
Fudoki," a very old book, which states : — 

'* Village of Susa. Nineteen ri due west of the Town-house of the district. 
Kamu Susa no wo no Mikoto said : — * This is only a small country, but it is 
a Kuni-dokoro (local capital ?). Therefore my pame shall not be affixed to 
wood or stone.' This was accordingly the place where he allowed his 
august spirit to repose. There were, therefore, established by him the 
(ircater Susa rice- lands and the Lesser Susa rice-lands." 

Susa no wo is therefore simply the " male of Susa." It will be remembered 
that by one Japanese tradition, Idzumo is the home of the Gods, and that 
several of the legends respecting them relate to this locality. It is, however, 
probable that the older derivation is really a volksetymologie, which has 
given colour to the stories told of this deity. Idzumo is a chief home of 
the worship of Susa no wo at the present day. His wife's mother was called 
Susa no Yatsu-mimi, but it has not occurred to anybody to make her an 
''impetuous female." Hirata rejects the modern identification of this God 
with Godzu Tenno. 

* Kami, deity ; haya, quick. 

* The character used is that appropriate to a sovereign addressing his 

C 2 




20 NiHONGI. 

Sosa no wo no Mikoto, saying: — **Thou art exceedingly 
wicked, and it is not meet that thou shouldst reign over the 
world. Certainly thou must depart far away to the Nether- 
Land." ' So they at length expelled him. 

In one writing it is said : — ** Izanagi no Mikoto said : 
* I wish to procreate the precious child who is to rule the 
world.' He therefore took in his left hand a white-copper 
mirror,' upon which a Deity was produced from it called 
Oho-hiru-me no Mikoto. In his right hand he took a 
white-copper mirror, and forthwith there was produced 
I. 13. from it a God who was named Tsuki-yumi no Mikoto. 

Again, while turning his head and looking askance, a God 
was produced who was named Sosa no wo no Mikoto. 
Now Oho-hirume no Mikoto and Tsuki-yumi no Mikoto 
were both of a bright and beautiful nature, and were 
therefore made to shine down upon Heaven and Earth. 
But Sosa no wo*s character was to love destruction, 
and he was accordingly sent down to rule the Nether 

In one writing it is said : — ** After the sun and moon, 
the next child which was born was the leech-child. When 
this child had completed his third year, he was neverthe- 
less still unable to stand upright. The reason why the 
leech-child was born was that in the beginning, when 
Izajiagi no Mikoto and Izanami no Mikoto went round 
the pillar, the female Deity was the first to utter an ex- 
clamation of pleasure, and the law of male and female was 
therefore broken. They next procreated Sosa no wo no 
Mikoto. This God was of a wicked nature, and was 
always fond of wailing and wrath. Many of the people of 
the land died, and the green mountains withered. There- 
fore his parents addressed him, saying : * Supposing that 
thou wert to rule this country, much destruction of life 
would surely ensue. Thou must govern the far-distant 
Nether Land.' Their next child was the bird-rock-cam- 
phor-wood boat of Heaven. They forthwith took this 

* Ne no kuni, lit. the root-country, by which Hades or Yomi is no doubt 
' Sec Index — Copper. 


/" . 

The Age of the Gods. 2i 

boat and, placing the leech-child in it, abandoned it to the 
current. Their next child was Kagu tsuchi." * I. \^. 

Now Izanami no Mikoto was burnt by Kagu tsuchi, so 
that she died.' When she was lying down to die, she 
gave birth to the Earth-Goddess, Hani-yama-hime,' and 
the Water-Goddess, Midzu-ha-no-me. Upon this Kagu 
tsuchi took to wife Hani-yama-hime, and they had a child 
named Waka-musubi.* On the crown of this Deity's head 
were produced the silkworm and the mulberry tree, and in 
her navel the five kinds of grain.* 

In one writing it is said : — " When Izanami no Mikoto 
gave birth to Ho-no-musubi,* she was burnt by the child, 
and died.' When she was about to die, she brought forth 
the Water-Goddess, Midzu-ha-no-me, and the Earth- 
Goddess, Hani-yama-hime. She also brought forth the ^^ \ 
gourd * of Heaven." 

In one writing it is said : — ** When about to give birth 
to the Fire-God, Kagu tsuchi, Izanami no Mikoto became 
feverish and ill. In consequence she vomited, and the 
vomit became changed into a God, who was called 
Kana-yama-hiko.® Next her urine became changed into 
a Goddess, who was called Midzu-ha-no-me. Next her 
excrement was changed into a Goddess, who was called- 

In one writing it is said : — ** When Izanami no Mikoto 
gave birth to the Fire-God, she was burnt, and died. She 
was, therefore, buried at the village of Arima in Kumano, 
in the province of Kii. In the time of flowers, the in- 
habitants worship the spirit of this Goddess by offerings of 

* Kagu tsuchi was the God of Fire. Tsu is here probably the genitive 
particle, and chi the same honorific word as appears in several other names 
of Gods. He was worshipped at Nagusa in Kii'. 

' Lit. ended. ^ Clay-mountain- lady. 

* Young-growth. 

* Hemp, millet, rice, com, pulse. This is a Chinese form of speech, and 
with the mention of the silkworm betrays a recent origin of this tradition. 

* Fire-growth. ^ Lit. retired. 

* The gourd was to hold water to subdue the Fire-God with when he 
became violent. 

* Metal-mountain prince. This legend indicates an acquaintance with 

22 NiHONGI. 

flowers. They also worship her with drums, flutes, flags, 

I. 15. singing and dancing." 

In one writing it is said : — ** Izanagi no Mikoto and 
Izanami no Mikoto, having together procreated the Great- 
eight-island Land, Izanagi no Mikoto said : * Over the 
country which we have produced there is naught but 
morning mists which shed a perfume everywhere ! ' So 
he puffed them away with a breath, which became 
changed into a God, named Shina tohe no Mikoto. He 
is also called Shina * tsu hiko no Mikoto. This is the 
God of the Wind. Moreover, the child which they pro- 
created when they were hungry was called Uka no 
mi-tama ' no Mikoto. Again they produced the Sea-Gods, 
who were called Wata' tsu mi no Mikoto, and the Moun- 
tain-Gods, who were called Yama tsu mi, the Gods of the 
River-mouths, who were called Haya-aki*-tsubi no Mikoto> 
the Tree-Gods, who were called Ku-ku no chi, and the 
Earth-Goddess, who was called Hani-yasu* no Kami. 
Thereafter they produced all manner of things whatsoever. 
When the time came for the Fire-God Kagu tsuchi to 

I- 16. be born, his mother Izanami no Mikoto was burnt, and 

suffered change and departed.* Then Izanagi no Mikoto 
was wroth, and said : * Oh, that I should have given my 
beloved younger sister ' in exchange for a single child I 

* Shina is said to be derived from shi, wind or breath, and na, a short form 
of naga, long. See Chamberlain's " Kojiki," p. 27. The worship of this God 
is frequently referred to in the last two books of the Nihongi. See also 
Satow*s " Ancient Japanese Rituals," where a prayer to him is given. Tohe 
means chief. 

^ Food august-spirit. The Chinese characters transliterated Uka mean 
storehouse rice. 

* Wata is an old word for sea ; mi is probably " body." 

* Haya-aki means swift-autumn ; tsu, of, and bi (or mi) perhaps person or 

* Clay-easy. • i.e. died. 

' The ancient Japanese word for younger sister was imo, which is also 
applied to a wife. It may be doubted whether this justifies any adverse 
inference as to the morals of the Japanese in early times. " Sister" is used 
as an endearing epithet in the Song of Solomon where the relation is cer- 
tainly not that of brother and sister. It is true, however, that marriages were 
allowed between brothers and sisters when of different mothers. 

The Age of the Gods. 2 


So while he crawled at her head, and crawled at her feet, 
weeping and lamenting, the tears which he shed fell down 
and became a Deity. It is this Deity who dwells at 
Unewo no Konomoto, and who is called Naki-saha-me * 
no Mikoto. At length he drew the ten-span sword with 
which he was girt, and cut Kagu tsuchi into three pieces, 
each of which became changed into a God. Moreover, 
the blood which dripped from the edge of the sword * 
became the multitudinous ' rocks which are in the bed of 
the Easy-River * of Heaven. This God was the father of 
Futsu-nushi no Kami. Moreover, the blood which dripped 
from the hilt- ring of the sword spurted out and became 
deities, whose names were Mika no Haya-hi*^ no Kami 
and next Hi no Haya-hi no* Kami. This Mika no 
Haya-hi no Kami was the parent of Take-mika-suchi ^ no I. 17- 

Another version is : — " Mika no haya-hi no Mikoto, next 
Hi no haya-hi no Mikoto, and next Take-mika-tsuchi no 

" Moreover, the blood which dripped from the point of 
the sword spurted out and became deities, who were called 
Iha-saku' no Kami, after him Ne-saku no Kami,' and 
next Iha-tsutsu-wo '" no Mikoto. This Iha-saku no Kami 
was the father of Futsu-nushi * no Kami." 

One account says : — " Iha-tsutsu-wo no Mikoto, and 
next Iha-tsutsu-me no Mikoto." 

" Moreover, the blood which dripped from the head of the 
sword spurted out and became deities, who were called 
Kura o Kami no Kami," next Kura-yamatsumi no Kami,** 
and next Kura-midzu-ha no Kami.'* 

' Weep-abundant-female. = Cf. Ch. " Kojiki," p. 31. 

' Literally, five hundred. 

• i.e. The Milky Way. Yasu, easy, is probably in error for ya-so, eighty, 
i.e. manifold, having many reaches. 

• Jar-swift-sun. So written, but mika is probably a word meaning very or 

• Fire.swift-sun. See Ch. " Kojiki," p. 32. ^ Brave-jar-father. 

• Rock-splitting.god. » Root-splitting -god. ^^ Rock-eldcr-male-god. 
" Futsu is interpreted as " a snapping sound " ; nushi is master. 

'* Dark-god. *' Dark-mountain-body-god. " Dark-water-goddess. 

24 NiHONGI. 

Thereafter, Izanagi no Mikoto went after Izanami no 
I. i8. Mikoto, and entered the land of Yomi.' When he reached 

her they conversed together, and Izanami no Mikoto 
said : * My lord and husband, why is thy coming so late ? 
I have already eaten of the cooking-furnace of Yomi.' 
Nevertheless, I am about to lie down to rest. I pray thee, 
do not thou look on me.' Izanami no Mikoto did not 
give ear to her, but secretly took his many-toothed comb 
and, breaking off its end tooth,' made of it a torch, and 
looked at her. Putrefying matter had gushed up, and 
maggots swarmed. This is why people at the present day 
avoid using a single light at night, and also avoid throwing 
away a comb * at night. Izanagi no Mikoto was greatly 
shocked, and said : * Nay ! I have come unawares to a 
hideous and polluted land.' So he speedily ran away back 
again. Then Izanami no Mikoto was angry, and said: 

' The original has " yellow springs," a Chinese expression. Yomi or Yomo 
is Hades. It is no doubt connected with yo or yoru, night. 

* This is a feature of many old-world and savage myths. In the legend 
of the rape of Proserpine by Pluto, as told by Ovid, Jupiter replies to 
Ceres, who demanded back her daughter — 

** . . . Repetat Proserpina caelum, 
Lege tamen certi : si nullos contiget illic 
Ore cibos." 

But Proserpine already — 

•* Puniceum curvi decerpserat arbore pomum 
Sumta que pallenti septem de cortice grana 
Presserat ore suo.*- 

Compare also the story of Nachik^tas from the Taittiriya Brahmana, and 
the Katha Upanishad : — 

" Three nights within his (Yama's) mansion stay, 
But taste not, though a guest, his food." 

Muir's Sanskrit texts, Vol. V., p. 329. 

The resemblance of the name Yama of the Indian God of the Lower 
World to the Japanese Yomi has been noted, and also some points of 
similarity in the myth of Yami and Yama to that of Izanagi and Izanami. 
See Lang, ** Custom and Myth," p. 171. 

* End-tooth is in Japanese wo-bashira, i e. male-pillar, for which see 
above, note to p. 11. 

* The " Adzuma Kagami " mentions a superstition 'that any one who picks 
up a comb which has been thrown away is transformed into another person. 

The Age of the Gods. 25 

* Why didst thou not observe that which I charged thee ? 
Now am I put to shame.' So she sent the eight Ugly 
Females of Yomi * (Skikome, called by some Hisame) to 
pursue and stay him. Izanagi no Mikoto therefore drew 
his sword, and, flourishing it behind him, ran away. 
Then he took his black head-dress and flung it down. U 19. 
It became changed into grapes, which the Ugly Females 
seeing, took and ate. When they had finished eating 
them, they again pursued Izanagi no Mikoto. Then he 
flung down his many-toothed comb, which forthwith 
became changed into bamboo-shoots. The Ugly Females 
pulled them up and ate them, and when they had done 
eating them, again gave chase. Afterwards, Izanami no 
Mikoto came herself and pursued him.' By this time 
Izanagi no Mikoto had reached the Even Pass of 

According to one account, Izanagi no Mikoto made 
water against a large tree, which water at once turned 
into a great river. While the Ugly Females of Yomi were 
preparing to cross this river, Izanagi no Mikoto had 
already reached the Even Pass of Yomi. So he took a 
thousand-men-pull-rock, and having blocked up the path 
with it, stood face to face with Izanami no Mikoto, and at 
last pronounced the formula of divorce. Upon this, 
Izanami no Mikoto said : ** My dear Lord and husband, if 
thou sayest so, I will strangle to death the people of the 
country which thou dost govern, a thousand in one day." 
Then Izanagi no Mikoto replied, saying, ** My beloved 
younger sister, if thou sayest so, I will in one day cause 
to be born fifteen hundred." Then he said, ** Come no 
further, and threw down his staff, which was called 
Funado ' no Kami. Moreover, he threw down his girdle, 

" The " Wamidsho " mentions a statement that these were used as bogeys 
to frighten children with under the name of Gogo-me. 

' The student of folk-lore will at once recognize this pursuit. Cf. Lang^s 
" Custom and Myth," pp. 88 and 92 : "A common incident is the throwing 
behind of a comb, which turns into a thicket." 

« Or Kunado, come-not-place. Cf Ch. " Kojiki," p. 39. This was the God 
of roads. 

26 NirioNGi. 

I* 20. which was called Naga-chi-ha * no Kami. Moreover, he 

threw down his upper garment, which was called 
Wadzurahi' no Kami. Moreover, he threw down his 
trowsers, which were called Aki-gui ' no Kami. More- 
over, he threw down his shoes, which were called Chi- 
shiki* no Kami. 

Some say that the Even Pass of Yomi is not any place 
in particular, but means only the space of time when the 
breath fails on the approach of death.* 

Now the rock with which the Even Pass of Yomi was 
blocked • is called Yomi-do ni fusagaru Oho-kami/ 
Another name for it is Chi-gayeshi ^ no Oho-kami. 

When Izanagi no Mikoto had returned, he was seized 
with regret, and said, " Having gone to Nay ! a hideous 
and filthy place, it is meet that I should cleanse my body 
I 21. from its pollutions." He accordingly went to the plain of 

Ahagi at Tachibana in Wodo in Hiuga of Tsukushi, and 
purified himself. When at length he was about to wash 
away the impurities * of his body, he lifted up his voice 
and said, ** The upper stream is too rapid and the lower 
stream is too sluggish, I will wash in the middle stream." 
The God which was thereby produced was called Ya-so- 
maga-tsu-bi* no Kami, and then to remedy these evils 


* Long-road-rock. • Disease or trouble. 

^ This might mean open-bite, but the derivation is very doubtful. 

* Road-spread-out. 

* Motoori treats this suggestion with supreme contempt. He prefers to 
accept the identification of the " Kojiki " (Ch. K. p. 39) with a place in Idzumo. 
Other parts of the world also, boast entrances to the lower regions. The 
Chinese have one at T6ng-chow, and the Roman and Greek legends need 
not be more particularly referred to. 

** Yomi-gate-block-great-God 

' Road-turn-back. 

•* Izanagi's ablutions are typical of the ceremonial lustration required after 
contact with death. A Chinese traveller to Japan in the early centuries of 
the Christian era noted that " when the funeral is over the whole family go 
into the water and wash." Ovid makes Juno undergo lustration after a visit 
to the lower regions, and Dante is washed in Lethe when he passes out of 
Purgatory. For lustration as a widespread practice, consult Dr. Tyler's 

*• Primitive Culture." Vol. II., p. 435» ^^ ^^99- 
« Eighty-evils-of-body. Cf Ch. '* Kojiki/' p. 41. 

The Age of the Gods. 27 

there were produced Deities named Kami-nawo-bi no 
Kami, and after him Oho-nawo-bi * no Kami. 

Moreover, the Deities which were produced by his 
plunging down and washing in the bottom of the sea 
were called Soko-tsu-wata-tsu-mi ' no Mikoto and Soko- 
tsutsu-wo no Mikoto. Moreover, when he plunged and 
washed in the mid-tide, there were Gods produced who 
were called Naka ' tsu wata-dzu-mi no Mikoto, and next 
Naka-tsutsu-wo no Mikoto.* Moreover, when he washed 
floating on the surface of the water, Gods were produced, 
who were called Uha-tsu-wata-dzu-mi no Mikoto and next 
Uha*-tsutsu-wp no Mikoto. . There were in all nine Gods. 
The Gods Soko-tsutsu-wo no Mikoto, Naka-tsutsu-wo no 
Mikoto, and Soko-tsutsu-wo no Mikoto are the three 
great Gods of Suminoye. The Gods Soko-tsu-wata-dzu- 
mi no Mikoto, Naka-tsu-wata-dzu-mi no Mikoto, and 
Uha-tsu-wata-dzu-mi no Mikoto are the Gods worshipped 
by the Muraji of Adzumi.' 

Thereafter, a Deity was produced by his washing his 

* Nawo is the root of a verb nawosu, to remedy. 

^ Bottom-sea-of-body. ' Middle- sea-god. 

* Middle-elder-male. * Uha means upper. 

* As appears from the parallel passage of the ** Kojiki," this is a case of 
ancestor worship, not, it will be observed, of the immediate ancestors, as in 
China, but of a remote mythical ancestor who is a Deity, as his name 

^ Adzumi no Muraji is a title corresponding exactly to such English 
titles as " Duke of Wellington," Adzumi being the name of a place and 
Muraji a title of honour. It is derived from mura, a village or assemblage, 
and ushi, master. These titles, called Uji or Kabane, though Kabane is 
properly the second or honorary element, were in their origin simply 
official designations, and in the " Nihongi " we frequently meet with cases 
where the office and the title are united in the same person. They were, how- 
ever, hereditary, and by degrees the mere honorary element prevailed. It 
too, ultimately vanished, these titles becoming simply surnames to which no 
particular distinction was attached. Japanese writers, the author of the 
" Nihongi" with the rest, have, for want of a more appropriate character, 
identifi^ them with the Chinese ^ or surname, which is only true of a 
period later than the time covered by the " Nihongi." There was also a 
personal name (na), but the ancient Japanese seem to have had no 
proper surnames, although the Uji answered the same purpose in a rough 

28 NiHONGI. 

1. 22. left eye, which was called Ama-terasu-no-oho-Kami.' 

Then he washed his right eye, producing thereby a Deity 
who was called Tsuki-yomi no Mikoto.' Then he washed 
his nose, producing thereby a God who was called Sosa 
no wo no Mikoto. In all there were three Deities. Then 
Izanagi no Mikoto gave charge to his three children, 
saying, ** Do thou, Amaterasu no Oho-kami, rule the 
plain of High Heaven : do thou, Tsuki-yomi no Mikoto, 
rule the eight-hundred-fold tides of the ocean plain : do 
thou, Sosa no wo no Mikoto, rule the world." At this 
time, Sosa no wo no Mikoto was already of full age. He 
had, moreover, grown a beard eight spans long. Never- 
theless, he neglected to rule the world, and was always 
weeping, wailing, and fuming with rage. Therefore 
Izanagi no Mikoto inquired of him, saying, " Why dost 
thou continually weep in this way ? " He answered and 
said, " I wish to follow my mother to the Nether Land, 
and it is simply for that reason that I weep." Then 
Izanagi no Mikoto was filled with detestation of him, and 
said, " Go, even as thy heart bids thee." So he forthwith 
drove him away. 

I. 23. In one writing it is said : ** Izanagi no Mikoto drew his 

sword and cut Kagutsuchi into three pieces. One of these 

' The Sun-Goddess. 

' The Moon- God. Compare with this the Chinese myth of P'an-ku : 
** P'an-ku came into being in the Great Waste, his beginning is unknown. 
In dying, he gave birth to the existing material universe. His breath was 
transmuted into the wind and clouds, his voice into thunder, his left eye 
into the sun, and his right into the moon : his four limbs and five extremities 
into the four quarters of the globe and the five great mountains, his blood 
into the rivers, his muscles and veins into the strata of the earth, his flesh 
into the soil etc." — Mayer's "Chinese Manual," p. 174. Note here that the 
Japanese myth gives precedence to the left over the right. This is a Chinese 
characteristic. Hirata rejects any identification of the two myths, pointing 
out that the sun is masculine in China and feminine in Japan. This is not 
conclusive. Such closely related nations as the English and Germans 
differ as to the sex which they ascribe to the sun, and Lang in his " Myth, 
Ritual, and Religion," points out that among the Australians, different 
tribes of the same race have different views of the sex of the sun and 

The Age of the Gods. 29 

became Ikadzuchi no Kami,* one became Oho-yama-tsu-mi ' 
no Kami, and one became Taka-wo-Kami.* Moreover, it 
is said : " When he slew Kagutsuchi, the blood gushed out 
and stained the five hundred * rocks which are in the midst 
of the ^eighty rivers of Heaven, forming thereby Gods who 
were called Iha-saku * no Kami ; next Ne-saku * no Kami's 
child, Ihatsutsu-wo^ no Kami ; and next, Iha-tsutsu-me 
no Kami's child, Futsu-nushi no Kami." 

In one writing it is said : ** Izanagi no Mikoto cut I- 24. 
Kagutsuchi no Mikoto into five pieces, which were each 
changed, and became the five Mountain-Gods. The first 
piece,viz.,the head, became OhQ-yama-tsu-mi ;* the second, 
viz. the trunk, became Naka'-yama-tsu-mi ; the third, viz. 
the hands, became Ha^^-yama-tsu mi ; the fourth, viz. the 
loins, became Masa-katsu-yama-tsu-mi ; " and the fifth, 
viz. the feet, became Shiki**-yama-tsu-mi. 

At this tim^ the blood from the wounds spurted out and 
stained the rocks, trees and herbage. This is the reason 
that herbs, trees, and pebbles naturally contain the 
element of fire." 

In one writing it is said : ** Izanagi no Mikoto, wishing 
to see his younger sister, went to the temporary burial- 
place. At this time, Izanami no M ikoto being still as she 
was whert alive came forth to meet him, and they talked 
together. She spoke to Izanagi no Mikoto and said, * My 
august Lord and husband, I beseech thee not to look at 
me.' When she had done speaking, she suddenly became 
invisible. - It was then dark, so Izanagi no Mikoto lit a 
single light, and looked at her. Izanami no Mikoto was 
then swollen and festering, and eight kinds of Thunder- 
Gods rested on her. Izanagi no Mikoto was shocked, and 
ran away. Then the thunders all arose and pursued him. 

* The Thunder-God. - GreaUinountain-of-person. 

* High male- God. 

* The numbers 500, 80, 8, i8o, io,ooo are often put vaguely for a large 

* Rock-split. ^ Root-split. 

* Rock-elder-male. ** Great-mountain-of-person. 
» Middle. " Spur, vide Ch. K., p. 33. 

" True-conquer or excel. ** Foundation. 

30 NiHONGI. 

Now by the roadside there grew a large peach tree/ at the 
foot of which Izanagi no Mikoto concealed himself. He 
accordingly took its fruit and flung it to the thunders, upon 
which the tjiunders all ran away. This was the origin of 
the practice of keeping off evil spirits by means of peaches. 
Then Izanagi flung down his staff", saying: * The thunders 
may not come beyond this/ It (the staff) was called 
Funado no Kami, and was originally called Kunado no 

Of the so-called Eight Thunders, that which was on her 
head was called the Great Thunder ; that which was on 
her breast was called the Fire-Thunder ; that which was 
on her belly was called the Earth-Thunder ; that which 
was on her back was called the Young-Thunder; that 
which was on her posteriors was called the Black-Thunder; 
that which was on her hand was called the Mountain- 
Thunder ; that which was on her foot was called the 
Moor-Thunder ; and that which was on her genitals was 
called the Cleaving-Thunder.'* 

In one writing it is said : ** Izanagi no Mikoto followed 
after Izanami no Mikoto, and, arriving at the place where 
she was, spoke to her and said : * I have come because I 
sorrowed for thee.' She answered and said, * We are 
relations.' Do not thou look upon me.' Izanagi no 
Mikoto would not obey, but continued to look on her. 
Wherefore Izanami no Mikoto was ashamed and angry, 
and said, * Thou hast seen my nakedness. Now I wfU in 
turn see thine.' Then Izanagi no Mikoto was ashamed, 
and prepared to depart. He did not, however, merely go 
away in silence, but said solemnly, ' Our relationship is 
severed.' * Again he said, * I will not submit to be beaten 

* Chinese legend also ascribes magical properties to the peach. Si Wang 
Mu, a fabulous being of the female sex, possessed a peach tree whose fruit 
conferred the gift of immortality. It has also the virtue of driving off the 
demons of disease. Staves and bows of peach-tree wood were used in the 
ceremony of oni-yarahi (sending away demons), performed on the last day 
of the vear. 

^ Come-not-place-great-elder (or ancestor). 

* Relations. The intei linear kana has ucara, i.e. the same uji or house. 

* Fiom the "Kiujiki" it would appear that this was the formula of divorce. 

The Age of the Gods. 31 

by a relation.' * And the God of the Spittle * which he 

thereupon spat out wa,s called Haya-tama no wo.' Next 

the God of his purification was called Yomo-tsu-koto-saka 

no wo ; * two gods in all. And when he came to contend 

With his younger sister at the Ev^nPass^of Yomi, I^nagi 

no. Mikoto.said, * It was weak' of hie at first to sorrow 

£ind mourn on account of a relation.' 

Then said the Road-wardens of Yomi, * We have a 
message for thee, as follows : ' I and thou have produced 
countries. Why should we seek to produce more ? I 
shall stay in this land, and will not depart along with thee.* 
At this time Kukuri*-hime no Kami said something which 
Izanagi no Mikoto heard and approved, and she then 
vanished away. 

But, having visited in person the Land of Yomi, he had I. 26, 
brought on himself ill-luck. In order, therefore, to wash 
away the defilement, he visited the Aha gate • and the 
Haya-sufu-na ' gate. But the tide in these two gates was 
exceeding strong. So he returned and took his way 
towards Wodo * in Tachibana. • There he did his ablu- 
tions. At this time, entering the water, he blew out and 
produced Iha-tsu-tsu* no Mikoto ; coming out of the water, 
he blew forth and produced Oho-nawo-bi *^ no Kami. 
Entering a second time, he blew out and produced Soko- 
tsutsu '* no Mikoto ; coming out he blew forth and produced 
Oho-aya-tsu-bi " no Kami. Entering again, he blew forth 

' Referring to the threat of slaying looo people in one day, and the 
counter- threat of making 1 500 children to be born in one day. 

' A Japanese authority says that at the present time spitting is (Essential 
in the purification ceremony. Another says, ** This is the reason why at the 
present day people spit when they see anything impure." Cf. Tylor'b 
"Primitive Culture," Vol. I., p. 103; Vol. 11., p. 441. 

• Quick-jewel-male. ^ Yomi-of-thing-divide-malj. 

' Hirata derives this from >t/^/, hear, and />/', enter, the meaning be nj,^ 
that of mediation. 

• Now known as the Naruto passage, a strait fanous for its rapid tides. 
' Quick suck-name. In the Bungo Channel. 

• Little-gate. ' Rock-of-elder. 
»• (ircat-remedy-person. > Bottom -elder. 
•' Great-pattern- of- person 



and produced Aka-tsutsu * no Mikoto, and coming out he 
blew out and produced the various deities of Heaven and 
Earth, and of the Sea-plain." 

In one writing it is said: — " Izanagi no Mikoto charged 
his three children, saying, * Do thou, Ama-terasu no Oho- 
kami, rule over the plain of High Heaven ; do thou, 
Tsuki-yomi no Mikoto, be associated with her in the 
charge of Heavenly matters; do thou, Sosa no wo no 
Mikoto, govern the plain of Ocean.* 

Now when Ama-terasu no Oho-kami was already in 
Heaven, she said : — * I hear that in the Central country 
of reed-plains there is the Deity Uke-mochi no Kami.^ Do 
thou, Tsuki-yomi no Mikoto, go and wait upon her.' Tsuki- 
yomi no Mikoto, on receiving this command, descended 
and went to the place where Uke-mochi no Kami was. 
Thereupon Uke-mochi no Kami turned her head towards 
the land, and forthwith from her mouth there came boiled 
rice : she faced the sea, and again there came from her 
I. 27. mouth things broad of fin and things narrow of fin. She 

faced the mountains and again there came from her mouth 
things rough of hair and things soft of hair. These things 
werej all. prepared and set out on one hundred tables for 
his entertainment. Then Tsuki-yomi no Mikoto became 
flushed with anger, and said: — 'Filthy! l^asty! That 
thou shouldst dare to feed me with things disgorged 
from thy mouth.' So he drew his sword and slew her, 
and then returned and made his report, relating all the 
circumstances. Upon this Ama-terasu no Oho-kami 
was exceedingly angry, and said : — * Thou art a wicked 
Deity. I must not see thee face to face.' So they were 
separated by one day and one night, and dwelt apart. 

After this Ama-terasu no Oho-kami sent a second time 
Ame-kuma-bito ' to go and see her. At this time Uke- 
mochi no Kami was truly dead already. But on the crown 
of her head there had been produced the ox and the horse; 

» Red-elder. - The Goddess of food. 

* Written " Heaven-bear-man.*' The real meaning is supposed to be 
Heaven-cloud (kumo)-man, the clouds being regarded as messengers of the 

The Age of the Gods. 33 

on the top of her forehead there had been produced 
millet ; over her eyebrows there had been produced the silk- 
worm ; within her eyes there had been produced panic ; in 
her belly there had been produced rice; in her genitals there 
had been produced wheat, large beans * and small beans.' 
Ame-kuma-bito carried all these things and delivered them 
to Ama-terasu no Oho-kami, who was rejoiced, and said : — 
* These are the things which the race of visible ' men will 
eat and live.' So she made the millet, the panic, the I. 2$, 
wheat, and the beans the seed for the dry fields, and the 
rice she made the seed for the water-fields. Therefore she 
appointed a Mura-gimi * of Heaven, and forthwith sowed 
for the first time the rice- seed in the narrow fields and in 
the long fields of Heaven. That autumn, drooping ears 
bent down, eight span long, and were exceedingly pleasant 
to look on. 

Moreover she took the silkworms in her mouth, and 
succeeded in reeling thread from them. From this began 
the art of silkworm rearing." * 
Upon this Sosa no wo no Mikoto made petition, saying : — 
" I wili now obey thy instructions and proceed to the Nether 
Land. Therefore I wish for a short time to go to the Plain of 
High Heaven and meet with my elder sister, after which I will 
go away for ever." Permission was granted him, and he there- 
fore ascended to Heaven. 
After this, Izanagi no Mikoto, his divine task having been 

' Soja hispida. Hepburn. 

* Phaseolus radiatus. Hepburn. Compare with this the Chinese myth of 
P'an-ku quoted above. There are Indian and Iranian myths of a similar 
character. See "T.R.A.S.," Jan., 1895, p. 202. ** Creation from the frag- 
ments of a fabulous anthropomorphic being is common to Chaldaeans, 
Iroquois, Egyptians, Greeks, Tinnehs, Mangaians, and Ar>'an Indians." 
Lang, '^ Myth, Religion, Ritual," I. 246. 
' As opposed to the unseen gods. * Village-chief. 

' The " Kojiki " makes Susa no wo to slay Uke-mochi no Mikoto, but the 
'* Kiujiki " agrees with the version just given, which is more likely to be the 
original form of the stor>% as it is an explanation of the reason why the sun 
and moon are not seen together, and has parallels in myths of other 
countries. Ama-terasu no Oho-kami (now called Ten-sho-dai-jin) and 
Ukemochi no Kami are the two principal Deities worshipped at Ise. See 
Saton''s ** Handbook of Japan," pp. 175, 176. 


34 NiHONGI. 

accomplished, and his spirit-career about to suffer a change, 
built himself an abode of gloom in the island of Ahaji, where he 
dwelt for ever in silence and concealment. 

Another account says : — " Izanagi no Mikoto, his task 

. having been accomplished, and his power great, ascended 

to Heaven and made report of his mission. There he dwelt 

^- 29- in the smaller palace of the Sun." {By smaller palace is meant 

the palace of a prince^ 
Now at first when Sosa no wo no Mikoto went up to Heaven, 
by reason of the fierceness of his divine nature there was a 
commotion in the sea, and the hills and mountains groaned 
aloud. Ama-terasu no Oho-kami, knowing the violence and 
wickedness of this Deity, was startled and changed countenance, 
when she heard the manner of his coming. She said (to her- 
self) : — " Is my younger brother coming with good intentions ? 
I think it must be his purpose to rob me of my kingdom. By 
the charge which our parents gave to their children, each of us 
has his own allotted limits. Why, therefore, does he reject the 
kingdom to which he should proceed, and make bold to come 
spying here ? " So she bound up her hair into knots * and tied 
up her skirts into the form of trowsers. Then she took an 

I. 30. august string of five hundred Yasaka' jewels, which she 
entwined around her hair and wrists. Moreover, on her back she 
slung a thousand- arrow quiver and a five-hundred-arrow quiver. 
On her lower arm she drew a dread loud-sounding elbow-pad.' 
Brandishing her bow end upwards,* she firmly grasped her 

* In male fashion. 

' This word has given much difficulty to the commentators. It is written 
with characters which mean " eight feet," and this is accepted by some as 
the true derivation. Hirata makes it ya, very, sa, a honorific, and aka, bright. 
Perhaps the best interpretation is simply that which makes it the name of 
the place where the jewels, or rather beads, were made. Ya-saka would then 
mean eight-slopes. A place of this name is mentioned more than once in 
the " Nihongi." See Ch. " Kojiki," p. 46, and Satow's " Rituals." 

' In Japanese, tomo. This was partly for the protection of the arm against 
the recoil of the bow-string, and partly in order to produce a terrifying 
sound when struck by it. Its shape (like a comma) is familiar to us from 
the well-known tomoye, the symbol so constantly met with in Japanese art, 
in which two or three tomo are joined together. There it represents the in 
and y6, or the in, yo and taiki. 

* In the position for shooting. 

The Age of the Gods. 35 

sword-hilt, and stamping on the hard earth of the courtyard, 
sank her thighs into it as if it had been foam-snow,* and kicked 
it in all directions. Having thus put forth her dread manly 
valour, she uttered a mighty cry of defiance, and questioned 
him in a straightforward manner. Sosa no wo no Mikoto 
answered and said : — ■* From the beginning my heart has n,o 
been black. But as in obedience to the stern behest of our 
parents, I am about to proceed for ever to the Nether Land, 
how could I bear to depart without having seen face to face 
thee my elder sister ? It is for this reason that I have 
traversed on foot the clouds and mists and have come hither r. 31. 
from afar. I am surprised that my elder sister should, on 
the contrary, put on so stern a countenance." 

Then Ama-terasu no Oho-kami again asked him, paying : — 
** If this be so, how wilt thou make evident the redness of thy . 
heart ? " ' He answered and said : — ** Let us, I pray thee, make 
an oath together. While bound by this oath, we shall surely 
produce children. If the children which I produce are females, 
then it may be taken that I have an impure heart. But if the 
children are males, then it must be considered that my heart is 

Upon this Ama-terasu no Oho-kami asked for Sosa no wo no 
Mikoto's ten-span sword, which she broke into three pieces, 
and rinsed in the true-well of Heaven. Then chewing them 
with a crunching noise, she blew them away, and from the 
true-mist of her breath Gods were born. The first was named 
Ta-gori-bime, the next Tagi-tsu-bime, and the next Ichiki- 
shima-bime,* three daughters in all. 

After this Sosa no wo no Mikoto begged from Ama-terasu no 
Oho-kami the august string of 500 Yasaka jewels which was 
entwined in her hair and round her wrists, and rinsed it in the 
true-well of Heaven. Then chewing it with a crunching noise, 
he blew it away, and fi*om the true-mist of his breath there 
were Gods produced. The first was called Masa-ya-a-katsu*- 

* i.e. snow of as little consistence as foam. 

- i. e. The purity of thine intentions. 

' The first two of these three names are of doubtful meaning. The third 
is the name of a sacred island in the Inland Sea, near Hiroshima, better 
known as Miya-jima. Cf. Ch.'K., p. 48. 

D 2 


kachi-hayabi-ama no oshi-ho-mimi no Mikoto/ and the next 
Ama no ho-hi no Mikoto.^ This is the ancestor of the Idzumo 
I. 32. no Omi, and of the Hashi no. Muraji.' The next was Ama-tsu 
hiko-ne no Mikoto/ He was the ancestor of the Ohoshi- 
kafuchi no Atahe, and of the Yamashiro no Atahe.* The next 
was Iku-tsu-hiko-ne no Mikoto,* and the next Kumano no 
kusu-bi' no Mikoto — in all five males.* 

Then Ama-terasu no Oho-kami said : — " Their seed was in 
the beginning the august necklace of 500 Yasaka jewels which 
belonged to me. Therefore these five male Deities are all my 
children." So she took these children and brought them up. 
Moreover she said : — " The ten-span sword belonged to thee, 
Sosa no wo no Mikoto. Therefore these three female Deities 
are all thy children." So she delivered them to Sosa no wo no 
I. 33. Mikoto. These are the deities which are worshipped by the 
Munagata no Kimi of Tsukushi. 

In one writing it is said : — ** The Sun-Goddess, aware 
from the beginning of the fierce and relentless purpose of 
Sosa no wo no Mikoto, said (to herself) when he ascended : 
' The coming of my younger brother is not for a good 
object. He surely means to rob me of my Plain of Heaven.' 
So she made manly warlike preparation, girding upon her 
a ten-span sword, a nine-span sword, and an eight-span 
sword. Moreover, on her back she slung a quiver, and on 
her fore-arm drew a dread loud-sounding elbow-pad. In 

Truly- 1 -conquer-conquer-swiftness - heaven- of-great-great-august-person. 
Cf. Ch. K., p. 48. I take mimi to be composed of mi the honorific, and mi, 
body, person, which is also the termination of abstract nouns, as fukami, 
depth, and in this meaning frequently becomes bi^ as in several names of 

^ Heaven-great-sun ? 

' Idzumo no Omi. Omi is a title of rank, probably derived from o, for oho, 
great, and mi, person. The Chinese character with which it is written 
means minister or vassal. Hashi no Muraji. Muraji is explained above, 
p. 27. Hashi, which is also read Hanishi, Hase, or Haji, means clay-worker. 
For the origin of this title see below, reign of Suinin, 32nd year. 

* Heaven prince — honorific particle. 

* Atahe is a title of nobility, Hke Omi, Muraji, etc., but lower. 

*• Live-of-prince — honorific particle. ^ Name of place-of-wondrous-ness. 
" These five, with the three female children mentioned above, are now 
worshipped under the name of Hachi-6-ji, or the Eight Princes. 

The Age of the Gods. 37 

her hand she took a bow and arrow, and going forth to 
meet him in person, stood on her defence. Then Sosa no 
wo no Mikoto declared to her, saying : — ' From the be- 
ginning I have had no evil intentions. All that I wished 
was to see thee, my elder sister, face to face. It is only 
for a brief space that I have come.' Thereupon the Sun- 
Goddess, standing opposite to Sosa no wo no Mikoto, 
swore an oath, saying : — ' If thy heart is pure, and thou 
hast no purpose of relentless robbery, the children born to 
thee will surely be males.' When she had finished speak- 
ing, she ate first the ten-span sword which she had girded 
on, and produced a child which was called Oki-tsu-shima- 
bime.* Moreover she ate the nine-span sword, and pro- 
duced a child which was called Tagi-tsu-hime. Moreover 
she ate the eight-span sword, and produced a child which 
was called Tagori-hime — in all three female Deities. After 
this Sosa no wo no Mikoto took the august five-hundred I 34- 
string of jewels which hung upon his neck, and having 
rinsed them in the Nuna ' well of Heaven, another name 
for which is the true-well of Isa, and ate them. So he 
produced a child, which was called Masa-ya-a-katsu-kachi- 
haya-bi-ame no oshi-ho-ne no Mikoto. Next he produced 
Ama-tsu-hiko-ne no Mikoto, next Iku-tsu-hiko-ne no 
Mikoto, next Ama no ho-hi no Mikoto, and next Kumano 
no oshi homi no Mikoto — in all five male Deities, f There- 
fore as Sosa no wo no Mikoto had thus acquired proof of ^^, ^ j 
his victory, the Sun-Goddess learnt exactly that his inten- ^ ^ 
tions were wholly free from guilt.7 The three female 
Deities which the Sun-Goddess had produced were accord- 
ingly sent down to the Land of Tsukushi. She therefore 
instructed them, saying : — * Do ye, three Deities, go down 
and dwell in the centre of the province, where you will 
assist the descendants of Heaven,* and receive worship 
from them.' " 

In one writing it is said : — " When Sosa no wo no 
Mikoto was about to ascend to Heaven, there was a Deity 
whose name was Ha-akaru-tama.* This Deity came to 

• Lady of the island of the offing. 

- Nuna-wi, — perhaps for mana-wi, i.e. true well. 

' i.e. the Emperors. * Feather-bright-gem. 

38 '^ NiHONGI. ' 


meet him and presented to him beautiful maga-tama* of 
Yasaka jewels. So Sosa no wo no Mikoto took these 
gems and went up to Heaven. At this time Ama-terasu 



no Oho-kami, suspecting that the intentions of her younger 
brother were evil, prepared war and questioned him. Sosa 
no wo no Mikoto answered and said : — ' Truly the sole 
reason of my coming is that I wished to see my elder 
sister face to face, ^nd moreover to present to her these 
beautiful curved jewels of Yasaka gem. I dare not have 
any other purpose.' Then Ama-terasu no Oho-kami asked 
L 35. him again, saying : — * Wherewithal wilt thou prove to me 

whether thy words are true or false ? ' He answered and 
said : — * Let thee and me bind ourselves by an oath. If 
while we are bound by this oath, the children produced are 
females, my heart is to be accounted black, but if they are 
males, it is to be thought red.' So they dug three true- 
wells of Heaven and stood opposite to one another. Then 
Ama-terasu no Oho-kami spoke to Sosa no wo no Mikoto 
and said : — * I am now about to give thee the sword which 
is in my girdle ; do thou give me the curved jewels of 
Yasaka gem which thou hast.' Having thus covenanted 
they made a mutual exchange. Then Ama-terasu no 
Oho-kami took the curved jewels of Yasaka gem, and 
having made them float on the true-well of Heaven, bit 
off the heads of the jewels and blew them away. The 
Deity which was produced from amidst her breath was 
called Ichiki-shima-hime no Mikoto. This is the Goddess 
who dwells in Oki-tsu miya. Again, a Deity was produced 

* Maga-tama, curved jewels, are the comma-shaped gems of cornelian or 
other stones frequently seen in museums in Japan. 

The Aqe of the Gods. 39 

from amidst her breath when she bit through and blew 
away the middle parts of the jewels. This Deity was 
called Ta-gori-hime no Mikoto. It is she who dwells in 
Naka-tsu miya. Again a Deity was produced from amidst 
her breath when she bit through and blew away the tails 
of the jewels. This Deity was called Tagi-tsu-hime no 
Mikoto. It is she who dwells in He-tsu miya/ In all 
there were three female Deities. 

Upon this Sosa no wo no Mikoto, taking the sword 
which he held, and having made it to float on the surface 
of the True-Well of Heaven, bit off the end of the sword 
and blew it away. The Deities which were produced from 
amidst his breath were called Ama no ho-hi no Mikoto, 
next Masa-ya-a katsu-katsu-no-haya-hi-ama-no oshi-ho-ne- 
no Mikoto, next Ama-tsu hiko-ne no Mikoto, next Iku- 
tsu hiko-ne no Mikoto, and next Kumano no kusu-hi no 
Mikoto. In all there were five male Deities. Such is the 

In one writing it is said: — "The Sun-Goddess stood 

opposite to Sosa no wo no Mikoto, separated from him by 

the Tranquil River of Heaven,' and established a covenant 

with him, saying, * If thou hast not a traitorous heart, the ^' 3^ 

children which thou wilt produce will surely be males, and 

if they are males, I will consider them my children, and . - 

will cause them to govern the Plain of Heaven.' Hereupon 

the Sun-Goddess first ate her ten-span sword, which became 

converted into a child, the Goddess Oki-tsu-shima hime 

no Mikoto, also called Ichiki-shima hime no Mikoto. 

Next she ate her nine-span sword, which became converted 

into a child, the Goddess Tagi-tsu hime no Mikoto. Again 

she ate her eight-span sword, which became converted 

into a child, the Goddess Ta-giri hime no Mikoto. Upon 

this, Sosa no wo no Mikoto took in his mouth the string of 

500 jewels which was entwined in the left knot of his hair, 

and placed it on the palm of his left hand, whereupon it 

became converted into a male child. He then said : — ' Truly 

* Oki-tsu miya means the " shrine of the offing ; " Naka-tsu miya, the 
" middle shrine ;" He-tsu miya, the ** shrine of the shore." Ichiki-shima is 
the same as Itsuku shima, the sacred island near Hiroshima in the Inland Sea. 

= The Milky Way. 

40 NiHONGI. 

I have won.' And the child was therefore called Katsu no 
haya-hi ama no oshi-ho-mimi no Mikoto. After that he 
took in his mouth the jewels of the right knot of his hair, 
and placed them on the palm of his right hand, when they 
became changed and produced the God Ama no ho-hi no 
Mikoto. After that he took in his mouth the jewels which 
hung round his neck and laid them on his left fore-arm, 
when they became changed and produced the God Ama- 
tsu hiko-ne no Mikoto. Moreover, from his right fore-arm 
there was produced the God Iku-tsu hiko-ne no Mikoto. 
Again from his left foot was produced the God Hi no 
haya-hi no Mikoto. Again from his right leg was produced 
Kumano no oshi-homi-no Mikoto, also called Kumano no 
oshi-sumi no Mikoto. The children produced by Sosa no 
wo no Mikoto were all male children. Therefore the Sun- 
Goddess knew exactly that Sosa no wo no Mikoto's inten- 
tions had been from the first honest. So these six male 
children were taken and made the children of the Sun- 
Goddess, and were caused to govern the Plain of Heaven, 
The three female Deities born of the Sun-Goddess were 
made to descend and dwell at Usa-shima in the Reed-plain 
Central Land.* They are now in the middle of the 
Northern Sea province, and are styled the Michi-nushi no 
I. 37. Muchi.' These are the Deities which are worshipped by 

the Kimi of Minuma in Tsukushi." 
After this Sosa no wo no Mikoto's behaviour was exceedingly 
rude. In what way ? Ama-terasu no Oho-kami had made 
august rice-fields of Heavenly narrow rice-fields and Heavenly 
long rice-fields. Then Sosa no wo no Mikoto, when the seed 
was sown in spring, broke down the divisions between the plots 
of rice, and in autumn let loose the Heavenly piebald colts,* 
and made them lie down in the midst of the rice-fields. Again, 
when he saw that Ama-terasu no Oho-kami was about to 
celebrate the feast of first-fruits, he secretly voided excrement 

' Ashihara no Naka tsu kuni, i.e. Japan. The phrase Central Land is 
suspiciously like Chinese. 

* Province-master — honoured ones or possessors. 

3 Indian myth has a piebald or spotted deer or cow among celestial objects. 
The idea is probably suggested by the appearance of the stars. It is doubt- 
ful whether colt should be singular or plural. 

The Age of the Gods, 41 ' 

in the New ' Palace. Moreover, when he saw that Ama-terasu 
no Oho-kami was in her sacred' weaving hall, engaged in 
weaving the garments of the Gods, he flayed a piebald colt of 
Heaven, and breaking a hole in the roof-tiles of the hall, flung 
it in. Then Ama-terasu no Oho-kami started with alarm, and 
wounded herself with the shuttle. Indignant at this, she 
straightway entered the Rock-cave of Heaven, and having 
£a^ened the Rock-door, dwelt there in seclusion. Therefore 
constant darkness prevailed on all sides, and the alternation of 
night and day was unknown.' I. 38. 

' For the sake of greater purity in celebrating the festival. 

" The Chinese character here translated sacred is jHp, the primary 
meaning of which is abstinence, fasting. In the " Nihongi," however, it 
represents the Japanese word ihahi (pronounced iwai). According to 
Hirata this contains the same root as imi, avoidance, especially religious 
avoidance of impurity, and had originally the same meaning. The yu of 
yu-niha, or sacred plot of ground where rice for the festival of first-fruits was 
grown, is the same root. But as a strict observance of conditions of cere- 
monial purity was a chief feature of the Shinto services, this word came to 
be put for religious rites generally, and the Chinese character is even used, 
if we may believe the interlinear gloss which renders it by ogami, for Buddhist 
celebrations. The usual modem meaning of ihahi is blessing, well-wishing, 
congratulation, where we have got a long way from the original sense of 
tabu, avoidance. 

Ritual purit>' is of the very essence of Shinto. It applies to food, clothing, 
and language. There was in later times a special set of terms for certain 
Buddhist objects and ideas. It was probaBly to avoid contamination to the 
ordinary dwelling that special huts were erected for the consummation of 
marriage, and for childbirth. Death contaminated a house, and therefore a 
new one had to be erected on the decease of the owner, a practice which was 
long continued in the case of Imp>erial Palaces. 

* Ama-terasu no Oho-kami is throughout the greater part of this narrative 

an anthropomorphic Deity, with little that is specially characteristic of her 

solar functions. Here, however, it is plainly the sun itself which withholds 

its light and leaves the world to darkness. This inconsistency, which has 

greatly exercised the native theologians (see Satow's ** Revival of Pure 

Shinto," p. 50, reprint), is not peculiar to Japanese myth. Muir, in the 

introduction to Vol. V. of his " Sanskrit Texts," says : — " The same visible 

object was at different times regarded diversely as being either a portion of 

the inanimate universe, or an animated being and a cosmical power. Thus 

in the Vedic hymns, the sun, the sky, and the earth are severally considered, 

sometimes as natural objects governed by particular gods, and sometimes as 

themselves gods who generate and control other beings." But this difficulty 

is inherent in all mythologies. 

42 NiHONGI. 

Then the eighty mjTiads of Gods met on the bank of the 
Tranquil River of Heaven, and considered in what manner they 
should supplicate her. Accordingly Omohi-kane * no Kami, 
with profound device and far-reaching thought, at length gathered 
long-singing birds* of the Eternal Land and madfe them 
utter their prolonged cry to one another. Moreover he 
made Ta-jikara-wo ' no Kami to stand beside the Rock-door. 
Then Arne no Koyane * no Mikoto, ancestor of the Nakatomi 
no Muraji,* and Futo-dama no Mikoto," ancestor of the Imibe ' 

* Thought-combining or thought-including. 

* The cock is meant. ' Hand-strength-male. 

■* Ko-yane is written with two characters which mean child and roof. 
Hirata (** Koshiden," Vol. XIII., p. i) identifies this Deity with Omohi-kane 
no Mikoto, and endeavours to show that ko is for kokoro, heart. Ya, he 
thinks, is many, and ne a honorific. See also Ch. K., p. 56. I agree with 
Ch. that the meaning is obscure. 

" Hirata and Motowori have written many pages on the derivation of 
Nakatomi. The former takes it to be for Naka-tori-mochi, which would give 
the meaning mediator, these officials being regarded as go-betweens for 
the Kimi, or sovereign, in his intercourse with the Kami. Perhaps it is safest 
to follow the Chinese characters which mean " middle-minister," in Japanese 
Naka-tsu-omi, tsu being a genitive particle. The Nakatomi would then be 
the ministers of middle rank, as opposed to Prime Ministers on the one 
hand, and underlings on the other. In historical times their duties were of 
a priestly character. Worship and government were closely associated in 
ancient times in more countries than Japan. Matsurigoto, government, is 
derived from matsuri, worship. It was they who recited the Harahi or 
purification rituals. 

* Futo-dama, big-jewel. 

' I mi- be or imbe is derived from imi, root of imu, to avoid, to shun, 
to practise religious abstinence, and be^ a hereditary corporation. 
The original function of the Imibe will be understood from the follow- 
ing extract from a Chinese book written not long after the Christian 
Epoch : — " They (i.e. the Japanese) appoint a man whom they call an 

* abstainer.' He is not allowed to comb his hair, to wash, to eat meat, or 
to appro.ich women. When they are fortunate they make him presents, 
but if they fall ill, or meet with disaster, they set it down to the 

* abstainer's ' failure to keep his vows, and together they put him to 
death." Compare with this the following paragraph from a recent American 

"An Unlucky Medicine Man. 

Hig Bob was a prominent member of the tribe, and claimed to be a 
** tenanimous " man, which, translated from the Chinook, means an Indian 
doctor. By Indian superstition a "tenanimous'' man is held responsible if 

The Age of the Gods. 43 

no Obito, dug up a five-hundred branched True Sakaki * ^^ 39- 
tree of the Heavenly Mt. Kagu.^ On its upper branches they 
hung an august five-hundred string of Yasaka jewels. On the 
middle branches they hung an eight-hand' mirror. 

any general calamity befalls the tribe. Things had not been going well with 
the Swinomish Indians for some time. There was much sickness among 
them, and Big Bob was regarded as responsible for it. So at a meeting of 
the tribe four Indians were appointed to execute him. The day upon which 
the murder took place Big Bob was waylaid by four assassins, who seized 
him, held him, and cut his throat from ear to ear. The red men were 
arrested and bound over for murder by the Justice of the Peace of Laconner." 
In the " Nihongi " times the Imibe occupied a subordinate position in 
performing the ceremonies of Shinto, and at a still later period this term 
became a mere surname. Vide Satow, "Ancient Rituals," in "J.A.S.T.," 
VolVJI, Pt. II., p. 126' 

The Be, or hereditary corporations, were a peculiar institution of Old Japan. 

This term has been rather inadequately rendered by clan, tribe, or guild . 

But they differed from clans, as it was not even supposed that there was any 

tic of blood-relationship between the various classes of members. And if we 

call them guilds we lose sight of their hereditary character, and of the fact 

that they were essentially branches of the Government. Perhaps if we 

imagine the staff of one of our dockyards in which the director and officials 

should be drawn from the governing class, the artisans being serfs, and the 

whole having a more or less hereditary character, we shall have a tolerable 

idea of a Be. The origin of some, as of the Imibe, is lost in antiquity, but 

many were instituted in historical times, and for all manner of objects. 

There were Be of weavers (Oribe), of figured-stuff weavers (Ayabe), of 

executioners (Osakabe), of fishers (Amabe), of farmers (Tanabe), of clay- 

workers (Hasebe or Hashibe), and many more. The sole function of some 

was to perpetuate the name of a childless Emperor or Empress. The local 

habitation of these corfwrations was also called Be, just as our word 

admiralty may mean either a body of officials or the building where they 

discharge their duties. This accounts for the frequency with which this 

tennination occurs in names of places. A familiar example is Kobe, the 

open port in the Inland Sea. Kobe is for Kami-be, and meant originally the 

group of peasants allotted to the service of a Deity (of Ikuta?), and hence 

the village where they lived. A good number of Japanese surnames contain 

the same termination. 

O-bito is a title of nobility, perhaps for Oho-bito, great man. It is 
represented by a Chinese character which means head or chief. 

* The Sakaki or Cleyera Japonica, is the sacred tree of the Shinto 
religion. It is used in Shinto relijjious ceremonies at the present day. 

■ Mt. Kagu is the name of a mountain in Yamato. It is here supposed to 
have a counterpart in Heaven. 

' In Japanese yata-kagami, which is literally ''eight-hand mirror.*' The 

44 NiHONGI. 

One writing says Ma-futsu no Kagami. 

On its lower branches they hung blue soft offerings and white 
soft offerings.^ Then they recited their liturgy together. 

Moreover Ama no Uzume' no Mikoto, ancestress of the 
I. 40- Sarume' no Kimi, took in her hand a spear wreathed with 
Eulalia grass, and standing before the door of the Rock-cave 
of Heaven, skilfully perfprmed a mimic dance/ She took, 
moreover, the true Sakaki tree of the Heavenly Mount Kagu, 
and made of it a head-dress, she took club-moss and made of 
it braces,* she kindled fires,' she placed a tub bottom upwards,' 
and gave forth a divinely-inspired utterance.' 

8 / 

word ta (for te, hand) may here be a measure of length, an explanation which 
is favoured by the Chinese character used for it in the " Nihongi/' The 
hand is a hand's length, not a hand's breadth, as with us. The yata-kagami 
would therefore be " a mirror of large size." 

There are ancient mirrors in Japan with a number of suzu or bells project- 
ing round them, or of an octagonal shape, and I am disposed to think that 
the epithet yata has reference to this peculiarity, the comers or projections 
being taken for handles. Compare the analogous word Yatagarasu (Index). 

It is said to be this mirror which is worshipped at Ise as an emblem of 
the Sun-Goddess. See Satow's "Handbook," second edit,, p. 176. 

^ The blue were of hempen cloth, and the white of the paper-mulberry 
cloth. By blue probably the colour of undyed hempen stuff is meant. The 
Japanese word awo, blue, is used very loosely. Some take soft in the 
metaphorical sense of " propitiatory'." These offerings are the originals of 
the Gohei, or strips of paper wreathed round a wand, which are now seen set 
up in every Shinto shrine. 

^ Terrible female of Heaven. ' Monkey-female. 

^ This is said to be the origin of the Kagura or pantomimic dance now 
performed at Shinto festivals. 

* The braces or shoulder straps were to support a tray for carrying things, 
and so assist the arms. The Japanese word is tasuki, which nieans 

* A prototype of the nihabi (courtyard fires) of later Shinto worship. 

" The "Nihongi" strangely omits to say that, as we learn from the 
" Kojiki," she danced on this and made it give out a sound. 

* In Hirata's version of the ancient mythical narrative, he introduces here 
an incantation said in the " Kiujiki " to have been taught by the Sun-Goddess 
to Ninigi no Mikoto, but stated in the ** Ko-go-jiui" to have come down 
originally from Uzume no Mikoto. It consists of the syllables Hito-futa- 
mi-yo-itsu-mu-nana-ya-kokono-tari, which Hirata has tried hard to extract 
some meaning out of. Hito, he says, is man, futa, the lid, i.e. the door of 
the rock-cave, miyo is the imperative of miru, to see, this phrase meaning 
" Look I ye Gods at the door I " and so on. That these words are now 

The Age of the Gods. 45 

Now Ama-terasu no Oho-kami heard this, and said : — " Since 
^ have shut myself up in the Rock-cave, there ought surely to 
te continual night in the Central Land of fertile reed-plains. 
How then can Ama no Uzume no Mikoto be so jolly ? " So 
'^th her august hand, she opened for a narrow space the Rock- 
door and peeped out. Then Ta-jikara-wo no Kami forthwith 
^ook Ama-terasu no Oho-kami by the hand, and led her out. 
Upon this the Gods Nakatomi no Kami and Imibe no Kami * 
3t once drew a limit by means of a bottom-tied rope ' (also I. 41 
^<^d a left-hand rope) and begged her not to return again (into 
the cave). 

After this all the Gods put the blame on Sosa no wo no 
Mikoto, and imposed on him a fine of one thousand tables,' 
and so at length chastised him. They also had his hair 
pluclced out, and made him therewith expiate his guilt. 

Another version is : — They made him expiate it by 
plucking out the nails of his hands and feet. 
^"^^en this was done, they at last banished him downwards. 
In one writing it is said : — " After this Waka-hiru-me* no 
Mikoto was in the sacred weaving-hall, weaving the 
garments of the Deities. Sosa no wo no Mikoto saw this, 
and forthwith flaying a piebald colt with a backward 
flaying, flung it into the interior of the hall. Then Waka- 
hiru-me no Mikoto was startled, and fell down from the 
loom, wounding herself with the shuttle which she held in 
lier hand, and divinely departed.* Therefore Ama-terasu 
no Oho-kami spoke to Sosa no wo no Mikoto and said : — 
* Thou hast still evil intentions.* I do not wish to see thee 
fece to fece.' So she entered the Rock-cave of Heaven and 

siin|>l^ the numerals from one to ten cannot be denied, but this, he argues, 
*5 a. later application. The " Kojiki" gives other details of the conduct of 
tills CJoddess which the " Nihongi" draws a veil over. 

-■^'hese Gods' names were properly Koyane no Mikoto and Futo-dama no 
^^■^^^to {see above), but here the names of their human descendants arc 

Shiri-kume-naha, now called shime-naha, a rope made of straw of 
'which has been pulled up by the roots. See Ch. K., p. 59. 
^y tables are meant tables of offerings, as in the illustrations. 
^oiing-Sun-female, a younger sister of the Sun-Goddess. 
^•C died. ' Lit. a black heart. 

46 NiHONGI. 

shut the Rock-door. Hereupon all under Heaven was in 

continual darkness, and there was no difference- of day and 

night. Therefore the eighty myriads of Gods met in the 

■ High-market-place of Heaven and made inquiry. Now 


there was Omohi-kane no Kami, son of Taka-mi-musubi 
no Mikoto, who had a talent for devising plans. He 
accordingly considered the matter, and spoke, saying, * Let 
there be made an image of this Goddess, and let prayer 

The Age of the Gods. 47 

be addressed to it.' They therefore proceeded to appoint 
Ishi-kori-dome/ as artisan, who, taking copper of the • 
Mt. Kagu of Heaven, made therefrom a Sun-spear. 
Moreover, he stripped off in one piece the hide of a true 
stag, and made of it Heavenly bellows. The Goddess 
which he fashioned by this means is the Goddess Hi no 
mahe no Kami, who dwells in the province. of KiiV 

In one writing it is said : — " The august Sun Goddess 
took an enclosed rice-field and made it her Imperial rice- 
field. Now Sosa no wo no Mikoto, in spring, filled up the 
channels and broke down the divisions, and in autumn, 
when the grain was formed, he forthwith stretched round 
them division ropes.' Again when the Sun-Goddess was in 
her Weaving-Hall, he flayed alive a piebald colt and flung 
it into the Hall. In all these various matters his conduct 
was rude in the highest degree. Nevertheless, the Sun- ' 
Goddess, out of her friendship for him, was not indignant or 
resentful, but took everything calmly and with forbearance. I. 43. 

When the time came for the Sun-Goddess to celebrate 
the feast of first-fruits, Sosa no wo no Mikoto secretly 
voided excrement under her august seat in the New 
Palace.' The Sun-Goddess, not knowing this, went 
straight there and took her seat. Accordingly the Sun- 
Goddess drew herself up, and was sickened. She therefore 
was enraged, and straightway took up her abode in the 
Rock-cave of Heaven, and fastened its Rock-door. 

Then all the Gods were grieved at this, and forthwith 
caused Ama no nuka-do no Kami, the ancestor of the Be 
of mirror-makers, to make a mirror, Futo-dama, the 
ancestor of the Imibe, to make offerings,* and Toyo-tama,' 
the ancestor of the Be of jewel-makers, to make jewels. They 
also caused Yama-tsuchi* to procure eighty precious 
combs of the five-hundred-branched true sakaki tree, and 
Nu-dzuchi ^ to procure eighty precious combs of the five- 
hundred-branched Suzuki grass. When all these various 

* The meaning is doubtful, as also whether this Deity is a God or a 

* i.e. ropes drawn along the divisions of the rice-fields in token of owner- 
ship. ^ See above, p. 41. 

* Of cloth. * Rich-jewel. • Mountain-god. ^ Moor-god, 

48 NiHONGI. 

objects were collected, Ama no Koyane no Mikoto, the 
I. 44. ancestor of the Nakatomi, recited a liturgy in honour of 

the Deity. Then the Sun-Goddess opened the Rock-door 
and came out. At this time, when the mirror was put into 
the Rock-cave, it struck against the door and received a 
slight flaw, which remains until this day. This is the 
great Deity worshipped at Ise. After this Sosa no wo no 
Mikoto was convicted, and fined in the articles required 
for the ceremony of purification. Hereupon these were the 
things abhorrent of luck of the tips of his fingers, and the 
things abhorrent of calamity of the tips of his toes.* Again, 
of his spittle he made white soft offerings, and of his nose- 
mucus he made blue soft offerings, with which the purifica- 
tion service was performed. Finally he was banished 
according to the law of Divine banishment.'* 
!• 4S« In one writing it is said : — " After this the Sun-Goddess 

had three rice-fields, which were called the Easy' Rice- 
field of Heaven, the Level Rice-field of Heaven, and the 
Village-join ' Rice-field of Heaven. All these were good 
rice-fields, and never suffered even after continuous rain or 
drought. Now Sosa no wo no Mikoto had also three 
rice-fields, which were called the Pile-field of Heaven,* 
the River-border' Field of Heaven, and the Mouth- 
Sharp* Field of Heaven. All these were barren places. 
In the rains, the soil was swept away, and in droughts 
it was parched up. Therefore, Sosa no wo no Mikoto 
was jealous and destroyed his elder sister's rice-fields. In 
spring, he knocked away the pipes and troughs, filled up 
the channels and broke down the divisions. He also 
sowed seed over again. In autumn, he set up combs,' and 

* No very satisfactory explanation is given by the commentators of this 
sentence. Hirata understands the things abhorrent of luck, etc., to be 
things required for the purification service. 

2 Easy to cultivate, says the ** Shukai " editor. 

' Mura-ahase, a term of doubtful meaning. Motowori suggests that for 
ahase we should read yori. The meaning then would be rice- fields adjoin- 
ing the village. Accommodation land, as we should say. 

* Obstructed with stumps of wood. 

' Exposed to inundation. ^ Exposed to drought ? 

7 The " Shiki " explains that combs were stuck up in the rice-fields with 

r ■\ 

The Age of the Gods. 49 

made horses lie down in the rice-fields. Notwithstanding 
all these wicked doings, which went on incessantly, the 
Sun-Goddess was not indignant, but treated him always 
with calmness and forbearance, etc., etc. 

When the Sun-Goddess came to shut herself up in the I- 4^ 
Rock-cave of Heaven, all the Gods sent the child of Kogoto 
!Musubi, Ama no Koyane no Mikoto, the ancestor of the 
JIakatomi no Muraji, and made him recite a liturgy. 
Hereupon Ama no Koyane no Mikoto rooted up a true 
Sakaki tree of the Heavenly Mount Kagu and hung upon 
its upper branches a mirror of eight hands, made by the 
ancestor of the mirror-makers, Ono-kori-dome, a child of 
Ama no Nukado ; on the middle branches he hung curved * 
jewels of Yasaka gem made by the ancestor of the jewel- 
makers, Ama no Akaru-dama, a child of Izanagi no Mikoto. 
On the lower branches he hung tree-fibre" made by Ama- , 
no Hi-washi, the ancestor of the Imbe of the province of ^1 
Aha. Futo-dama no Mikoto, ancestor of the Imbe no 
Obito, was thereupon made to take these things in his 
hand, and, with lavish and earnest words of praise, to recite 
a liturgy. 

When the Sun-Goddess heard this, she said : — ' Though 
of late many prayers have been addressed to me, of none 
has the language been so beautiful as this.' So she opened 
a little the Rock-door and peeped out. Thereupon the God 
Ama no Tajikara-wo no Kami, who was waiting beside the 
Rock-door, forthwith pulled it open, and the radiance of 
the Sun-Goddess filled the universe. Therefore all the 
Gods rejoiced greatly, and imposed on Sosa no wo no 
Mikoto a fine of a thousand tables of (articles of) purifica- I. 47 
tion.* Of the nails of his hands they made things abhorrent 

words of incantation, so that if anyone wrongly claimed the fields he might 
be destroyed. "The present custom of setting up combs in rice-fields whose 
o^Tiership is disputed arose perhaps from this." 

* The curved jewels are the well-known maga-tama, numbers of which have 
been preser\ed. They are made of chalcedony, jasper, nephrite, chrysophrase^ 
serpentine, steatite, crystal, etc. Some of these materials are not found in 

' Made of the bark of the paper-mulberry. 

* The word haraki or harahe not only means purification, but an in- 


50 NiHONGI. 

of luck, and of the nails of his feet they made things abhor- 
rent of calamity. Then they caused Ama no Koyane no 
Mikoto to take charge of his Great Purification Liturgy, 
and made him recite it. This is the reason why the people 
of the world are careful in the disposal of their own nails.^ 

After this, all the Gods upbraided Sosa no wo no Mikoto, 
saying : — * Thy conduct has been in the highest degree 
improper. Thou must, therefore, not dwell in Heaven. 
Nor must thou dwell in the Central Reed-Plain Land. 
Thou must go speedily to the Bottom Nether Land.' * So 
together they drove him away downwards. Now this was 
at the time of continuous rains. Sosa no wo no Mikoto 
bound together green grass, and made of it a broad hat and 
rain-coat, and in this garb asked a lodging of the assembled 
Gods. They said ; — * Thy behaviour has been filthy and 
wicked, and therefore thou hast been banished. How 
canst thou ask of us a lodging ? ' In the end they unani- 
mously repulsed him. Therefore, although the wind and 
rain were very violent, he was unable to find a resting- 
place, and went downwards, suffering bitterly. Ever since 
that time all the world has avoided entering the house of 
another wearing a broad hat and a grass rain-coat, or 
bearing a bundle of grass on the back. For a breach of 
!• 4^. these, rules an expiatory fine is certainly imposed. This is 

an institution which has come down to us from remote 

After this, Sosa no wo no Mikoto said : — * All the Gods 
have banished me, and I am now about to depart for ever. 
Why should I not see my elder sister face to face ; and 
why take it on me of my own accord to depart without more 
ado ? ' So he again ascended to Heaven, disturbing Heaven 
and disturbing Earth. Now Ame no Uzume, seeing this, 
reported it to the Sun-Goddess. The Sun-Goddess said : — 
* My younger brother has no good purpose in up. 

demnity or " damages " paid by an offender. ** Expiatory fine " would, 
perhaps, be a good rendering here. See Index — Purgation. 

* Referring to a superstition, not confined to Japan, as to cutting the nails 
on particular days and burying the parings. 

• Yomi, or Hades. 

The Age of the Gods. 51 

It is surely because he wishes to rob me of my kingdom. 
Though I am a woman, why should I shrink ? ' So she 
arrayed herself in martial garb, etc., etc. 

Thereupon Sosa no wo no Mikoto swore to her, and 
said : — * If I have come up again cherishing evil feelings, 
the children which I shall now produce by chewing jewels 
wll certainly be females, and in that case they must be 
sent down to the Central Land of Reed-Plains. But if my 
intentions are pure, then I shall produce male children, 
aind in that case they must be made to rule the Heavens. 
The same oath will also hold good as to the children pro- 
duced by my elder sister.' In this way the Sun-Goddess 
first of all chewed her ten-span sword, etc., etc. 

Sosa no wo no Mikoto straightway unwound, coil after 
coil, the complete string of five hundred jewels entwined in 
the right knot of his hair. The jewels chinked as he rinsed 
them on the surface of the true well of Heaven. Then he 
chewed their ends, and laid them on his left palm, thus 
producing a child, who was called Masa-ya-a-katsu-katsu- 
haya-hi-ama-no-oshi-ho-ne no Mikoto. After this he 
chewed the left jewels, and placing them on his right palm, 
produced a child, who was called Ama-no-ho-hi no Mikoto. 
He is the ancestor of the Idzumo no Omi, of the Musashi 
no Miyakko,* and of the Hashi no Muraji. There was next 
produced Ama tsu hikone no Mikoto, the ancestor of the I. 49- 
Mubaraki' no Miyakko and of the Nukada Be no Muraji. 
Next was produced Iku-me tsu hikone no Mikoto, and 
next Kumano no Oho-sumi no Mikoto — in all six male 
Deities. Then Sosa no w^o no Mikoto spoke to the Sun- 
Goddess, and said : — * The reason why I came up a second 
time was that, having been condemned by the assembled 
Gods to banishment to the Nether Land, and being about 
to take my departure thither, I could never bear to become 
separated from my elder sister without having seen her 
face to face. Therefore it is truly with a pure heart, and 
not otherwise, that I came up again. Now that our inter- 
view is over, I must return hence for ever to the Nether 

. Or Miya-tsu-ko, originally provincial governors, afterwards hereditary 
^^V nobles. ^ In Hitachi. 

£ 2 

52 NiHONGI. 

Land, in obedience to the Divine behest of the assembled 
Deities. I pray that my elder sister may illuminate the 
Land of Heaven, and that it may spontaneously enjoy tran- 
quillity. Moreover, I deliver to my elder sister the children 
which, with a pure heart, I have produced.' Having done 
so, he returned downwards.*' 
Then Sosa no wo no Mikoto descended from Heaven and 
proceeded to'the head-waters of the River Hi, in the province 
!• so- of Idzumo. At this time he heard a sound of weeping at the 
head-waters of the river, and he therefore went in search of the 
sound. He found there an old man and an old woman. 
Between them was set a young girl, whom they were caressing 
and lamenting over. Sosa no wo no Mikoto asked them, 
saying : — " Who are ye, and why do ye lament thus ? " The 
answer was : — " I am an Earthly Deity, and my name is Ashi- 
nadzuchi.* My wife's name is Te-nadzuchi.' This girl is 
our daughter, and her name is Kushi-nada-hime.' The reason 
of our weeping is that formerly we had eight children, 
daughters. But they have been devoured year after year by an 
eight ^-forked serpent, and now the time approaches for this 
girl to be devoured. There is no means of escape for her, and 
I 51- therefore do we grieve." Sosa no wo no Mikoto said : — " If 
that is so, wilt thou give me thy daughter ? " He replied, and 
said : — " I will comply with thy behest and give her to thee." 
Therefore Sosa no wo no Mikoto on the spot changed Kushi- 
nada-hime into a many-toothed close-comb, which he stuck in 
the august knot of his hair. Then he made Ashi-nadzuchi and 
Te-nadzuchi to brew eight-fold sake, to make eight cupboards, 
in each of them to set a tub filled with sake,* and so to 

* Foot- stroke-elder. 

- Hand-stroke-elder. These names refer to the caressing of the young 
girl by her parents. 

' Kushi-nada-hime. Wondrous Inada-princess. 

^ Eight — in Japanese yatsu. This word is here used as a numeral. But 
in many places in the old Japanese literature it must be taken in what I 
regard as its primary sense of " many," " several," as in the word yatagarasu 
— the many-handed crow — which had really only three claws. In Corean 
the word yoro, which means many, is, I think, the same root that we have in 
yol, ten — words which are probably identical with the Japanese yatsu. The 
Japanese word yorodzu, myriad, belongs to the same group. 

* Sake is an intoxicating liquor brewed from rice. 

The Age of the Gods. 53 

await its coming. When the time came, the serpent actually 

appeared. It had an eight-forked head and an eight-forked 

tail; its eyes were red, like the winter-cherry ; ^ and on its back 

firs and cypresses were growing. As it crawled it extended 

over a space of eight hills and eight valleys. Now when it 

came and found the sake, each head drank up one tub, and it 

became drunken and fell asleep. Then Sosa no wo no Mikoto 

drew the ten-span sword which hb wore, and chopped the 

serpent into small pieces. When he came to the tail, the edge 

of his sword was slightly notched, and he therefore split open 

the tail and examined it. In the inside there was a sword* ^« S^- 

This is the sword which is called Kusa-nagi no tsurugi." 

In one writing it is said : — ** Its original name was Ama 
no Mura-kumo no tsurugi.'" 
[Zt perhaps received this name from the clouds constantly gather- 
ing' over the place where the serpent was. In the time of the 
l^i^Perial Prince Yamato-dake its name was changed to Kusa-nagi 
no tsurugi,'] 

Sosa no wo no Mikoto said : — " This is a divine sword. How 
can I presume to appropriate it to myself? " So he gave it up 
to the Gods of Heaven.* 

After this he went in search of a place where he might cele- 
brate his marriage, and at length came to Suga, in the province 
of Idzumo. Then he spoke, and said : — *' My heart is 
refreshed." Therefore that place is now called Suga.' There 
^^ built a palace. 

One version says: — ** Now Take® Sosa no wo no 
Mikoto composed a verse of poetry, saying : — 

Many clouds arise, !• 53' 

On all sides a manifold fence, 
To receive within it the spouses, 


J. "•Virata thinks that the akakagachi, here translated, on the authority of 
Original Conunentary," by " red winter-cherry," was really a kind of 

, ^iTie grass-mower. See Index — Kusa-nagi. 
^ ^Tie sword of the gathering clouds of Heaven. 

. >^^^^ ^s hardly necessary to point out the resemblance of this story to that 
^^^rseus and Andromeda, and many others. 

^uga means pure, fresh. * Fierce. 

54 NiHONGI. 

They form a manifold fence — 
Ah ! that manifold fence ' " * 

Thereupon they had intercourse together/ and a child was 
born named Oho-na-muchi ' no Kami. 

He (Sosa no wo) accordingly spake, and said : — " The 
masters of my son's Palace* are Ashi-nadzuchi and Te- 

* In the original — 

Ya-kumo tatsu 

Idzu-mo ya-he-gaki : 

Tsuma-gome ni 

Ya-he-gaki tsukuru — 

Sono ya-he-gaki wo ! 
This poem is also given in the " Kojiki " (Ch. K., p. 64), with the slight variant 
of tsuma-gomi for tsmna-gome in the third line, which makes it intransitive 
instead of transitive. Idzumo is written with two characters which mean 
" issuing clouds," as if it were idzuru kumo. The poem no doubt alludes to 
this meaning and also to the name of the province, but it seems probable 
that the primary signification of idzumo here is that given in the translation. 
The true derivation of Idzumo, as the name of the province, is probably 
idzu, sacred, and mo, quarter. Idzu-mo is for idzure-mo, as so-mo is for 
sore-mo. It has the same meaning, I think, in a poem given below (" Reign 
of Kenzo," xv. 1 1 ). 

This verse of poetry is undoubtedly old, but the regularity of the metre 
which is a tanka (short poetry) of thirty-one syllables, and its allusive 
character, point to a somewhat later date than many of the other poems 
contained in the " Nihongi." The fact that it is here relegated to a note is 
some corroboration of this view. 

The poems in this work are translated so that a line of the English 
version corresponds to a line of Japanese, but it has not always been 
possible to preserve the original order of the lines. 

- The interlinear version has kumi-do ni mito no makuai shite. Kumi- 
do is no doubt the special nuptial hut above referred to. Mito is " august- 
place " according to Hirata, and is another word for the kumi-do. This 
phrase, which is taken from the " Kojiki, ' probably denotes legitimate nuptial, 
as opposed to casual intercourse. But the Chinese original has nothing of 
the sort. 

It has been already observed that the erection of a special building for 
the consummation of the marriage had a ceremonial as well as a practical 

^ Or Oho-na-muji, or Oho-na-mochi, Great-name-possessor. This Deity, 
one of the most prominent of the Japanese Pantheon, has numerous names 
(Hirata mentions seven). The derivation is not quite clear. See Ch. K., 
p. 67. 

* The same word (miya) means also shrine. 

The Age of the Gods. 55 

nadzuchi. I therefore grant to these two Deities the designa- 
tion of Inada no Miya-nushi* no Kami.'* 

Having done so, Sosa no wo no Mikoto at length proceeded 
to the Nether Land. 

In one writing it is said : — " Sosa no wo no Mikoto, 
having descended from Heaven, came to the head-waters 
of the river Hi, in Idzumo. There he saw Inada-hime, the 
daughter of Susa no yatsu-mimi,' Master of the Shrine of 
Inada. He had connubial relations with her, and a child 
was born, styled Suga no yu-yama-nushi ' Mitsu-na-saro- 
hiko-yama-shino." * 

One version has Suga no Kake-na Saka-karu-hiko-ya- 
shima * no Mikoto. 

Another has : — " Suga no yu-yama-nusni Mitsu-na-saro- 
hiko ya-shima-no.* The descendant of this God in the 
fifth generation was Oho-kuni-nushi no Kami." ^ 

In one writing it is said : — " At this time Sosa no wo no ^- 54- 

Mikoto went down and came to the head-waters of the 

Hiver Ye, in the province of Aki. There was there a God 

>vhose name was Ashi-nadzu-te-nadzu.* His wife's name 

^as Inada no Miya-nushi Susa no yatsu-mimi. This 

Deity was just then pregnant, and the husband and wife 

sorrowed together. So they informed Sosa no wo no 

Mikoto, saying:— 'Though we have had born to us many 

children, whenever one is born, an eight-forked serpent 

comes and devours it, and we have not been able to save 

one. We are now about to have another, and we fear that 

it also will be devoured. Therefore do we grieve.^ Sosa 

no wo no Mikoto forthwith instructed them, saying : — * You 

Shrine ") ,, ^ 
Palace ) ^^^^^^^- 

Susa, name of place ; yatsu, eight or many ; mi, august ; mi, body or 
* ^tract termination. 

Master of the hot-spring mountain of Suga. 
Three name-monkey (?) prince-mountain-bamboo-grass. 
* Suga-of-attach-name-pass-light-prince-eight-island. 
' Eight-island-moor. 

■ Great-country-master-god. Identified by Hirata with Oho-na-muji, 
^Isowith one of the Shichi-fuku-jin, or Seven Gods of Happiness, named Dai- 
" Foot-stroke-hand-stroke. 

56 NiHONGI. 

must take fruit of all kinds, and brew from it eight jars 
of sake, and I will kill the serpent for you.' The two 
Gods, in accordance with his instructions, prepared sake. 
When the time came for the child to be born, the serpent 
came indeed to the door, and was about to devour the 
child. But Sosa no wo no Mikoto addressed the serpent, 
and said : — * Thou art an Awful Deity. Can I dare to 
neglect to feast thee ? * So he took the eight jars of sake, 
and poured one into each of its mouths. The serpent 
drank it up and fell asleep. Sosa no wo no Mikoto drew 
his sword and slew it. When he came to sever its tail, 
the edge of his sword was slightly notched. He split the 
tail open and examined it, when he found that inside it 
there was a sword. This sword is called Kusa-nagi no 
tsurugi. It is now in the village of Ayuchi, in the province 
I- 55- ^^ Ohari. It is this Deity which is in the charge of the 

Hafuri * of Atsuta. The sword which slew the serpent is 
called Worochi no Ara-masa.' It is now at Isonokami.' 

Afterwards the child who was born of Inada no Miya- 
nushi Susa no yatsu-mimi, namely Ina-gami Furu-kushi- 
nada-hime,* was removed to the upper waters of the river 
Hi, in the province of Idzumo, and brought up there. 
After this Sosa no wo no Mikoto made her his consort, 
and had by her a child, whose descendant in the sixth 
generation was Oho-na-muchi no Mikoto.'* 

In one writing it is said : — " Sosa no wo no Mikoto 
wished to favour' Kushi-nada-hime, and asked her of 
Ashinadzuchi and Tenadzuchi,* who replied, saying: — 
* We pray thee first to slay the serpent, and thereafter it 
will be good that thou shouldst favour her. This serpent 
has rock-firs growing on each of its heads; on each of 
its sides there is a mountain ; it is a very fearful beast. 
How wilt thou set about to slay it ? ' Sosa no wo no 
Mikoto thereupon devised a plan. He brewed a poisonous 

* Shinto priests. Atsuta is near Nagoya. 

* Worochi means serpent ; ara, rough ; masa, true. * In Bizen. 

* True-hair-touch- wondrous- 1 nada-princess. 

* I.e. to take to wife. 

* Note that the mother as well as the father was consulted. 


The Age of the Gods. 57 

sake, which he gave it to drink. The serpent became 

drunk, and fell asleep. Sosa no wo no Mikoto forthwith 

tcx)k his sword, called Worochi no Kara-sabi,* and severed ^» 5^. 

its head and severed its belly. When he severed its tail, 

the edge of the sword was slightly notched, so he split the 

tail open and made examination. He found there another 

sword, which he called Kusa-nagi no Tsurugi. This 

sword was formerly with Sosa no wo no Mikoto. It is 

now in the province of Ohari. The sword with which 

Sosa no wo no Mikoto slew the serpent is now with the 

Kambe ' of Kibi. The place where the serpent was slain 

is the mountain at the upper waters of the river Hi in 


In one writing it is said : — " Sosa no wo no Mikoto's 
behaviour was unmannerly. A fine was therefore imposed 
on him by all the Gods of a thousand tables, and he was 
driven into banishment. At this time, Sosa no wo no 
Mikoto, accompanied by his son Iso-takeru^ no Kami, 
descended to the Land of Silla,* where he dwelt at Soshi- 
mori.' There he lifted up his voice and said : — * I will 
not dwell in this land.' He at length took clay and made 
of it a boat, in which he embarked, and crossed over east- 
wards until he arrived at Mount Tori-kamu no Take, which 
is by the upper waters of the river Hi in Idzumo. Now 
there was in this place a serpent which devoured men. 
Sosa no wo no Mikoto accordingly took his sword, called 
Ama no Haye-kiri,* and slew this serpent. Now when he ^* 57- 

Serpent's Kara-blade. Kara is that part of the present province 

^yong-syang-do in Corea which lies S.W. of the Naktong River. 

^^"^ the word is used loosely for all Corea, and in modern times even for 

^■^i^a. See Early Japanese History in " J.A.S.T.," Vol. XVI. Pt. I., p. 43. 

* '^'as called Mimana by the Japanese. 

The Kambe or Kami-be were the group of peasants charged with the 
^^^ofa Shint5 shrine. 
^ Fifty-courageous. 

* The eastern of the three kingdoms into which Corea was fonnerly 

* This is the traditional Kana pronunciation. It is not clear whether this 
IS the name of a person or a place. Mori may be the Corean moi, mountain. 

* Fly-cutter. 

58 NiHONGI. 

cut the serpent's tail, the edge of his sword was notched. 
Thereupon he split open the tail, and on examination, 
found within it a divine sword. Sosa no wo no Mikoto 
said : — ' I must not take this for my private use.' So he 
sent Ama no Fuki-ne no Kami, his descendant in the fifth 
generation, to deliver it up to Heaven. This is the sword 
now called Kusa-nagi. 

Before this, when Iso-takeru no Kami descended from 
Heaven, he took down with him the seeds of trees in great 
quantity. However, he did not plant them in the land of 
Han,* but brought them all back again, and finally sowed 
them every one throughout the Great Eight-island-country, 
beginning with Tsukushi. Thus green mountains were 
produced. For this reason Iso-takeru no Mikoto was 
styled Isaoshi no Kami." He is the Great Deity who 
dwells in the Land of Kii." ' 

In one writing it is stated : — " Sosa no wo no Mikoto 
said : — * In the region * of the Land of Han there is gold 
and silver. It will not be well if the country ruled by my 
son should not possess floating riches. So he plucked out 
his beard and scattered it. Thereupon Cryptomerias were 
1. 58. produced. Moreover, he plucked out the hairs of his 

breast, which became Thuyas.' The hairs of his buttocks 
became Podocarpi.* The hairs of his eye-brows became 
Camphor-trees. Having done so, he determined their 
uses. These two trees, viz. the Cryptomeria and the 
Camphor-tree, were to be made into floating riches ; ^ the 
Thuya was ' to be used as timber for building fair palaces ; ^ 
the Podocarpus was to form receptacles in which the 
visible race of man was to be laid in secluded burial-places. 
For their food he well sowed and made to grow all the 
eighty kinds of fruit. 

Now the children of Sosa no wo no Mikoto were named 
Iso-takeru no Mikoto, with Oho-ya** tsu hime, his younger 

^ Corea. ' The meritorious God. ' Kii or Ki means tree. 

* Shima usually means island, but in this and other places must be 
rendered " region." 

^ A kind of pine. ^ Maki, a kind of pine. 

^ Ships. '^ Or Shinto shrines. * Great-house. 

The Age of the Gods. 59 

sister, and next Tsuma'-tsu-hime no Mikoto. All these 
three Deities also dispersed well the seeds of trees, and 
forthwith crossed over to the Land of Kit. 

Thereafter Sosa no wo no Mikoto dwelt on the Peak of i. 59. 
Kuma-nari,' and eventually entered the Nether Land." 

In one writing it is said : — " Oho-kuni-nushi ' no Kami 
is also called Oho-mono-nushi no Kami,* or else Kuni- 
dzukuri Oho-na-mochi' no Mikoto, or again Ashi-hara 
no Shiko-wo,* or Ya-chi-hoko^ no Kami, or Oho-kuni- 
dama* no Kami, or Utsushi-kuni-dama • no Kami. His 
children were in all one hundred and eighty-one Deities. 

Now Oho-na-mochi no Mikoto and Sukuna-bikona no 
Mikoto, with united strength and one heart, constructed 
this sub-celestial world. Then, for the sake of the visible 
race of man as well as for beasts, they determined the 
method of healing diseases. They also, in order to do 
away with the calamities of birds, beasts, and creeping 
things, established means for their prevention and control.*® 


Written with a Chinese character which means nail or hoof. 
' Probably Mount Kumano in Idzumo. It adjoins the Suga mentioned 
^*>ove as the residence of Sosa no wo. See Index — Kuma-nari. 

* Great-country-master. * Great-thing-master. 

* Country-make great-name-possessor. 

' The ugly male of the reed- plain. ^ Eight thousand spears. 

' Great-country-jewel. ^ Apparent-country-jewel. 

"* Calamities (wazahahi) are defined by Hirata as injuries which come 
^0 us from the unseen world. 

By beasts wild beasts are meant. In addition to the real injuries caused 
by them, we must remember that in Japan all manner of imaginary effects 
arc attributed to the enchantments of foxes and badgers. 

One of the Norito (rituals) mentions calamities of birds flying in by the 
smoke-hole in the roof — perhaps because their droppings polluted the 
food which was being cooked. 

The term hafu mushi (creeping things) includes both insects and reptiles. 
The stings of wasps, centipedes, and vipers are doubtless meant. The 
ancient Japanese houses, slight structures often built in pits, would be 
especially obnoxious to such calamities. Possibly also the injury to the 
crops and to domestic animals by insects and snakes may be referred to. 
it should be remembered, too, that the Japanese suppose many ailments, 
such as toothache and children's convulsions, to be owing to mushi, and 
these are no doubt to be included in the hafu mushi no wazahahi. Hirata 
remarks that it is the opinion of the men of the Western Ocean that by 



60 NiHONGI. 

The people enjoy the protection of these universally until 
the present day. 

Before this Oho-na-mochi no Mikoto spake to Sukuna- 
bikona no Mikoto, and said : — * May we not say that the 
country which we have made is well made ? ' Sukuna- 
bikona no Mikoto answered and said : — ' In some parts it 
is complete and in others it is incomplete.' This 
conversation had doubtless a mysterious purport. 
I. 60. Thereafter Sukuna-bikona no Mikoto went to Cape 

Kumano/ and eventually proceeded to the Everlasting 

^ Another version is that he went to the island of Aha, 
where he climbed up a millet-stalk, and was thereupon 
jerked off, and went to the Everlasting Land. 

After this, wherever there was in the land a part which 
was imperfect, Oho-na-mochi no Kami visited it by him- 
self, and succeeded in repairing it. Coming at last to the 
province of Idzumo, he spake, and said : — * This Central 
Land of Reed-plains had been always waste and wild. 
The very rocks, trees and herbs were all given to violence. 
But I have now reduced them to submission, and there is 
none that is not compliant.' Therefore he said finally: — ^ 
* It is I, and I alone, who now govern this Land. Is 

examining ringworm (called in Japanese ta-mushi, i.e. rice-field insect), 
itch and other diseases under a microscope, it would appear that they are 
due to the presence of exceedingly small insects. It would also appear, 
he says, from a work recently published, that the human body is full of such 

The words " prevention and control " are rendered in the interlinear 
kana by Majinahi, i.e. witchcraft, including incantations, etc. Possibly 
the author had in mind the Oho-harahi, which deprecates " calamities of 
creeping things " and of " high birds." Here is a modem majinahi 
directed against hafu mushi. If you wish to keep your house free from 
ants, all you have to do is to put up a notice at the place where they 
come in, " Admittance, one cash each person." The economical ant goes 
no further. 

Yamada in his dictionary' defines majinahi as ** the keeping off of 
calamity by the aid of the supernatural power of Gods and Buddhas." 

' In Idzumo. 

2 Toko-yo no kuni. The Japanese scholar Arawi identifies this with 
a province in the East of Japan, now called Hitachi. 

The Age of the Gods. 6i 

there perchance any one who could join with me in 
governing the world ? ' Upon this a Divine radiance 
illuminated the sea, and of a sudden there was something 
which floated towards him and said : — ' Were I not here, 
how couldst thou subdue this Land ? It is because I am 
here that thou hast been enabled to accomplish this 
mighty undertaking.' Then Oho-na-mochi no Kami 
inquired, saying : — * Then who art thou ? ' It replied and 
said : — ' I am thy guardian spirit, the wondrous spirit.' I. 6i. 
Then said Oho-na-mochi no Kami : — * True, I know there- 
fore that thou art my guardian spirit, the wondrous spirit. 
Where dost thou now wish to dwell ? ' The spirit 
answered and said : — ' I wish to dwell on Mount Mimoro, 
in the province of Yamato.' Accordingly he built a 
shrine in that place and made the spirit to go and dwell 
there. This is the God of Oho-miwa. 

The children of this Deity were the Kimi of Kamo 
and of Oho-miwa,* and also Hime-tatara ' I-suzu-hime no I. 62. 

Another version is that Koto-shiro-nushi no Kami, having 
become transformed into an eight-fathom bear-sea-monster,* 

' Descendants are here meant. Kimi is simply Lord. 

* Tatara is said to be the name of a plant. Isuzu (fifty bells) is the 
^ame of the site of the Inner Shrine at Ise. 

' Sea-monster is in Japanese vvani. It is written with a Chinese 
character which means, properly, crocodile, but that meaning is inadmis- 
sible in these old legends, as the Japanese who originated them can have 
known nothing of this animal. The wani, too, inhabits the sea and not 
rivers, and is plainly a mythical creature. 

Satow and Anderson have noted that the wani is usually represented 
in art as a dragon, and Toyo-tama-hime (see Index), who in one version 
of the legend changes into a wani, as her true form, at the moment of 
child-birth, according to another changes into a dragon. Now Toyo- 
tama-hime was the daughter of the God of the Sea. This suggests that 
the latter is one of the Dragon- Kings familiar to Chinese (see Mayers' 
Manual, p. 142) and Corean fable who inhabit splendid palaces at the 
bottom of the sea. It is unnecessary here to follow the Dragon- Kings 
into Indian myth, where they appear under the form of the Naga R&dja or 
Cobra- Kings. The reader who wishes to do so should consult Anderson's 
British Museum Catalogue, p. 50. Chamberlain has remarked that **the 
whole story of the Sea-God's'palace has a Chinese ring about it, and the 


62 NiHONGI. 

had intercourse with Mizo-kuhi * hime of the island 
of Mishima (some call her Tama-kushi-hime), and 
had by her a child named Hime-tatara I-suzu-hime no 
Mikoto", who became the Empress of the Emperor Kami- 
Yamato Ihare-biko Hohodemi.^ 

Before this time, when Oho-na-mochi no Kami was 
pacifying the land, he went to Wobama in Isasa, in the 
province of Idzumo. He was just having some food 
and drink, when of a sudden there was heard a human 
voice from the surface of the sea. He was astonished, but 
on seeking for it there was nothing at all to be seen. 
After a while a dwarf appeared, who had made a boat of 
the rind of a kagami * and clothing of the feathers of a 
I. 63. wren/ He came floating towards him on the tide, and 

Oho-na-mochi no Mikoto taking him up, placed him on 
the palm of his hand. He was playing with him, when 
the dwarf leaped up, and bit him on the cheek. He 
wondered at his appearance, and sent a messenger to 
report the matter to the Gods of Heaven. Now when 
Taka-mi-musubi no Mikoto heard this, he said : — 'The 
children whom I have produced number in all one thou- 

cassia-tree mentioned in it is certainly Chinese." Is it possible that 
wani is for the Corean wang-i, i.e. " the King," / being the Corean 
definite particle, as in zeni, fumi, yagi, and other Chinese words which 
reached Japan via Corea ? We have the same change of ng into n in the 
name of the Corean who taught Chinese to the Japanese Prince Imperial in 
Ojin Tenno's reign. It is Wang-in in Corean, but was pronounced Wani 
by the Japanese. Wani occurs several times as a proper name in the 
"Nihongi." Bear (in Japanese kuma) is no doubt an epithet indicating 
size, as in kuma-bachi, bear-bee or bear-wasp, i.e. a hornet ; kuma-gera, a 
large kind of wood-pecker, etc. 

* Mizo-kuhi means water-channel pile. Tama-kushi is jewel-comb. 

- Otherwise called Jimmu Tenno. See below, beginning of Book III. 
^ Some plant, very likely having gourd-shaped fruit. Vide Ch. K., p. 85. 

* The " Kojiki " says goose skins. The wren was no doubt substituted 
as more in accordance with the dwarfish stature of Sukuna-bikona. 

Dr. Schlegel in his " Probl^mes Geographiques " mentions a Chinese 
notice of a Han-ming-kuo, the inhabitants of which sew together skins 
of birds for clothing He identifies this country with the Kuriles, where 
modem travellers have found this to be the custom. The bird whose 
skins are thus used is the Procellaria gracilis (petrel). 

The Age of the Gods. 63 

sand and five hundred. Amongst them one was very 
wicked, and would not yield compliance to my instructions. 
He slipped through between my fingers and fell. This 
must be that child, let him be loved and nurtured.' This 
was no other than Sukuna-bikona no Mikoto.'* ^ 

' Sukuna-bikona is a popular God at the present day. Hi rata has 
devoted two volumes (the " Shidzu no ihaya ") to a glorification of him as 
tht inventor of medicine and of the art of brewing sake under the name 
ofKushi no Kami. The " Kojiki" relates his legend somewhat differently. 
See Ch. K., p. 85. Sukuna means small (in modem Japanese few) and 
bikona. is honorific. 

Hi rata identifies Sukuna-bikona with Yebisu and Oho-na-mochi with 
DaikoloL See Anderson's B. M. Catalogue, p. 36. All these identifica- 
tions, of which Hirata is profuse, are somewhat problematical. 



Part II. 

Masa-ya-a-katsu-katsu-haya-hi ama no oshi-ho-mi-mi no 
Mi KOTO, the son of Ama-terasu no Oho-kami, took to wife 
Taku-hata'-chi-chi-hime, daughter of Taka-mi-musubi no 
Mikoto. A child was born to them named Ama-tsu-hiko-hiko- 
ho-no-ninigi no Mikoto.' Therefore his august grandparent, 
Taka-mi-musubi no Mikoto, treated him with special affection, 
and nurtured him with great regard. Eventually he desired 
to establish his august grandchild Ama-tsu-hiko-ho-ho-ninigi 
no Mikoto as the Lord of the Central Land of Reed-Plains. 
But in that Land there were numerous Deities which shone 
with a lustre like that of fireflies, and evil Deities which buzzed 
II. 2. like flies. There were also trees and herbs all of which could 
speak. Therefore Taka-mi-musubi no Mikoto assembled all 
the eighty Gods, and inquired of them, saying : — " I desire to 
have the evil Gods of the Central Land of Reed-Plains expelled 
and subdued. Whom is it meet that we should send for this 
purpose ? I pray you, all ye Gods, conceal not your opinion." 
They all said : — " Ama-no-ho-hi no Mikoto is the most heroic 
among the Gods. Ought not he to be tried ? " 

Taka-mi-musubi no Mikoto thereupon complied with the 
general advice, and made Ama-no-ho-hi no Mikoto to go and 
subdue them. This Deity, however, curried favour with Oho- 
na-mochi no Mikoto, and three years passed without his 
making any report. Therefore his son Oho-se-ihi no Mikuma 
no ushi ^ (also called Take ^-mikuma no ushi) was sent. 

^ Taku-hata, paper-mulberry loom (cloth). 

- The interpretation of this name is doubtful. See Ch. K., p. io6. 
^ Great-husband-boiled-rice-of- Mikuma of master. 

■• Take, brave, is merely a honorific. It is prefixed to several names of 

The Age of the Gods. 6*; 

L . . 

He, too, yielded compliance to his father, and never made ii. 3. 

any report. Taka-mi-musubi no Mikoto therefore again 

summoned together all the Gods and inquired of them who 

should be sent. They all said : — " Ame-waka-hiko,* son of 

Ame no Kuni-dama.' He is a valorous person. Let him be 

tried.'' Hereupon Taka-mi-musubi no Mikoto gave Ame-waka- 

hiko a heavenly deer4x)w and he.ayenly Jfeathered arrows, and 

so despatched him. This God also was disloyal, and as soon 

^he arrived took to wife Shita-teru-hime,* the daughter of 

Utsushi-kuni-dama * [fUso called Taka-hime or Waka-kunu 

^«a). Accordingly he remained, and said : — " I, too, wish to 

govern the Central Land of Reed- Plains." He never reported 

the result of his mission. At this time, Taka-mi-musubi no 

Mikoto, wondering why he was so long in coming and making 

'^s report, sent the pheasant Na-naki' to observe. The 

phea.sant flew down and perched on the top of a many-branched 

^^^^^ia-tree which grew before Ame-waka-hiko's gate. Now 

Aiii^.no Sagu-me * saw this and told Ame-waka-hiko, saying : — n. ^ 

^ strange bird has come and is perched on the top of the cassia- 

^^^^J' Then Ame-waka-hiko took the heavenly deer-bow and 

th^ heavenly feathered arrows which had been given him by 

^^*c.a-mi-musubi no Mikoto, and shot the pheasant, so that it 

The arrow having passed through the pheasant's breast, 

le before where Taka-mi-musubi no Kami was sitting. Then 

^^Ica-mi-musubi no Kami seeing this arrow, said : — " This 

^^**CDw I formerly gave to Ame-waka-hiko. It is stained with 

'^'^^^^Dd, it may be because he has been fighting with the Earthly 

^^ities." Thereupon Taka-mi-musubi no Mikoto took up the 

)w and flung it back down (to earth). This arrow, when it 

Heaven-young-prince. ' Heaven-of-country-jewel. 

^^ Lower-shine-princess. * Real-count ry-jeweL 

^ Na-naki. This word is written here as if the meaning were "nameless.* 
^'^ "^ in the " Kojiki " (see Ch. K., p. 95), characters are used which give it the 
of name-crying, i.e. calling out its own name. The old Japanese for 
'^^^sasant is kigishi or kigisu. Comparing this with uguhisu (the Japanese 
^^J&htingale), kakesu (the jay), kirigirisu (the grasshopper), karasu (the 
^^"^C^), and hototogisu (a kind of cuckoo), it becomes evident that kigisu is an 
^^^^Mnatopoetic word. Su is for sum, to do. The Corean for a pheasant is 
'^^^g, no doubt also an onomatope. 
• Heavenly-spying-woman. 


66 NiHONGI. 

fell, hit Ame-waka-hiko on the top of his breast. At this time 
Ame-waka-hiko was lying down after the feast of first-fruits, 
and when hit by the arrow died immediately. This was the 
origin of the general saying, " Fear a returning arrow." 

The sound of the weeping and mourning of Ame-waka-hiko's 
n. 5. wife Shita-teru-hime reached Heaven. At this time, Ame no 
Kuni-dama, hearing the voice of her crying, straightway knew 
that her husband, Ame-waka-hiko, was dead, and sent down a 
swift wind to bring the body up to Heaven. Forthwith a 
mortuary house was made, in which it was temporarily de- 
posited. The river-geese were made the head-hanging 
bearers and broom-bearers. 

One version is : — ** The barn-door fowls were made head- 
hanging bearers, and the river-geese were made broom- 
The sparrows were made pounding-women. 

One version is : — ** The river-geese were made head-hang- 
ing bearers and also broom-bearers, the kingfisher was made 
the representative of the deceased, the sparrows were made 
the pounding-women, and the wrens the mourners. Alto- 
II. 6. gether the assembled birds were entrusted with the matter." 

For eight days and eight nights they wept and sang dirges.' 

* We have here a glimpse of the ancient Japanese funeral ceremonies. 
'* Head-hanging bearers " is a literal translation of the Chinese characters. 
The interlinear Kana renders them by the obsolete word kisari-mochi, of 
obscure meaning. An ancient commentator says that these were persons 
who accompanied the funeral, bearing on their heads food for the dead, 
which is perhaps correct. The brooms were probably for sweeping the road 
before the procession. The pounding- women pounded the rice for the guests, 
and perhaps also for the offerings to the deceased. By mourners are meant 
paid mourners. 

To these Hirata adds from old books the wata-dzukuri or tree- fibre carders, 
the kites (the fibre being to fill up the vacant space in the coffin), and the 
fleshers (for food offered to the deceased), an office given to the crow. 
Compare also Ch. K., p. 97. 

The student of folk-lore will not think it frivolous of me to cite here the 
English story of the Death and Burial of Cock Robin, where the birds 
officiate in various capacities at a funeral. 

" Sang dirges." Hirata condemns this as a Chinese importation. He 
prefers the " Kojiki " version, which says that ** they made merry," and 
explains that this was with the object of recalling the dead to life, perhaps in 

The Age of the Gods. 67 

Before this, when Ame-waka-hiko was in the Central Land of 

Reed-Plains, he was on terms of friendship with Aji-suki *-taka- 

iiko-ne no Kami. Therefore Aji-suki-taka-hiko-ne no Kami 

tended to Heaven and offered condolence on his decease. 

^W this God was exactly like in appearance to Ame-waka- 

hiko when he was alive, and therefore Ame-waka-hiko's parents, 

relations, wife, and children all said : — ** Our Lord is still alive," 

^^d clung to his garments and to his girdle, partly rejoiced 

^^^ partly distracted. Then Aji-suki-taka-hiko-ne no Kami . 

'^^^^^me flushed with anger and said : — " The way of friends is 

^^(^hk that it is right that mutual condolence should be made. 

* "^X"efore I have not been daunted by the pollution, but have 

corr^cfrom afar to make mourning. Why then should I be 

'"^^'^aken for a dead person ? " So he drew his sword, Oho-ha- 

*^*^i J which he had in his girdle, and cut down the mortuary . 

'^^Vise, which fell to earth and became a mountain. It is now 


^^ Xihe province of Mino, by the upper waters of the River 
^y vimi. This is the mountain of Moyama (mourning moun^ 11. 7. 
^^^■^). This is why people take care not to mistake a living for 
^ ci^ad person. 

-After this, Taka-mi-musubi no Mikoto again assembled all 
^^^ Gods that they might select some one to send to the Central 
L-^ud of Reed-Plains. They all said : — ** It will be well to send 
Fvitsu-nushi' no Kami, son of Iha-tsutsu no wo^ and Iha-tsutsu 
^^^ me, the children of Iha-saku-ne-saku * no Kami." 

sanitation of the Gods dancing and making merry in order to entice the Sun- 
oddcss from her rock-cave. Compare the following passage from a 
*^'nese History of the Han (a.d. 25-220) Dynasty. 

''* Japan " Mourning lasts for some ten days only, during which time the 
^J*! biers of the family weep and lament, whilst their friends come singing, 
^^^i Tig and making music." 

. *^« mortuary house was required for the temporary disposal of the 
^-» while the sepulchral mound with its mcgalithic chamber was being 
^^^Tucted. K/Vi<f Index— Misasagi. 

J ^^^o satisfactory explanation of this name. ^ Great-leaf-mower. 

. *^utsu is explained by Hirata as an onomatopoetic word like the modern 
^^•"^Jri for the abrupt snapping sound produced when anything is cleanly 
^^^T broken off. Nushi means master. 
^ ha-tsutsu. I ha is rock, tsutsu probably a honorific = elder. Wo is male ; 
•^^ female. 

^Wsaku means rock-split ; ne-saku, root-split. 

F 2 

68 NiHONGI. 

Now there were certain Gods dwelling in the Rock-cave of 
Heaven, viz. Mika no Haya-hi * no Kami, son of Idzu no wo- 
bashiri ^ no Kami, Hi no Haya-hi no Kami, son of Mika no Haya- 
hi no Kami, andTake-mika-dzuchi no Kami,' son of Hi noHaya-hi 
no Kami. The latter God came forward and said : — " Is Futsu- 
nushi no Kami alone to be reckoned a hero ? And am I not a 
hero ? " His words were animated by a spirit of indignation. He 
was therefore associated with Futsu-nushi no Kami and made to 
subdue the Central Land of Reed- Plains. The two Gods there- 
upon descended and arrived at the Little Shore * of Itasa, in the 
Land of Idzumo. Then they drew their ten-span swords, and 
stuck them upside down in the earth, and sitting on their 
points questioned Oho-na-mochi no Kami, saying : — " Taka-mi- 
musubi no Mikoto wishes to send down his August Grandchild 
. to preside over this country as its Lord. He has therefore 
sent us two Gods to clear out and pacify it. What is thy inten- 
tion ? Wilt thou stand aside or no ? " Then Oho-na-mochi 
no Kami answered and said : — " I must ask my son before I 
reply to you." At this time his son Koto-shiro-nushi no Kami 
was absent on an excursion to Cape Miho in the Land of 
Idzumo, where he was amusing himself by angling for fish. 
II. s. Some say: — " He was amusing himself by catching birds." 

He therefore took the many-handed boat of Kumano, 
[Another name is the Heavenly Pigeon-boat.] 
and placing on board of it his messenger, Inase-hagi,' he de- 
spatched him, and announced to Koto-shiro-nushi no Kami the 
declaration of Taka-mi-musubi no Kami. He also inquired 
what language he should use in answer. Now Koto-shiro- 
nushi no Kami spoke to the messenger, and said : — ** The 
Heavenly Deity has now addressed us this inquir}-.* My father 

' Mika is explained by Hirata as the same as ika, terrible ; haya-hi means 
swift sun. 

- Idzu no wo-bashiri, lit. dread-of-male-run. 

' Take-mika-dzuchl. Take is brave. Mika-dzuchi is identified with ika- 
dzuchi, thunder. 

* Wobama. 

* Hirata points out the appropriateness of this name, which means " Yes 
or no? — shanks," to a messenger sent to ask a question. 

* The Chinese character indicates a communication from an Emperor. 

The Age of the Gods. 69 

ought respectfully to withdraw, nor will I make any opposition." 
So he made in the sea an eight-fold fence of green branches, and 
stepping on the bow of the boat, went off.* The messenger re- 
turned and reported the result of his mission. Then Oho-na- 
niochi no Kami said to the two Gods, in accordance with the 
words of his son : — " My son, on whom I rely, has already 
departed. I, too, will depart. If I were to make resistance all 
the Gods of this Land would certainly resist also. But as I 
now respectfully withdraw, who else will be so bold as to refuse 
submission ? " Soihe took the broad spear which he had used 
as a staff when he was pacifying the land and gave it to the 
two Gods, saying : — " By means of this spear I was at last 
successful. If the Heavenly Grandchild will use this spear to li. 9. 
rule the land, he will undoubtedly subdue it to tranquillity. I 
am riow about to withdraw to the concealment of the short-of-a- 
huadred '-eighty road-windings." ' Having said these words, he 
at length became concealed.^ Thereupon the two Gods put to 
dea.t:li all the rebellious spirits and Deities. 

One version says : — " The two Gods at length put to 
death the malignant Deities and the tribes of herbs, trees and 
rocks. When all had been subdued, the only one who re- 
fused submission was the Star-God Kagase-wo.' There- 

*'\Vent off" is the same character as is translated "withdraw" above. 
Hi rata understands this of his death. The whole episode is related quite 
^^'flferently in the " Kojiki." Vide Ch. K., p. loi. 

*^nclosures of bamboo are used at the present day to trap fishes, but it is 
not very clear why one is introduced here. 

A mere epithet or pillow-word (makura-kotoba) of eighty. 
^he eighty-road- windings are put for a long journey, i.e. to Yomi or 
Hades, or rather for Yomi itself. 
^ '-e. died, 
'^iigase-wo. Wo means male. Kaga is obviously connected with 
^^*Vaku, to shine. This is the only Star-God mentioned in Japanese myth', 
^^ it may be noted that little honour is shown him. He is described as a 
^°^<1 veered rebel, and has neither Kami nor Mikoto affixed to his name. The 
^ ^^ ^tars mentioned in the " Kojiki " or ** Nihongi " are Venus, the Pleiades, 
, ^ "^lie Weaver or Star a Lyrae, the latter being connected with a Chinese 

e Weaver-God is literally, if we follow the Chinese character, the God 
, . J ^Hpanese striped stuffs. The interlinear " Kana *' gives Shidzuri or 
^^^'^^Dri, from shidzu, cloth, and ori, weave, which is doubtless correct. 

70 NiHONGI. 

fore they sent the Weaver-God Take-ha-dzuchi no Mikoto 
also, upon which he rendered submission. The two Gods 
therefore ascended to Heaven." 
Ultimately they reported the result of their mission. 
Then Taka-mi-musubi no Mikoto took the coverlet which was 
on his true couch, and casting it over his August Grandchild, 
Amatsu-hiko-hiko-ho-ninigi no Mikoto, made him to descend. 
So the August Grandchild left his Heavenly Rock-seat, and with 
an awful * path-cleaving, clove his way through the eight-fold 
clouds of Heaven, and descended on the Peak of Takachiho of 
II. 10. So - in Hiuga. 

After this the manner of the progress of the August Grandchild 
was as follows : — From the Floating Bridge of Heaven on the 
twin summits of Kushibi, he took his stand on a level part of 
the floating sand-bank. Then he traversed the desert land of 
Sojishi from the Hill of Hitawo in his search for a country, 
until he came to Cape Kasasa, in Ata-no-nagaya. A certain 
man of that land appeared and gave his name as Koto-katsu- 
kuni-katsu Nagasa.' The August Grandchild inquired of him, 
II. II. saying : — " Is there a country, or not ? " He answered, and said : 
— ** There is here a country. I pray thee roam through it at 
thy pleasure." The August Grandchild therefore went there 
and took up his abode. Now there was a fair maid in that land 
whose name was Ka-ashi-tsu-hime. 

[Also called Kami Ata-tsu-hime or Ko no hana no saku- 

Take-ha-dzuchi is brave-leaf-elder. It is not clear that this Weaver-God is 
the same as the Weaver star. 

* The interlinear gloss has idzu, an obsolete word which means awful, 
holy, sacred. It is, I would suggest, the same root which appears in the name 
of the province Idzu-mo and in Idzu-shi in Tajima, also a seat of Shinto wor- 
ship. Mo means quarter, as in yomo, the four quarters, everywhere, and shi 
is for ishi, stone. See Index — Idzu. 

* It is this word which forms the second part of Kumaso, the general 
name of the tribes which inhabited the south of Kiushiu. 

^ Thing-excel-country-excel. Long- narrow. 

^ These names mean respectively Deer- reed-of-princess, Deity (or upper) 
Ata-of-princess and Tree-of-flower-of-blossom-princess, i e. blossoming like 
the flowers of the trees. The last name is that by which she is called in the 

Kojiki " (vide Ch. K., p. 115), and is the one best known. 



The Age of the Gods. 71 

The August Grandchild inquired of this fair maid, saying : — 
Whose daughter art thou ? " She answered and said :— " Thy 
handmaiden * is the child of a Heavenly Deity by his marriage 
H'ith Oho-yama-tsu-mi Kami.*' 

The August Grandchild accordingly favoured ' her, where- 
upon in one night she became pregnant. But the August Grand- 
cbild was slow to believe this, and said : — " Heavenly Deity 
though I am, how could I cause any one to become pregnant in 
the space of one night ? That which thou hast in thy bosom is 
assuredly not my child." Therefore Ka-ashi-tsu-hime was 
wroth. She prepared a doorless ' muro * (called utsumuro)^ and 

* The use of the character meaning concubine as a pronoun of the first 
person fern, is a Chinese idioni. The interlinear Kana version has yakko, 
i.e. slave. Oho-yama-tsu-mi means the Great-mountain-body. Possibly it 
should be taken here as a.conunon noun, a mountain Deity. 

* i.e. married her. 

1 1 appears from the "Kojiki"that after going in she plastered up the 

The character ^ which in Chinese means a house, a chamber, is, in 

the older Japanese literature, generally, if not invariably, used to represent 

^"^ Japanese word muro. Another character used for this purpose is §, a 

cellar. The muro is distinguished from the ihe, or ordinary dwelling. What 

^'^ the muro? This term is nowadays applied to a gardener's forcing- 

h<>use, which in Japan consists of a pit four or five feet deep and roofed over. 

"'-itiuro means an ice-house. If the ice-houses in Japan (see drawing in 

^an-sai-dzu-ye," IV., 19), so denominated, resemble those which I have seen 

*^ * ^ng-hwa-chin in Corea, they were pits sunk several feet below, the sur- 

«ce of tije ground and covered with a heavy thatched roof. At the foot of 

*^^Unt Ohoyama there was to be seen, some years ago, a large rectangular 

P'^» three or four feet in depth, with a thatched roof sloping to the ground, 

^'*a no walls, which was occupied as a dwelling by the pilgrims to that 

niountain. There are also pits in Corea covered with thatch or strong oil- 

P^P^*"'* which are used by the poorest classes as shelters. These are called 

"'^^ Or um-mak. Pit-dwellers are also mentioned in the old Chinese litera- 

^K*^* The references to the muro in the ** Kojiki " and " Nihongi " show 

^^ tlie muro of those .days had a similar character. We read of Tsuchi- 

ST^nio (earth-hiders, see Index) living in muro, of a muro being dug, and of 

^Ps ^down) to a muro. That they were sometimes of considerable size is 

s pW'n by the legend of Jimmu Tenno's reign, which speaks of 160 persons 

. ^'^S in a muro at the same time. The pit was (at least in some cases) not 

sxrnpiy roofed over, but contained a house with a wooden frame lashed 

^^tVier with cords of a creeping vine (dolichos), the walls having sedges or 

^^^s for laths, and plastered with a mixture of grass and clay. The roof was 

72 NiHONGI. 

entering, dwelt therein. Then she made a solemn declaration, 
saying : — " If that which is in my bosom is not the offspring of 
the Heavenly Grandchild, it will assuredly be destroyed by fire, 
but if it is really the offspring of the Heavenly Grandchild, fire 

thatched with reeds. The muro had a door opening inwards, and contained 
a raised platform for sleeping on. A dwelling closely answering this 
description was actually unearthed near Akita in Dewa in 1807. • 

Muro were used in ancient times by the, higher as well as by the poorest 
classes. Sosa no wo no Mikoto is said by the Idzumo Fudoki to have made 
himself a muro, and Jimmu Tenno's son is represented as sleeping in a great 
muro. In modern times muro sometimes means simply chamber. 

Some writers confound the muro with the ihaya. So far as I am aware, 
the latter is used only of caverns in the rock, or of the artificial megalithic 
chambers contained in sepulchral mounds. 

Mr. J. Milne, in an extremely interesting paper on the pit-dwellers of Yezo, 
read before the Asiatic Society of Japan in 1882, argues that certain pits 
discovered by him in large numbers in the islands of Yezo and Itorup were 
the dwellings of a pre-Aino race, whose modem representatives are to be 
found amongst the Kurilsky or their neighbours in Kamschatka and Sagha- 
lin. To these he gives the name of Koro-pok-guru, following an Aino tradi- 
tion communicated to him by Mr, Batchelor. 

On the other hand, I am informed by Baron A. von Siebold, who visited 
several of these groups of pits in Kusiro and the Kurile Islands, that, — 

1. Their appearance is, in his opinion, not consonant with the great 
antiquity assigned to them by Mr. Milne's theory. It was especially notice- 
able that no large trees or even deep-rooted brushwood were found growing 
in or between the square pits. 

2. They are arranged in a regular order more suggestive of a military en- 
campment than of the abodes of a tribe of savages. They are all of the same 
size, except a few larger ones, which may have been occupied by officers. 
An earthwork near one of them was also suggestive of a military occupation. 

3. The pits were carefully dug and found to contain fragments of burned 
wood, unglazed pottery, and what is more remarkable, a small Japanese 
sword (tanto) of comparatively modem manufacture. 

4. The most important evidence, however, is the fact that the sites of 
these pits correspond in all the cases which Baron von Siebold was able to 
examine with those of the military encampments established in Yezo and the 
Kuriles by the Japanese Govemment about the beginning of the present 
century as a defence against the Russians. These encampments are marked 
on a Japanese map presented to Ph. Fr. von Siebold (the father) by a Court 
astronomer named Mogami Toknai, and published in Siebold's Atlas. The 
inference is obvious. In fact pit-dwelling in northern climates affords no 
indication of race. It has been seen that Chinese, Japanese, and Coreans 
may all be pit-dwellers on occasion, and the practice is by no means confined 
to this part of the world. 

The Age of the Gods. 7^ 

cannot harm it." So she set fire to the muro. The child 

which was born from the extremity of the smoke which first 

arose was called Ho no Susori no Mikoto (/t€ was the ancestor 

of the Hayatd) ; next the child which was born when she drew 

back and remained away from the heat was called Hiko-ho-ho- 

demi no Mikoto : the child which was next born was called Ho 

no akari no Mikoto {he was the ancestor of the Wohari no 

Murajt) — in all three children.* n. 12. 

A long time after, Ama-tsu-hiko hiko-ho-no-ninigi no Mikoto 
died, and was buried in the Misasagi^ of Hiuga no ye in 

In one writing it is said : — " Ama-terasu no Oho-kami 
gave command unto Ame-waka-hiko, saying : — * The 
Central Land of Reed-Plains is a region which it is for my 
child to rule over. Considering, however, that there are 
there certain rebellious, violent and wicked Deities, do thou 
therefore go first and subdue it.' Accordingly she gave him 
the Heavenly deer-bow and the Heavenly true-deer-arrows, 
and so despatched him. Ame-waka-hiko, having received 
this command, went down and forthwith married many 
daughters of the Earthly Deities. Eight years passed, during 
which he made no report of his mission. Therefore Ama- 
terasu-no Oho-kami summoned Omohi-kane no Kami (the 
Thought-combiner) and inquired the reason why he did not 
Come. Now the Thought-combining Deity reflected and in- 
formed her, saying : — * It will be well to send the pheasant 
to inquire into this.' Hereupon, in accordance with this 
God's device, the pheasant was caused to go and spy out 
the reason. The pheasant flew down and perched on the H- 'S* 
top of a many-branched cassia-tree before Ame-waka-hiko's 

.. * lie " Kojiki " gives these names differently. Ho no akari means fire- 

^"t ^ The other two are of doubtful interpretation. Perhaps Susori is from 

^^"ord suso, skirt, and ho-ho-de may mean '* go out from flames." This 

^^ge shows that the muro was used as an ubu-ya or parturition-house. It 

^ ^lie custom in ancient Japan for women to retire for their confinement to 

^*^porary hut constructed for the purpose. Satow and Dickins found this 

P^^tice still in vogue in the Island of Hachijo when they visited it in 1878. 

^*^ **J. A. S. T.," vi. 3. 

5Scc Index. 

74 NiHONGI. 

^ate, where it uttered a cr}', saying : — * Ama-waka-hiko ! 
wherefore for the space of eight years hast thou still not 
made a report of thy mission ? ' Now a certain Earthly 
Goddess, named Ama-no-sagu-me, saw the pheasant, and 
said : — * A bird of evil cry is sitting on the top of this tree. 
It will be well to shoot it and kill it.' So Ame-waka-hiko 
took the Heavenly deer-bow and the Heavenly true deer- 
arrow given him by the Heavenly Deity and shot it, up>on 
which the arrow went through the pheasant's breast, and 
finally reached the place where the Heavenly Deity was. 
Now the Heavenly Deity seeing the arrow, said : — * This 
arrow I formerly gave to Ame-waka-hiko. Why has it come 
here ? ' So she took the arrow, and pronouncing a curse 
over it, said : — * If it has been shot with evil intent, let 
mischief surely come upon Ama-waka-hiko; but if it has 
been shot with a tranquil heart, let no harm befall him.' 
So she flung it back. It fell down and struck Ame-waka- 
hiko on the top of the breast, so that he straightway died. 
This is the reason why people at the present day say, 
* Fear a returning arrow.' Now Ame-waka-hiko's wife and 
children came down from Heaven and went away upw^ards 
taking with them the dead body. Then they made a 
mourning house in Heaven, in which they deposited it and 
lamented over it. Before this Ame-waka-hiko was on 
friendly terms with Aji-suki-taka-hiko-ne no Kami. 
Therefore Aji-suki-taka-hiko-ne no Kami ascended to 
Heaven and condoled with them on the mourning, lament- 
ing greatly. Now this God had by nature an exact 
resemblance to Ame-waka-hiko in appearance. Therefore 
Ame-waka-hiko's wife and children, when they saw him, 
rejoiced, and said : — * Our Lord is still alive.' And they 
clung to his robe and to his girdle, and could not be thrust 
away. Now Aji-suki-taka-hiko ne no Kami became angry, 
and said : — * My friend is dead, therefore have I come to 
make condolence. Why then should I be mistaken for a 
dead man ? ' So he drew his ten-span sword and cut 
down the mourning house, which fell to earth and became 
II. 14 a mountain. This is Moyama (Mount Mourning) in the 

province of Mino. This is the reason why people dislike 
to be mistaken for a dead person. 

The Age of the Gods. 75 

Now the glory of Aji-suki-taka-hiko ne no Mikoto was so 
effulgent that it illuminated the space of two hills and two 
valleys, and those assembled for the mourning celebrated it 
in song, saying : — 

[Another version is that Aji-suki-taka-hiko-ne no Kami's 
younger sister, Shita-teru-hime, wishing to make known to 
the company that it was Aji-suki-taka-hiko ne no Mikoto 
who illuminated the hills and valleys therefore made a song, 
saying :— ] 

Like the string of jewels 

Worn on the neck 

Of the Weaving- maiden, 

That dwells in Heaven — 

Oh ! the lustre of the jewels 

Flung across two valleys 

From Aji-suki-taka-hiko-ne I' 

Again they sang, saying : — 

To the side-pool — 
The side-pool 
Of the rocky stream 
Whose narrows are crossed 
By the country wenches 
Afar from Heaven, 
Come hither, come hither I 
(The women are fair) 
And spread across thy net 
In the side-pool 
Of the rockv stream- 

These two poems are in what is now called a Rustic ' 


* The metre is irregular. The " Kojiki '* version (see Ch. K., p. 99) is some- 
what different. The Weaving-maiden of Heaven is a Chinese personification 
of the Star a Lyrae. See Mayers' "Chinese Manual,^' p. 97. This affords 
some indication of the date of this poem. It must have been written after 
the Japanese became familiar with Chinese astronomy. 

' The metre is irregular, the text doubtful, and the meaning and 
apptication obscure. I agree with the Japanese critics who think that this 
poem has no business here. The " Kojiki," which gives the previous one, 
omits it. 

Afar from Heaven is a mere epithet (makura-kotoba) of the country. 
Heaven here stands for the capital. 

• Probably because hina, country or rustic, is a prominent word in the 
latter of these two poems. 

76 NiHONGI. 

After this Ama-terasu no Oho-kami united Yorodzu-hata 
Toyo-aki-tsu-hime, the younger sister of Omohi-kane no 
Kami to Masa-ya-a-katsu-katsu-no-haya-hi no Ama no Oshi- 
II. 15. ho-mimi no Mikoto, and making her his consort, caused 

them to descend to the Central Land of Reed-Plains. At 
this time Katsu-no-haya-hi no Ama no Oshi-ho-mimi no 
Mikoto stood on the floating bridge of Heaven, and glanc- 
ing downwards, said: — *Is that country tranquillized yet ? 
No ! it is a tumble-down land, hideous to look upon.' So 
he ascended, and reported why he had not gone down. 
Therefore, Ama-terasu no Oho-kami further sent Taka- 
mika-tsuchi no Kami and Futsu-nushi no Kami first to clear 
it. Now these two Gods went down and arrived at 
Idzumo, where they inquired of Oho-na-mochi no Mikoto, 
saying : — * Wilt thou deliver up this country to the 
Heavenly Deity or not ? ' He answered and said : — 

* My son, Koto-shiro-nushi is at Cape Mitsu for the sport 
of bird-shooting. I will ask him, and then give you an 
answer.' So he sent a messenger to make inquiry, who 
brought answer and said : — * How can we refuse to deliver 
up what is demanded by the Heavenly Deity?' Therefore 
Oho-na-mochi no Kami replied to the two Gods in the 
words of his son. The two Gods thereupon ascended to 
Heaven and reported the result of their mission, saying : — 

* All the Central Land of Reed-Plains is now completely 
tranquillized.' Now Ama-terasu no Oho-kami gave com- 
mand, saying : — * If that be so, I will send down my child.' 
She was about to do so, when in the meantime, an August 

' Grandchild was born, whose name was called Ama-tsu- 
hiko-hiko-ho-no-ninigi no Mikoto. Her son represented to 
her that he wished the August Grandchild to be sent 
down in his stead. Therefore Ama-terasu no Oho-kami 
gave to Ama-tsu-hiko-hiko-ho no ninigi no Mikoto the three 
treasures, viz. the curved jewel of Yasaka gem, the eight- 
hand mirror, and the sword Kusanagi, and joined to him 
II. 16. ^s ^^^ attendants Ame no Koyane no Mikoto, the first 

ancestor of the Naka-tomi, Futo-dama no Mikoto, the 
first ancestor of the Imbe, Ame no Uzume no Mikoto, the 
first ancestor of the Sarume,' Ishi-kori-dome no Mikoto» 

* Lit. monkey-eye. 

The Age of the Gods. ^^ 

the first ancestor of the mirror-makers, and Tamaya no 
Mikoto, the first ancestor of the jewel-makers, in all Gods 
of five Be. Then she commanded her August Grandchild, 
saying: — 'This Reed-plain-1500-autumns-fair-rice-ear Land 
is the region which my descendants shall be lords of. Do 
thou, my August Grandchild, proceed thither and govern it. 
Go ! and may prosperity attend thy dynasty, and may it, 
like Heaven and Earth, endure for ever.' When he was 
about to descend, one, who had been sent in advance to 
clear the way, returned and said : — * There is one God 
who dwells at the eight-cross-roads of Heavfen, the length 
of whose nose is seven hands, the length of whose back is 
more than seven fathoms. Moreover, a light shines from 
his mouth and from his posteriors. His eye-balls are like 
an eight-hand mirror and have a ruddy glow like the Aka- 
kagachi.' Thereupon he sent one of his attendant Deities II. 17. 
to go and make inquiry. Now among all the eighty 
myriads of Deities there was not one who could confront 
him and make inquiry. Therefore he specially commanded 
Ame no Uzume, saying : — * Thou art superior to others in 
the power of thy looks. Thou hadst better go and ques- (1 
tion him.' So Ame no Uzume forthwith bared her breasts"^ v 
and, pushing down the band of her garment below her 
navel, confronted him with a mocking laugh. Then the 
God of the cross-ways asked her, saying: — 'Ame no 
Uzume.! What meanest thou by this behaviour?' She j 
answered and said : — ' I venture to ask who art thou that 
dost thus remain in the road by which the child of Ama- 
terasu no Oho-kami is to make his progress ? ' The God 
of the cross-ways answered and said : — * I have heard that 
the child of Ama-terasu no Oho-kami is now about to de- 
scend, and therefore I have come respectfully to meet and 
attend upon him. My name is Saruta-hiko no Oho-kami.' * 
Then Ame no Uzume again inquired of him, saying : — 
* Wilt thou go before me, or shall I go before thee ? ' He 
answered and said: — ** I will go before and be his 
harbinger.' Ame no Uzume asked again, saying: — 
"Whither wilt thou go and whither will the August Grand- 
child go ? ' He answered and said : — * The child of the 

* In later times a phallic Deity. 

""* I- 


Heavenly Deity will proceed to the peak of Kushifuru i 
Takachiho in Hiuga in the Land of Tsukiishi, and I ^viUil 
go to the upper waters of the River Isuzu at Sanada in Ise.-J 
He accordingly said ;^' Thou art the person who didsti 
discover nu'. Thon must ihcfL'fore esc^irt me and coni'l 

plete thy task.' Ame no Uzume returned and reportei 
these circumstances. Thereupon the August Grandchild 
leaving the Heavenly rock-seat, and thrusting apart th 
eight-piJed clouds of Heaven, clove his way with an awfi] 
way-c]ea\ing, and descended from Heaven, Finally, ; 

The Age of the Gods. 79 

had been arranged, the August Grandchild arrived at the 
peak of Kushifuru of Takachiho in Hiuga, in the land of 
Tsukushi. And Saruta-hiko no Kami forthwith proceeded 
to the upj)er waters of the River Isuzu at Sanada in Ise. 
Ame no Uzume no Mikoto, in accordance with the request 
made by Saruta* hiko no Kami, attended upon him. 
Now the August Grandchild commanded Ame no Uzume 
no Mikoto, saying : — ' Let the name of the Deity whom 
thou didst discover be made thy title.' Therefore he con- 
ferred on her the designation of Sarume no Kimi.* So 
this was the origin of the male and female Lords of Sarume 
being both styled Kimi." ' 

In one writing it is said : — *' The Heavenly Deity sent II 19. 
Futsu-nushi no Kami and Take-mika-tsuchi no Kami to 
tranquillize the Central Land of Reed-Plains. Now these 
two Gods said : — * In Heaven there is an Evil Deitv called 
Ama-tsu-mika-hoshi, or Ame no Kagase-wo. We pray 
that this Deity may be executed before we go down to 
make clear the Central Land of Reed-Plains.' At this time 
Iw^i-nushi * no Kami received the designation of Iwahi 
no Ushi. This is the God which now dwells in the land of 

* Monkey-field. * Lord of Sarume. 

* The ** Kojiki " says that it was the females alone who had this title. In 
either case, the inference is that it was unusual for women to have such 
names or titles, Motowori's opinion to the contrary notwithstanding. 

The Sarume were primarily women who performed comic dances (saru- 
mahi or monkey-dance9)*in honour of the Gods. They are mentioned along 
with the Nakatomi and Imbe as taking part in the festival of first-fruits <ind 
other Shinto ceremonies. These dances were the origin of the Kagura .ind 
No performances. Another function of the Sarume is that indicated in the 
part taken by Uzume no Mikoto when the Gods enticed the Sun-Goddess 
out of her rock-cave. She is there said to have been divinely inspired. This 
divine inspiration has always been common in Japan. The inspired person 
Cadis into a trance, or hypnotic stale, in which he or she speaks in the 
character of some God. Such persons are now known as Miko, defined by 
Hepburn as * a woman who, dancing in a Miya, pretends to hold communica- 
tion with the Gods and the spirits of the dead,' in short a medium. There 
are also strolling mediums, as in England, women of a low class, who pre- 
tend to deliver messages from deceased friends or relatives. See Lowell's 
** Esoteric Shinto," in the "J. A. S. T.," and Index— Inspiration. 

* Master of religious abstinence or worship. 

8o NiHONGi, 

Katori in Adzuma.* After this the two Deities descended 
and arrived at the Little Shore of Itasa in Idzumo, and 
asked Oho-na-mochi no Kami, saying : — * Wilt thou 
deliver up this country to the Heavenly Deity, or no ? ' 
He answered and said : — * I suspected that ye two gods were 
coming to my place. Therefore I will not allow it.' There- 
upon Futsu-nushi no Kami forthwith returned upwards, and 
made his report. Now Taka-mi-musubi no Mikoto sent 
the two Gods back again, and commanded Oho-na-mochi 
no Mikoto, saying : — * Having now heard what thou hast 
said, I find that there is profound reason in thy words. 
Therefore again I issue my commands to thee more circum- 
stantially, that is to say : — Let the public matters which 
thou hast charge of be conducted by my grandchild, and 
do thou rule divine affairs. Moreover, if thou wilt dwell 
in the palace of Ama no Hi-sumi,' I will now build it for 
thee. I will take a thousand fathom rope* of the (bark of 
the) paper mulberry, and tie it in i8o knots. As to the 
dimensions of the building of the palace,* its pillars shall 
be high and massy, and its planks broad and thick. I will 
II. 20. ^Jso cultivate thy rice-fields for thee, and, for thy provision 

when thou goest to take pleasure on the sea, I will make 
for thee a high bridge, a floating bridge, and also a 
Heavenly bird-boat. Moreover, on the Tranquil River of 
Heaven I will make a flying-bridge. I will also make for 
thee white shields ' of 180 seams, and Ame no Ho-hi no 
Mikoto shall be the president of the festivals in thy honour.* 
Hereupon Oho-na-mochi no Kami answered and said : — 
* The instructions of the Heavenly Deity are so courteous 
that I may not presume to disobey his commands. Let 
the August Grandchild direct the public affairs of which I 
have charge. I will retire and direct secret matters.' So 
he introduced Kunado no Kami to the two Gods, saying : — 

* A general name for the eastern part of Japan. 
- Heaven-sun-corner. 

^ The rope was for measuring the site, say some. Or it may have been for 
lashing together the timbers of the building. 

* Or shrine. 

* Shields are frequently mentioned in the " Norito " among offerings to the 

The Age of the Gods. 8i 

* He will take my place and will yield respectful obedience. 
I will withdraw and depart from here.' He forthwith 
invested him with the pure Yasaka jewels, and then became 
concealed for ever.* Therefore Futsu-nushi no Kami ap- 
pointed Kunado no Kami ' as guide, and went on a circuit n. 21. 
of pacification. Any who were rebellious to his authority 
he put to death, while those who rendered obedience 
were rewarded. The chiefs of those who at this time 
rendered obedience were Oho-mono-nushi ' no Kami and 
Koto-shiro-nushi no Kami. So they assembled the eighty 
m\Tiads of Gods in the High Market-place of Heaven, and 
taking them up to Heaven with them, they declared their 
loyal behaviour. Then Taka-mi-musubi no Mikoto com- 
manded Oho-mono-nushi no Kami, saying : — * If thou dost 
take to wife one of the Deities of Earth, I shall still con- 
sider that thy heart is disaffected. I will therefore now give 
thee my daughter Mi-ho-tsu hime to be thy wife. Take with 
thee the eighty myriads of Deities to be the guards of my 
August Grandchild to all ages. So she sent him down 
again. Thereupon Ta-oki-ho-ohi no Kami, ancestor of the 
Imbe of the Land of Kii, was appointed hatter,^ Hiko-sachi 
no Kami was made shield-maker,* Ma-hitotsu no Kami « 
was made metal-worker, Ame no Hi-washi ' no Kami was 
appointed tree-fibre maker, and Kushi-akaru-dama no Kami 
ewel-maker.* n. 22. 

Taka-mi-musubi no Kami accordingly gave command, 
saying: — *I will set up a Heavenly divine fence' and a 

* i.e. died. * The Deity of roads ^ Great-thing-mastcr. 

* Kasa-nuhi, i.e. broad-hat-sewer. 

* Tate.nuhi, lit. shield-sewer. 

* The one-eyed God. It is curious that the Smith-God of Japan, like the 
Cyclops of Greek fable, should have but one eye. The " Kojiki " calls him 
^'^•tsu Mara, as to which see Index. Also Ch. K., p. 55. 

' Sun-eagle. Tree-fibre is yufu. It was the fibre for weavinij made of 
^"c inner bark of the paper-mulberry, and perhaps also included hemp. All 
^hese objects were used in Shinto ceremonies. 

Kushi means comb ; akaru, shining ; dama (for tama), jewel, 
In Japanese, himorogi. The "Shiki"says that this is the same thing which 
|s now called a shrine, but admits that its meaning is not clear. The usual 
interpretation is that the himorogi is a fence of sakaki (the sacred tree) 

82 NiHONGI. 

Heavenly rock-boundary wherein to practise religious 
abstinence * on behalf of my descendants. Do ye, Ame no 
Koyane no Mikoto and Futo-dama' no Mikoto, take 
with you the Heavenly divine fence, and go down to the 
Central Land of Reed-Plains. Moreover, ye will there 
practise abstinence' on behalf of my descendants.' So 
she attached the two Deities to Ame no Oshi-ho-mi-mi no 
Mikoto and sent them down. It was when Futo-dama no 
Mikoto was sent that the custom first began of worshipping 
this Deity wdth stout straps '* flung over weak shoulders 
when taking the place of the Imperial hand. From this, 
too, the custom had its origin, by which Ame no Koyane 
no Mikoto had charge of divine matters. Therefore he was 

planted round the enclosure consecrated for Shinto worship. But this 
interpretation is not without difficulty. In Suinin Tenno's reign we hear of 
a himorogi which was brought over from Corea and preserved as a sacred 
treasure. This could hardly have been a hedge. Another interpretation 
makes the himorogi an offering, and interprets the " Kuma" himorogi of the 
passage just referred to as an offering of bear's paws, one ofthe eight dainties 
of ancient Chinese literature. But it is not easy to see how this should be 
preserved as a sacred treasure. 

The derivation does not help us much. Hi is no doubt sun, used 
metaphorically, as in hi-kagami, sun-mirror or sacred-mirror ; hike, sun- 
child (prince); hime, sun-female (princess). This is fairly well represented 
by the Chinese character jp^ in the text. The remainder of the word, viz. 
morogi, is probably moro, a word of multitude, all, many, and gi (for ki), 
wood. There is a proper name, Take-morogi, where morogi is written with 
characters which imply this derivation. Hi-moro-gi is therefore a sacred row 
or group of sticks of some sort or another. 

I may mention a suspicion that the himorogi may be connected, perhaps 
by way of a survival, with a time when the Japanese Deities were a row of 
posts roughly carved into human shape. See above, p. 3. 

* This and other passages show that the Shinto place of worship might be 
merely a piece of ground enclosed for the purpose. The modem word for a 
Shinto shrine, viz. ya-shiro, house-enclosure or house-area, suggests the same 
inference. See Satow, " Japanese Rituals," in *' T.A.S.J.," Vol. VII., Pt. II., p. 
115. It will be remembered that the Roman templum and the Greek rifitvos 
had originally a similar signification. 

' The ancestor ofthe Imbe, or abstainers. 

' Including avoidance of ceremonial impurities, and hence used for 
religious worship generally. See above, note to p. 41. 

* For supporting a tray on which the offerings were placed. See " T.A.S.J.," 
Vol. VII., p. 112. 

The Age of the Gods. 83 

made to divine by means of the Greater Divination, and 
thus to do his service.* 

At this time Ama-terasu no Oho-kami took in her hand II. 23* 
the precious mirror, and, giving it to Ame no Oshi-ho-mi- 
mi no Mikoto, uttered a prayer, saying : — ' My child, when 
thou lookest upon this mirror, let it be as if thou wert 
looking on me. Let it be with thee on thy couch and in 
thy hall, and let it be to thee a holy' mirror.' Moreover, 
she gave command to Ame no Ko-yane no Mikoto and to 
Futo-dama no Mikoto, saying : — * Attend to me, ye two 
Gods! Do ye also remain together in attendance and 
guard it well.' She further gave command, saying : — * I 
will give over to my child the rice-ears of the sacred 
garden,* of which I partake in the Plain of High Heaven.' 
And she straightway took the daughter of Taka-mi-musubi 
no Mikoto, by name Yorodzu-hata-hime, and uniting her to 
Ame no Oshi-ho-mi-mi no Mikoto as his consort, sent her 
down. Therefore while she was still in the Void of Heaven,* 
she gave birth to a child, who was called Ama-tsu-hiko-ho 
no ninigi no Mikoto. She accordingly desired to send down 
this grandchild instead of his parents. Therefore on him 
she bestowed Ame no Ko-yane no Mikoto, Futo-dama no 
Mikoto, and the Deities of the various Be,' all without 
exception. She gave him, moreover, the things belonging 
to his person,* just as above stated. 

After this, Ame no Oshi-ho-mi-mi no Mikoto went back 
again to Heaven. Therefore Ama-tsu-hiko-ho no ninigi no 

' The Greater Divination was by observing the cracks in a deer's shoulder- 
Wade which had been exposed to fire. This is also a practice of the 
^incscand Mongols, but in China it is more common to use the shell of a 
tortoise for this purpose, as is sometimes done in Japan also. See Lcgge's 
"Chinese Classics," Vol. III., p. 335, 336. Ban Nobutomo has devoted a 
^"oric in two volumes to this subject, entitled j[£ |^ ^ • 

* The same word as is used above for religious abstinence. 

* The yu-niha, in which rice was grown under conditions of strict 
<^€ranonial purity for the festival of first-fruits. 

* Not the Takama no hara, or Plain of High Heaven, but the Oho-sora or 
Great Void, the space between Heaven and Earth. She was on her way 
<^wn wards. 

* The hatter, shield-maker, etc., mentioned above. 

* The regalia, or mirror, sword and jewel are doubtless meant. . 

G 2 

84 NiHONGI. 

Mikoto descended to the peak of Takachiho of Kushibi in 
II. 24. Hiiiga. Then he passed through the Land of Munasohi/ 

in Sojishi, by way of the Hill of Hitawo, in search of a 
country, and stood on a level part of the floating sand- 
bank. Thereupon he called to him Koto-katsu-kuni- 
katsu-Nagasa, the Lord of that country, and made inquir}- 
of him. He answered and said : — * There is a countr}*^ 
here. I will in any case obey thy commands.' Accord- 
ingly the August Grandchild erected a palace-hall and 
rested here. Walking afterwards by the sea-shore, he saw 
a beautiful woman. The August Grandchild inquired of 
her, saying : — * Whose child art thou ? ' She answered 
and said : — * Thy handmaiden is the child of Oho-yama- 
tsu-mi no Kami. My name is Kami-ataka-ashi-tsu-hime, 
and I am also called Ko-no-hana-saku-ya-hime.' Then 
she said : — * I have also an elder sister named Iha-naga- 
hime.'^ The August Grandchild said : — * I wish to make 
thee mv wife. How will this be ? ' She answered and 
said : — * I have a father, Oho-yama-tsu-mi no Kami, I pray 
thee ask him. The August Grandchild accordingly spake 
to Oho-yama-tsu-mi no Kami, saying : — * I have seen thy 
daughter and wish to make her my wife.* Hereupon 
Oho-yama-tsu-mi no Kami sent his two daughters with 
one hundred tables of food and drink to offer them respect- 
fully. Now the August Grandchild thought the elder 
sister ugly, and would not take her. So she went away. 
But the younger sister was a noted beauty. So he took 
her with him and favoured her, and in one night she became 
pregnant. Therefore Iha-naga-hime was greatly ashamed, 
and cursed him, saying: — ' If the August Grandchild had 
taken me and not rejected me, the children born to him 
would have been long-lived, and would have endured for 
ever like the massy rocks. But seeing that he has not done 
so, but has married my younger sister only, the children 
born to him will surely be decadent like the flowers of the 
trees.' " 

One version is : — '* Iha-naga-hime, in her shame and 

^ Above, p. 70, we have Muna-kuni or desert land. 

- Rock-long-princess. Ko-no-hana-saku-ya-hime is the *' Princess who 
blossoms like the flowers of the trees," 

■'M C'y 

The Age of the Gods. 85 

resentment, spat and wept. She said : — ■' The race of 
visible mankind shall change swiftly Hke the flowers of 
the trees, and shall decay and pass away.' This is the 
reason why the life of man is so short. II. 25. 

After this, Kami-ataka-ashi-tsu-hime saw the August 
Crandchild, and said : — * Thy handmaiden has conceived 
^ child by the August Grandchild. It is not meet that it 
should be born privately.' The August Grandchild said : 
— ' Child of the Heavenly Deity though I am, how could I 
in one night cause anyone to be with child ? Now it can- 
not be my child.' Kono-hana-saku-ya-hime was exceed- 
ingly ashamed and angry. She straightway made a door- 
less muro, and thereupon made a vow, saying : — * If the 
child which I have conceived is the child of another Deity, 
may it surely be unfortunate. But if it is truly the off- 
spring of the Heavenly Grandchild, may it surely be alive and 
unhurt.' So she entered the muro, and burnt it with fire. 
At this time, when the flames first broke out, a child was 
born w^ho was named Ho-no-susori no Mikoto ; next when 
the flame reached its height, a child was born who was 
named Ho-no-akari no Mikoto. The next child which was 
born was called Hiko-ho-ho-demi no Mikoto,^ and also 
Ho-no-wori no Mikoto." 

In one writing it is said : — *' When the flames first be- 
became bright, a child was born named Ho-no-akari no 
Mikoto; next, when the blaze was at its height, a child was 
born named Ho-no-susumi * no Mikoto, also called Ho-no- 
suseri no Mikoto ; next, when she recoiled from the blaze, 
a child was born named Ho-no-ori-hiko-ho-ho-demi no 
Mikoto — three children in all. The fire failed to harm them, 
and the mother, too, was not injured in the least. Then 
with a bamboo knife she cut their navel-strings.^ From 
the bamboo knife which she threw away, there eventually 

' Ho-ho-demi no Mikoto. The word Mikoto is here written with a different 
andmore honourable character than in the case of his two brothers, for the 
reason that this Deity was the direct ancestor of the Mikados. See above, 


' Flame-advance. 

' A note to the Shukai edition mentions a local custom of severing the 
umbilical cord with a bamboo or copper knife, .\nother custom is not to use 



II. 26. 


sprang up a bamboo grove. Therefore that place was 
called Taka-ya/ 

Now Kami-ataka-ashi-tsu-hime by divination fixed upon 
a rice-field to which she gave the name Sanada, and from 
the rice grown there brewed Heavenly sweet sake, with 
which she entertained him. Moreover, with the rice from 
the Nunada rice-field she made boiled rice and entertained 
h[m therewith." ' 

In one writing it is said : — ** Taka-mi-musubi no Mikoto 
took- the coverlet which was on ^W trnprniif;h and wr^PP^^ 
in it Ama-tsu-hiko-kuni-teru-hiko-ho no ninigi no Mikoto, 
wTio forthwith drew open the rock-door of Heaven, and 
thrusting asunder the eight-piled clouds of Heaven, de- 
scended. At this time Ama-no-oshi-hi no Mikoto, the 
ancestor of the Oho-tomo ' no Muraji, taking with him 
Ame-kushi-tsu Oho-kume, the ancestor of the Kume Be,* 
placed on his back the rock-quiver of Heaven, drew on his 

a knife, but to bite it throu<2^h, a thin garment being interposed. It should be 
breathed on seven times with warm breath before being tied. 

Superstition .and Ritual have a preference for knives of some more primi- 
tive material than iron. Medea shears her magic herbs " curvamine falcis 
aheme,'' and Zipporah performs the rite of circumcision with a sharp stone. 
But a more prosaic explanation of the present passage is suggested by a 
surgeon friend. There is less haemorrhage when a blunt instrument is used. 

* Bamboo-house. 

- This incident is the mythical counterpart of the annual festival of Nihi- 
nahe or nihi-name, now celebrated on November 23rd, when the new sea- 
son's rice is offered to the Gods and partaken of by the Emperor for the 
first time. It was grown in plots of ground (yu-niha), the j>osition of which 
was fixed upon by divination and prepared under strict conditions of cere- 
monial purity. Nihi means new, n represents no, the genitive particle, and 
ahe means feast. Name means to taste. 

The modern name of this festival is Shin-j6-sai. There is a similar one in 
China. In ancient times there was no distinction made between this and 
the Oho-nihe or Oho- name, when the Emperor at his accession offered rice 
to the Gods (now called the Daijoyc), both being called Oho-nihe. The 
prayer read at the Nihi-name is given among the norito in the Yengishiki, 
and Hirata devotes the last three vols, of the '* Koshidcn" to this subject. 

^ Great escort, i.e. of the Emperor. 

* I quite endorse Chamberlain's shrewd suggestion that this Kume is 
" nothing more nor less than an ancient mispronunciation of the Chinese word 
chiin (I^), the modern Japanese gun, army, troops." The Oho-tomo were 
the Imperial guards. V/We Ch. K., p. 112. 

The Age of the Gods. 87 

forearm a dread loud-sounding elbow-pad,' and grasped 
in his hand a Heavenly vegetable -wax-tree bow and a 
Heavenly feathered arrow, to which he added an eight -eyed 
sounding-arrow.* Moreover he girt on his mallet-headed 
sword,' and taking his place before the Heavenly Grand- 1 
child, proceeded downwards as far as the floating bridge of 
Heaven, which is on the two peaks of Kushibi of Taka- 
chiho in So in Hiuga. Then he stood on a level part of 
the floating sand-bank and passed through the desert land 

of Sojishi by way of Hitawo in search of a country 
until he came to Cape Kasasa in Ata no Nagaya, 
Now at this place there was a God named Koto-katsu- 
kuni-katsu-Nagasa. Therefore the Heavenly Grandchild 
inquired of this God, saying:— 'Is there a country?' 
He answered and said : — ' There is.' Accordingly 
he said : — ' I will yield it up to thee in obedience to thy 
commands.' Therefore the Heavenly Grandchild abode 
in that place. This Koto-katsu-kuni-katsu no Kami 

' See above, p. 34. 

' Or nari-kabura. CjIIcs says they were discharged by bjindils as a signaJ 
10 begin an attack. "Eigbl-eyed" means that there were several holes 
in the head, the air passing through which produced a humming sound. 
Parkersaysthat the nari-kabura is not Chinese, but an invention of the Huns. 
' From the way in which these s«ords arc associated with " stone-mallet " 
swords in the Jimmu Tenno narrative (see also Ch. K., pp. I12, [42), I am 
disposed to think that they were of stone, and probably identical with the 
mallet-shaped objects called raiko shown in I'late XI. of Kandas "Stone Im- 
plements of Japan,"' from «hich the illustration is taken. They were, no 
doubt, lashed to wooden handles, and used as weapons. 

88 NiHONGI. 

was the child of Izanagi no Mikoto, and his other name is 
Shiho-tsu-tsu-no oji." * 

In one writing it is said : — ** The Heavenly Grandchild 
favoured Ataka-ashi-tsu-hime, the daughter of Oho-yama- 
tsu-mi no Kami. In one night she became pregnant, and 
eventually gave birth to four children. Therefore Ataka- 
ashi-tsu-hime took the children in her arms, and, coming 
forward, said : — * Ought the children of the Heavenly 
Grandchild to be privately nurtured ? Therefore do I 
announce to thee the fact for thy information.' At this 
time the Heavenly Grandchild looked upon the children, 
and, with a mocking laugh, said : — * Excellent — these 
princes of mine ! Their birth is a delightful piece of news ! ' 
Therefore Ataka-ashi-tsu-hime was wroth, and said : — 
* Why dost thou mock thy handmaiden ? ' The Heavenly 
Grandchild said : — ' There is surely some doubt of this, 
and therefore did I mock. How is it possible for me. 
Heavenly God though I am, in the space of one night to 
cause anyone to become pregnant ? Truly they are not 
my ichildren.' On this account Ataka-ashi-tsu-hime was 
more and more resentful. She made a doorless muro, into 
which she entered, and made a vow, saying : — * If the 
children which I have conceived are not the oflfspring of 
the Heavenly Grandchild, let them surely perish. But if 
ithey are the offspring of the Heavenly Grandchild, let them 
II. 28. suffer no hurt.* So she set fire to the muro and burnt it. 

^ When the fire first became bright, a child sprang forth and 

I announced himself, saying: — * Here am I, the child of the 
Heavenly Deity, and my name is Ho-no-akari no Mikoto. 
Where is my father ? ' Next, the child who sprang forth 
when the fire was at its height also announced himself, 
saying: — * Here am I, the child of the Heavenly Deity, 
and my name is Ho-no-susumi no Mikoto. Where are my 
father and my elder brother ? ' Next, the child who sprang 
forth when the flames were becoming extinguished also 
announced himself, saying:—-* Here am I, the child of the 
Heavenly Deity, and my name is Ho-no-ori no Mikoto. 
Where are my father and my elder brothers ? ' Next, 
when she recoiled from the heat, a child sprang forth, and 

* Old man of the sea. 

\ ..«o 

The Age of the Gods. 89 

also announced himself, saying: — * Here am I, the child of 

the Heavenly Deity, and my name is Hiko-ho-ho-demi no 

!Mikoto. Where are my father and my elder brothers ? ' 

^After that, their mother, Ataka-ashi-tsu-hime, came forth 

from amidst the embers, and approaching, told him, 

raying : — ' The children which thy handmaiden has 

l)rought forth, and thy handmaiden herself, have of our 

own accord undergone the danger of fire,* and yet have 

suffered not the smallest hurt. Will the Heavenly Grand- 

•child not look on them ? ' He answered and said : — ' I 

Inew from the first that they were my children, only, as 

they were conceived in one night, I thought that there 

might be suspicions, and I wished to let everybody know 

that they are my children, and also that a Heavenly Deity 

can cause pregnancy in one night. Moreover, I wished to 

make it evident that thou dost possess a wonderful and 

extraordinary dignity, and also that our children have 

surpassing spirit. Therefore it was that on a former day 

I used words of mockery.' " 

In one writing it is said : — *' Ame no Oshi-ho-ne no 
Mikoto took to wife Taku-hata-chichi-hime Yorodzu-hata ' 
hime no Mikoto, daughter of Taka-mi-musubi no Mikoto." 
Another version says : — " Honoto-hata-hime-ko-chichi- 
hime no Mikoto, daughter of Taka-mi-musubi no Mikoto.'' 
She bore to him a child named Ama-no-ho-no-akari no 
Mikoto. Next she bore Ama-tsu-hiko-ne-ho-no-ninigi-ne 
no Mikoto. The child of Ama-no-ho-no-akari no Mikoto 
was called Kaguyama no Mikoto. He is the ancestor of 
the Ohari no Muraji. H. 29. 

When Taka-mi-musubi no Mikoto was sending down the~^ / 
Heavenly Grandchild Ho-no-ninigi no Mikoto to the 
Central Land of Reed- Plains, she commanded the eighty 
myriads of Gods, saying : — *' In the Central Land of Reed- 

The ordeal by fire is here alluded to. In later times the ordeal of 
»^iling water was also practised. Both customs are kept up by Shinto 
devotees in modem times. See Lowell's " Esoteric Shinto," in the "T.A.S.J." 
A picture in Hokusai's ** Mangwa " represents two in persons the garb of 
Buddhist priests passing through the ordeal of fire. 

' Myriad looms, or rather webs. The currency of ancient Japan consisted 
^f pieces of cloth. Hence Yorodzu-hata means wealthy. 


go NiHONGI. 

Plains, the rocks, tree-stems and herbage have still the 
power of speech. At night, they make a clamour like that 
of flames of fire ; in the day-time they swarm up like the 
flies in the fifth month, etc., etc." Now Taka-mi-musubi no 
Mikoto gave command, saying : — ** I formerly sent Ame- 
waka-hiko to the Central Land of Reed-Plains, but he has 
been long absent, and until now has not returned, perhaps 
being forcibly prevented by some of the Gods of the Land." 
She therefore sent the cock-pheasant Na-naki to go thither 
and spy out the reason. This pheasant went down, but when 
he saw the fields of millet and the fields of pulse he remained 
there, and did not come back. This was the origin of the 
modern saying, ** The pheasant special messenger." Therefore 
she afterwards sent the hen-pheasant Na-naki, and this bird 
came down and was hit by an arrow shot by Ame-waka- 
hiko, after which she came up and made her report, etc., 
etc. At this time Taka-mi-musubi no Mikoto took the 
coverlet which was upon the true couch, and having 
clothed therewith the Heavenly Grandchild Ama-tsu- 
hikone Ho-no-ninigi-ne no Mikoto, sent him downwards, 
thrusting asunder the eight-piled clouds of Heaven. 
Therefore this God was styled Ame-kuni-nigishi-hiko-ho- 
ninigi no Mikoto. Now the place at which he arrived on 
his descent is called the Peakof Sohori-yama of Takachiho 
II. 30. in So in Hiuga. When he proceeded therefore on his way, 

etc., etc.,* he arrived at Cape Kasasa in Ata, and finally 
ascended the Island of Takashima in Nagaya. He went 
round inspecting that land, and found there a man whose 
name was Koto-katsu-kuni-katsu Nagasa. The Heavenly 
Grandchild accordingly inquired of him, saying : — " Whose 
land is this ? " He answered and said : — " This is the land 
where Nagasa dwells. I will, however, now offer it to the 
Heavenly Grandchild." The Heavenly Grandchild again 
inquired of him, saying : — *' And the maidens who have 
built an eight-fathom palace on the highest crest of the 
waves and tend the loom with jingling wrist jewels, whose 
daughters are they ? " He answered and said : — " They 
are the daughters of Oho-yama-tsu-mi no Kami. The elder 
is named Iha-naga-hime, and the younger is named Kono- 
* These etc's mark intentional omissions. 

The Age of the Gods. 91 

hana saku-ya-hime,also called Toyo-ata-tsu hime, etc., etc." 

The August Grandchild accordingly favoured Toyo-ata-tsu 

liime, and after one night she became pregnant. The August 

Grandchild doubting this, etc., etc. Eventually she gave 

birth to Ho-no-suseri no Mikoto ; next she bore Ho-no-ori 

no Mikoto, also called Hiko-hoho-demi no Mikoto. Proof 

having been given by the mother's vow, it was known exactly 

that they were truly the offspring of the Heavenly Grandchild. 

Toyo-ata-tsu hime however was incensed at the Heavenly 

Grandchild, and would not speak to him. The Heavenly 

Grandchild, grieved at this, made a song, saying : — 

The sea-weed of the offing — 

Though it m«iy reach the shore : 

The true couch 

Is, alas ! impossible. 

Ah I ye dotterels of the beach I * 

In one writing it is said : — *' The daughter of Taka-mi- u, ^j^ 
musubi no Mikoto, Ama-yorodzu-taku-hata chi-hata hime." 
One version is : — ** Yorodzu-hata-hime ko-dama-vori- 
hime no Mikoto was the child of Taka-mi-musubi no 
Mikoto. This Goddess became the consort of Ame no 
Oshi-hone no Mikoto, and bore to him a child named Ama- 
no Ki-ho-ho-oki-se no Mikoto.'' 

One version is : — '' Katsu no haya-hi no Mikoto's child 
^vas Ama no Oho-mimi no Mikoto. This God took to wife 
Nigutsu hime, and had by her a child named Ninigi no 

One version is : — **The daughter of Kami-mi-musubi no 
Mikoto, Taku-hata chi-hata hime, bore a child named Ho- 
rio-ninigi no Mikoto.'' 

One version is : — ** Ama no Kise no Mikoto took to wife 
-Ata-tsu hime, and had children, first Ho-no-akari no 
Mikoto, next Ho-no-yo-wori no Mikoto, and next Hiko-ho- 
lio-demi no Mikoto." 

In one writing it is said : — *' Masa-ya-a-katsu-katsu-no- 
haya-hi Ama no Oshi-ho-mimi no Mikoto took to wife Ama 

regular tanka (short poem) of 31 syllables. The meaning is : ** The 
wce^5 of the deep sea may drift to the shore, but between thy couch and 
m\i\^ an impassable gulf is fixed. I appeal to you, ye dotterels of the beach! 
^'^ ^t. not so ? •' 

92 NiHONGI. 

no yorodzu-taku-hata-chi-hata hime, daughter of Taka-mi- 
musubi no Mikoto, and by her as consort had a child 
named Ama-teru-kuni-teru Hiko-ho no akari no Mikoto. 
He is the ancestor of the Ohari no Muraji. The next child 
was Ama-no-nigishi-kuni-no-nigishi Ama-tsu-hiko-ho-no 
ninigi no Mikoto. This God took to wife Kono hana saku- 
ya-hime no Mikoto, daughter of Oho-yama-tsu-mi no Kami, 
and by her as consort had first a child named Ho-no-susori 
no Mikoto, and next Hiko-hoho-demi no Mikoto." 
pyN The elder brother Ho-no-susori no Mikoto had by nature a 

xjL/ ^ sea-gift ; the younger brother Hiko-ho-ho-demi no Mikoto had 
by nature a mountain-gift.* In the beginning the two brothers, 
the elder and the younger, conversed together, saying: — " Let 
us for a trial exchange gifts." They eventually exchanged 
them, but neither of them gained aught by doing so. The elder 
brother repented his bargain, and returned to the younger 
brother his bow and arrows, asking for his fish-hook to be given 
back to him. But the younger brother had already lost the 
elder brother's fish-hook, and there was no means of finding it. 
He accordingly made another new hook which he offered to his 
elder brother. But his elder brother refused to accept it, and 
II. 32. demanded the old hook. The younger brother, grieved at this, 
forthwith took his cross-sword * and forged ^ from it new fish- 
hooks, which he heaped up in a winnowing tray, and offered to his 
brother. But his elder brother was wroth, and said : — ** These 
are not my old fish-hook : though they are many, I will not 
take them." And he continued repeatedly to demand it vehe- 
mently. Therefore Hiko-hoho-demi no Mikoto's grief was 
exceedingly profound, and he went and made moan by the shore 
of the sea. There he met Shiho-tsutsu "* no Oji.* The old 
man inquired of him saying : — ** Why dost thou grieve here ? " 
He answered and told him the matter from first to last. The 
old man said : — '' Grieve no more. I will arrange this matter 
for thee." So he made a basket without interstices, and placing 

* A talent for fishing and a talent for hunting. 

- The interlinear gloss has tachi, or simply sword. 

' This points to iron as the material of both swords and fish-hooks at the 
time when this story became current. The Homeric fish-hook was of horn 
— fiobs K€pas dypavXoio. See Index— Bronze Age. 

*«i-eldcr. * (irandfathcr or old-man. 

The Age of the Gods. 93 

in it Hoho-demi no Mikoto, sank it in the sea. Forthwith he 
found himself at a pleasant strand, where he abandoned the 
basket, and, proceeding on his way, suddenly arrived at the 
palace of the Sea-God. This palace was provided with battle- 
ments and turrets, and had stately towers. Before the gate 
there was a well, and over the well there grew a many-branched 
cassia-tree,* with wide-spreading boughs and leaves. Now 
Hiko-hoho-demi no Mikoto went up to the foot of this tree and 
loitered about. After some time a beautiful woman appeared, 
and, pushing open the door, came forth. She at length took a II. 33- 
jewel- vessel and approached. She was about to draw water, when, 
raising her eyes, she saw him, and was alarmed. Returning within, 
she spoke to her father and mother, saying : — '* There is a rare 
stranger at the foot of the tree before the gate." The God of 
the Sea thereupon prepared an eight-fold cushion and led him 
in. When they had taken their seats, he inquired of him the 
object of his coming. Then Hiko-hoho-demi no Mikoto ex- 
plained to him in reply all the circumstances. The Sea-God 
accordingly assembled the fishes, both great and small, and 
required of them an answer. They all said : — ** We know not^ -. 
Only the Red-woman - has had a sore mouth for some time past 
and has not come." She was therefore peremptorily summoned^ 
to appear, and on her mouth being examined the lost hook was 
actually found. 

After this, Hiko-hoho-demi no Mikoto took to wife the Sea- 
God's daughter, Toyo-tama *-hime, and dwelt in the sea-palace. 
For three years he enjoyed peace and pleasure, but still had a 
longing for his own country, and therefore sighed deeply from 
time to time. Toyo-tama-hime heard this and told her father, il. 34. 
saying : — ** The Heavenly Grandchild often sighs as if in grief. 
It may be that it is the sorrow of longing for his country." The 
God of the Sea thereupon drew to him Hiko-hoho-demi no 

* A castlc-gate with a tree growing before it, and a well at its bottom which 
serves as a mirror, are the stock properties of several old-world stories. The 
following is from Lang's "Custom and Myth," p. 91 : — "Then the Giant's 
dochter came to the palace where Nicht Nought Nothing was, and she went 
up into a tree to watch for him. The gardenei-'s dochter going to draw water 
in the well, saw the shadow," etc. 

* Aka-me, a name of the Tai (pagrus). ' Rich-jewel. 

94 NiHONGI. 

Mikoto, and addressing him in an easy, familiar way, said : — 
'* If the Heavenly Grandchild desires to return to his country 
I will send him back." So he gave him the fish-hook which he 
had found, and in doing so instructed him, saying : — " When 
thou givest this fish-hook to thy elder brother, before giving to 
him call to it secretly, and say, ** A poor hook." He further 
presented to him the jewel of the flowing tide and the jewel of 
the ebbing tide, and instructed him, saying : — ** If thou dost dip 
the tide-flowing jewel, the tide will suddenly flow, and there- 
withal thou shalt drown thine elder brother. But in case thy 
elder brother should repent and beg forgiveness, if, on the con- 
trary', thou dip the tide-ebbing jewel, the tide will spontaneously 
ebb, and therewithal thou shalt save him. If thou harass him 
in this way, thy elder brother will of his own accord render 

When the Heavenly Grandchild was about to set out on his 
return journey, Toyo-tama-hime addressed him, saying : — ** Thy 
handmaiden is already pregnant, and the time of her delivery is 
not far off. On a day when the winds and waves are raging, I 
will surely come forth to the sea-shore, and I pray thee that 
thou wilt make for me a parturition house,* and await me 

When Hiko-hoho-demi no Mikoto returned to his palace, he 
complied implicitly with the instructions of the Sea-God, and 
the elder brother, Ho-no-susori no Mikoto, finding himself in 
the utmost straits, of his own accord admitted his offence, and 
II. 35. said : — *' Henceforward I will be thy subject to perform mimic 
dances for thee. I beseech thee mercifully to spare my life." 
Thereupon he at length yielded his petition, and spared him.' 
This Ho-no-susori no Mikoto was the first ancestor of the 
Kimi of Wobashi in Ata. 

After this Toyo-tama-hime fulfilled her promise, and, bringing 
with her her younger sister, Tama-yori-hime, bravely confronted 
the winds and waves, and came to the sea-shore. When the 
time of her delivery was at hand, she besought Hiko-hoho-demi 
no Mikoto, saying : — ** When thy handmaiden is in travail, I 

* See above, p. T},. 

- Ever since the time of Cain and Abel, folk-lore has had a curious par- 
tiality for the younger of two brothers. The Jimmu legend contains several 
instances of this. 

The Age of the Gods. 


pray thee do not look upon her." However, the Heavenly 
Grandchild could not restrain himself, but went secretly and 
peeped in. Now Toyo-tama-hime was just in childbirth, and 
had changed into a dragon.' She was greatly ashamed, and 
said : — " Hadst thou not disgraced me, I would have made the 
sea and land communicate with each other, and for ever pre- 

vented them from being sundered. But now that thou hast 
disgraced me, wherewithal shall friendly feelings be knit ttr- 
gether ? " So she wrapped the infant in rushes, and abandoned 
it on the sea-shore. Then she barred the sea-path, and passed 
away.' Accordingly the child was called Hiko-nagisa-take-u- 
gaya-fuki-ahezu ' no Mikoto. 

Along time after, Hiko-hoho-demi no Mikoto died, and was 
buried in the Misasagi on the summit of Mount Takaya in 

In one writing it is said : — " The elder brother Ho-no- ] 
susori no Mikoto had acquired a mountain-gift. Now the 
elder and younger brothers wished to exchange gifts, and 
therefore the elder brother took the bow which was of the gift 
of the younger brother, and went to the mountain in quest 

• n the accompanying illustralion from a. Japanese book (printed 1746), 
•^ l^ea-KinR and his daughter are represented as coinbininj; the Dragon 
''" the human form. See above, p, 61. 

*■' There are many examples of ihe disappearance of the bride or bride- 
5"*'^<n in consequence of the in fringe men I of various mystic rules." Lang's 
•^^islomand Myth," p. Bl. 

I'tince-beac h -brave -co rmo ran 1-rush- thatch-unfinished. The application 
"^tV»c latter part of the name will appear from one of the ^■ariant myths given 
™^^^*. See also Ch. K.. p. 127. 


96 NiHONGI. 

of wild animals. But never a trace of game did he see. 

The 30unger brother took the fish-hook of his elder 

brother's gift, and with it went a-fishing on the sea, but 

caught none at all, and finally lost his fish-hook. Then 

the elder brother restored his younger brother's bow and 

arrows, and demanded his own fish-hook. The younger 

brother was sorry, and of the cross-sword which he had 

in his girdle made fish-hooks, which he heaped up in 

a winnowing tray, and offered to his elder brother. But 

the elder brother refused to receive them, saying: — * I still 

wish to get the fish-hook of my gift.' Hereupon Hiko- 

hoho-demi no Mikoto, not knowing where to look for it, 

only grieved and made moan. He went to the sea-shore, 

where he wandered up and down lamenting. Now there 

was an old man, who suddenly came forward, and gave 

^Tiis name as Shiho-tsuchi no Oji. He asked him, 

\ saying : — * Who art thou, my lord, and why dost thou 

• grieve here ? ' Hiko-hoho-demi no Mikoto told him all 

, that had happened. Whereupon the old man took from a 

.bag a black comb, which he flung upon the ground. It 

straightway became changed into a multitudinous * clump 

of bamboos. Accordingly he took these bamboos and 

made of them a coarse basket with wide meshes, in which 

he placed Hiko-hoho-demi no Mikoto, and cast him into 

the sea." 

One version says: — ** He took a katama without 
interstices, and made of it a float, to which he attached 
Hoho-demi by a cord and sunk him." [TAe term katama 
means what is now called a bamboo-basket, \ 

Now there is in the bottom of the sea a natural ** Little- 
shore of delight." Proceeding onwards, along this shore, 
he arrived of a sudden at the palace of Toyo-tama-hiko, the 
God of the Sea. This palace had magnificent gates and 
towers of exceeding beauty. Outside the gate there w-as a 
well, and beside the well was a cassia-tree. He approached 
^^' the foot of this tree, and stood there. After a while 

a beautiful woman, whose countenance was such as is not 
anywhere to be seen, came out from within, followed by a 
be\y of attendant maidens. She was drawing water in a 

' Lit. 500. 

The Age of the Gods. 97 

jewel-urn, when she looked up and saw Hoho-demi no 
Mikoto. She was startled, and returning, told the God, her 
father, saying : — * At the foot of the cassia-tree without 
the gate, there is a noble stranger of no ordinary build. If 
he had come down from Heaven, he would have had on 
him the filth of Heaven ; if he had come from Earth, he 
would have had on him the filth of Earth. Could he be 
really the beautiful prince of the sky ? ' ' 

One version says : — ** An attendant of Toyo-tg-ma-hime 
was drawing water in a jewel-pitcher, but she could not 
manage to fill it. She looked down into the well, when 
there shone inverted there the smiling face of a man. She 
looked up and there was a beautiful God leaning against a 
cassia-tree. She accordingly returned within, and informed 
her mistress. 

Hereupon Toyo-tama-hiko sent a man to inquire, 
saying: — *Who art thou, O stranger, and why hast thou 
come here ? ' Hoho-demi no Mikoto answered and said : — 
* I am the grandchild of the Heavenly Deity,' and ulti- 
mately went on to give the reason of his coming. 

Then the God of the Sea w^ent out to meet him. He 
made him obeisance, and led him within, where he inquired 
courteously of his welfare, and gave him to wife his 
daughter, Toyo-tama-hime. Therefore he remained and 
dwelt in the palace of the sea. Three years passed, after 
which Hoho-demi no Mikoto sighed frequently, and Toyo- 
tama-hime asked him, saying: — * Does the Heavenly 
Grandchild perchance w ish to return to his native land ? ' 
He answered and said : — * It is so.' Toyo-tama-hime 
forthwith told the God her father, and said : — * The 
noble guest who is here wishes to return to the upper 
countr)'.' Hereupon the God of the Sea assembled all the il. 38. 
fishes of the sea, and asked of them the fish-hook. Then 
one fish answered and said : — * The Red-woman * (also 
called the Red Tahi) has long had an ailment of the mouth. 
I suspect that she has swallowed it.' So the Red-woman 
was forthwith summoned, and on looking into her mouth, the 
hook was still there. It was at once taken and delivered 
to Hiko-hoho-demi no Mikoto, with these instructions : — 

* See above, p. 93. 






II. 39. 

rs^ When thou givest the fish-hook to thy elder brother, thou 
j must use this imprecation : ** The origin of poverty : the be- 
ginning of starvation : the root of wretchedness." Give it not 
ohim until thou hast said this. Again, if thy brother cross 
the sea, I will then assuredly stir up the blasts and billows, and 
make them overwhelm and vex him.' Thereupon he placed 
Hoho-demi no Mikoto on the back of a great sea-monster, 
and so sent him back to his own country. 

At another time, before this, Toyo-tama-hime spoke in 
an easy, familiar way, and said : — * Thy handmaid is with 
child. Some day, when the winds and waves are boisterous, 
I will come forth to the sea-shore, and I pray thee to con- 
struct for me a parturition-house, and to await me there.' 

After this, Toyo-tama-hime fulfilled her promise to come, 
and spake to Hoho-demi no Mikoto, saying: — * To-night 
thy handmaiden will be delivered. I pray thee, look not 
on her.' Hoho-demi no Mikoto would not hearken to her, 
but with a comb ^ he made a light, and looked at her. At 
this time Toyo-tama-'hime had become changed into an 
enormous sea-monster of eight fathoms, and was wriggling 
about on her belly. She at last was angry that she was 
put to shame, and forthwith went straight back again to 
her native sea, leaving behind her younger sister Tama-yori- 
hime as nurse to her infant. The child was called Hiko- 
nagisa-take-u-gaya-fuki-ayezu no Mikoto, because the 
parturition-house by the sea-shore was all thatched with 
cormorants' feathers, and the child was born before the 
tiles had met. It was for this reason that he received this 



One version says: — ** Before the gate there was a beau- 
tiful well, and over the well there grew a cassia-tree with 
an hundred branches. Accordingly Hiko-hoho-demi no 
Mikoto sprang up into that tree and stood there. At this 
time, Toyo-tama-hime, the daughter of the God of the 
Sea, came with a jewel-bowl in her hand and was about to 
draw water, when she saw in the well the reflection of a 

* See above, p. 24. 

* There is a superstition that a woman in childbirth gained relief by 
holding a cormorant's feather in her hand. A cowrie (ko-yasu-gai) is used 
for the same purpose, no doubt on account of its shape. See above, p. 95. 

The Age of^tae Gods. 99 

man. She looked up and was startled, so that she let fall 
the bowl, which was broken to pieces. But without regard 
for it, she returned within and told her parents, saying: — 
* I have seen a man on the tree which is beside the well. 
His countenance is very beautiful, and his form comply. 
He is surely no ordinary person.' When the God, her 
father, heard this, he wondered. Having prepared an 
eight-fold cushion, he went to meet him, and brought him 
in. When they were seated, he asked the reason of his 
coming, upon which he answered and told him all his case. 
Now the God of the Sea at once conceived pity for him, 
and summoning all the broad of fin and narrow of fin, 
made inquiry of them. They all said : — * We know not. 
Only the Red-woman has an ailment of the mouth 
and has not come.' [Another version is : — * The Kuchi-me * 
has an ailment of the mouth.'] So she was sent for in all 
haste, and on searching her mouth, the lost fish-hook was 
at once found. Upon this the God of the Sea chid her, 
saying : — * Thoii Kuchime ! Henceforward thou shalt not 
be able to swallow a bait, nor shalt thou be allowed to have 
a place at the table of the Heavenly Grandchild.' This is 
the reason why the fish kuchime is not among the articles 
of food set before the Emperor. 

When the time came for Hiko-hoho-demi no Mikoto to 
take his departure, the God of the Sea spake to him, say- 
ing : — * I am rejoiced in my inmost heart that the Heavenly 
Grandchild has now been graciously pleased to visit me. 
When shall I ever forget it ? ' So he took the jewel which u ^q. 
xvhen thought of makes the tide to flow, and the jewel 
which when thought of makes the tide to ebb, and joining 
them to the fish-hook, presented them, saying : — 'Though 
the Heavenly Grandchild may be divided from me by eight- 
fold windings (of road), I hope that we shall think of each 
other from time to time. Do not therefore throw them 
away.' And he taught him, saying : — * When thou givest 
this fish-hook to thy elder brother, call it thus : — * A hook 
of poverty, a hook of ruin, a hook of downfall.' When 
thou hast said all this, fling it away to him with thy back 
turned, and deliver it not to him face to face. If thy elder 

* Kuchi-me means " mouth-female.^ 

H 2 


brother is angry, and has a mind to do thee hurt, then 
produce the tide-flowing jewel and drown him therewith. 
As soon as he is in peril and appeals for mercy, bring forth 
the tide-ebbing jewel and therewith save him. If thou dost 
vex him in this way, he will of his own accord become thy 
submissive vassal.' Now Hiko-hoho-demi no Mikoto, 
having received the jewels and the fish-hook, came back to 
his original palace, and followed implicitly the teaching of 
the Sea-God. First of all he offered his elder brother the 
fish-hook. His elder brother was angry and would not re- 
ceive it. Accordingly the younger brother produced the 
tide-flowing jewel, upon which the tide rose with a mighty 
overflow, and the elder brother was drowning. Therefore 
he besought his younger brother, saying : — * I will serve 
thee as thy slave. I beseech thee, spare my life.' The 
younger brother then produced the tide-ebbing jewel, 
whereupon the tide ebbed of its own accord, and the elder 
brother was restored to tranquillity. After this the elder 
brother changed his former words, and said : — * I am thy 
elder brother. How can an elder brother serve a younger 
brother ? ' Then the younger brother produced the tide- 
flowing jewel, which his elder brother seeing, fled up to a 
high mountain. Thereupon the tide also submerged the 
mountain. The elder brother climbed a lofty tree, and 
thereupon the tide also submerged the tree. The elder 
brother was now at an extremity, and had nowhere to 
II. 41. fle^ to. So he acknowledged his offence, saying: — * I have 

been in fault. In future my descendants for eighty gener- 
ations shall serve thee as thy mimes in ordinary. [One 
version has * dog-men.'] I pray thee, have pity on me.* 
Then the younger brother produced the tide-ebbing jewel, 
whereupon the tide ceased of its own accord. Hereupon 
the elder brother saw that the younger brother was pos- 
sessed of marvellous powers, and at length submitted to 
serve him. 

On this account the various Hayato descended from Ho 
no susori no Mikoto to the present time do not leave the 
vicinity of the enclosure of the Imperial Palace, and render 
service instead of barking dogs.* 

* The Hayato constituted the Imperial Ciuard. The literal meaning of the 

The Age of the Gods. ioi 

This was the origin of the custom which now prevails of 
not pressing a man to return a lost needle." * 

In one writing it is said : — " The elder brother, Ho no 
susori no Mikoto, was endowed with a sea-gift, and was 
therefore called Umi no sachi-hiko : * the younger brother, 
Hiko-hoho-demi no Mikoto, was endowed with a mountain- 
gift, and was therefore called Yama no sachi-hiko. When- U- 42. 
€ver the wind blew and the rain fell, the elder brother lost 
his gain, but in spite of wind and rain the younger brother's 
gain did not fail him. Now the elder brother spoke to the 
younger brother, saying : — * I wish to make trial of an ex- 
change of gifts with thee.' The younger brother consented, 
and the exchange was accordingly made. Thereupon the 
elder brother took the younger brother's bow and arrows, 
and went a-hunting to the mountain : the younger brother 
took the elder brother's fish-hook, and went on the sea 
a-fishing. But neither of them got anything, and they 
came back empty-handed. The elder brother acpordingly 
restored to the younger brother his bow and arrows, and 
demanded back his own fish-hook. Now the younger 
brother had lost the fish-hook in the sea, and he knew n6t 
how to find it. Therefore he made other new fish-hooks, 
several thousands in number^ which he offered to his elder 
brother. The elder brother was angry, and would not re- 
ceive them, but demanded importunately the old fish-hook, 
etc., etc. Then the younger brother went to the sea-shore 
and wandered about, grieving and making moan. Now 

^lUe (for haya-bito) is falcon-man. They were from the provinces of 

^tsuina and Ohosumi. TheiHayato are mentioned repeatedly in the reigns 

* ^mmu and Jito, not, I think, before that time. 

*^c Yengi-shiki (regulations of the Yengi, 901-923 period) says that on 

ftrst day of the year, at coronations, and when foreign envoys were 

^^i^ed, twenty upper class hayato were to attend, twenty " new-comer " 

^y^^to, and 132 ordinary hayato. These were to take their posts in detach- 

^^^tsto right and left outside the Palace Gate. When the officials first 

^^red, or got up from their seats, the ** new-comer " hayato raised three 

, '^■^s, and there was more barking or howling, sometimes loud and some- 

"^^s low, at other stages of the ceremony. 

"The Japanese word hari means both needle and fish-hook. There is no 
5^^^ ambiguity in the Chinese characters used here. 


there was there a river wild-goose which had become en- 
tangled in a snare, and was in distress. He took pity on it, 
and loosing it, let it go. Shortly after there appeared Shiho 
tsutsu no Oji. He came and made a skiff of basket-work 
without interstices, in which he placed Hoho-demi no 
Mikoto and pushed it off into the sea, when it sank 
down, of its own accord, till of a sudden there appeared the 
Pleasant Road. So he went on along this road, which in 
due course led him to the palace of the Sea-God. Then the 
Sea- God came out himself to meet him, and invited him to 
enter. He spread eight layers of sea-asses' * skins, on which 
he made him to sit, and with a banquet of tables of a hun- 
dred, which was already prepared, he fulfilled the rites of 
hospitality. Then he inquired of him in an easy manner : — 

* Wherefore has the Grandchild of the Heavenly Deity been 
graciously pleased to come hither ? ' " 

[One version has : — ** A little while ago my child came 
and told me that the Heavenly Grandchild was mourning 
by the sea-shore. Whether this be true or false I know 
not, but perhaps it may be so."J 

Hiko-hoho-demi no Mikoto related to him all that had 
happened from first to last. So he remained there, and 
the Sea-God gave him his daughter Toyo-tama-hime to 
wife. At length, when three years had passed in close and 
II. 43. warm affection, the time came for him to depart. So the 

Sea-God sent for the tahi, and on searching her mouth found 
there the fish-hook. Thereupon he presented the fish-hook 
to Hiko-hoho-demi no Mikoto, and instructed him thus: — 

* When thou givest this to thy elder brother thou must 
recite the following : — ** A big hook, an eager hook, a poor 
hook, a silly hook." After saying all this, fling it to him with 
a back-handed motion.' Then he summoned together the 
sea-monsters, and inquired of them, saying : — * The Grand- 
child of the Heavenly Deity is now about to take his de- 
parture homewards. In how many days will you accom- 
plish this service ? * Then all the sea-monsters fixed each a 
number of days according to his own length. Those of 

* The interlinear gloss has michi. One of the marine camivora is meant, 
probably the seal. 

The Age of the Gods. 103 

them which were one fathom long of their own accord said : 
— * In the space of one day we will accomplish it.' The one- 
fathom sea-monsters were accordingly sent with him as his 
escort. Then he gave him two precious objects, the tide- 
flowing jewel and the tide-ebbing jewel, and taught him how 
to use them. He further instructed him, saying : — * If thy 
elder brother should make high fields, do thou make puddle 
fields ; if thy elder brother make puddle fields, do thou make 
liigh fields. In tKis manner did the Sea-God in all sin- 
cerity lend him his aid. Now Hiko-hoho-demi no Mikoto, 
-when he returned home, followed implicitly the God's in- 
structions, and acted accordingly. When the younger 
brother produced the tide-flowing jewel, the elder brother 
forthwith flung up his hands in the agony of drowning. 
But when, on the other hand, he produced the tide-ebbing 
jewel, he was relieved, and recovered. After that Hi no 
susori no Mikoto pined away from day to day, and 
lamented, saying : — * I have become impoverished.' So he 
yielded submission to his younger brother. 

Before this Toyo-tama-hime spake to the Heavenly 11. 44. 
Grandchild, saying : — * That which thy handmaid has 
conceived is the offspring of the Heavenly Grandchild. 
How could I give birth to it in the midst of the ocean ? 
Therefore when the time of my delivery comes, I will surely 
betake myself to my lord's abode, and it is my prayer that 
thou shouldst build me a house by the sea-side and 
a.wait me there.' Therefore Hiko-ho-ho-demi no Mikoto, 
^s soon as he returned to his own country, took cormorants' 
leathers, and with them as thatch, made a parturition-house. 
But before the tiling of the house was completed, Toyo- 
tama-hime herself arrived, riding on a great tortoise, with 
lier younger sister Tama-yori-hime, and throwing a 
splendour over the sea. Now the months of her pregnancy 
were already fulfilled, and the time of her delivery was 
urgent. On this account she did not wait till the 
thatching of the house was completed, but went straight in 
and remained there. Then she spake quietly to the 
Heavenly Grandchild, saying : — * Thy handmaid is 
about to be delivered. I pray thee do not look on her.' 
The Heavenly Grandchild wondered at these words, and 

104 NiHONGI. 

peeped in secretly, when behold, she had become changed 
into a great sea-monster of eight fathoms. Now she was 
aware that the Heavenly Grandchild had looked in upon 
her privacy, and was deeply ashamed and resentful. When 
the child was born, the Heavenly Grandchild approached 
and made inquiry, saying : — * By what name ought the 
child to be called ? ' She answered and said : — * Let him 
be called Hiko-nagisa-take-u-gaya-fuki-ahezu no Mikoto.' * 
Having said so, she took her departure straight across 
the sea. Then Hiko-hoho-demi no Mikoto made a song, 
saying :— 

Whatever befals me. 

Ne'er shall I forget my love 

With whom I slept 

In the island of wild-ducks — 

The birds of the offing." * 

II. 45. Another account says : — ** Hiko-ho-ho-demi no Mikoto 

took other women and made them wet-nurses, bathing- 
women, boiled-rice-chewers, and wa^erwomen.' All these 
various Be were provided for the respectful nurture of 
the infant. The provision at this time, by means of other 
women, pf milk for the nurture of the august child was the 
origin of the present practice of engaging temporarily wet- 
nurses to bring up infants. 

After this, when Toyo-tama-hime heard what a fine boy 
her child was, her heart was greatly moved with affection, 
and she wished to come back and bring him up herself. 
But she could not rightly do so, and therefore she sent her 
younger sister Tama-yori-hime to nurture him. Now when 
Toyo-tama-hime sent Tama-yori-hime, she offered (to Hoho- 
demi no Mikoto) the following verse in answer : — 

Some may boast 
Of the splendour 
Of red jewels. 

* See above, p. 95. 

- The order of the lines in the original is exactly the reverse of the above. 
Metre, regular tanka. 

The word for " my love " is imo, which in ancient Japanese is used 
indifferently for wife and younger sister. See above, p. 22. 

' Evidently the narrator is here describing the staff of the Imperial 
nursery of the day. 

The Age of the Gods. 105 

But those worn by my Lord- 
It is they which are admirable.^ 

These two stanzas, one sent, and one in reply, are what 
are termed age-uta." * 

In one writing it is said : — ** The elder brother. Ho no 
susori no Mikoto had a sea-gift, while the younger brother, 
Ho no ori no Mikoto, had a mountain gift, etc., etc. 

The younger brother remained by the sea-shore grieving IL 46. 
and making moan, when he met with Shiho-tsutsu no Oji, 
who inquired of him, saying : — * Why dost thou grieve in this 
way ? ' Ho no ori no Mikoto answered and said, etc., etc. 

The old man said : — * Grieve no longer. I will devise a 
plan.* So he unfolded his plan, saying: — *The courser 
on which the Sea-God rides is a sea-monster eight fathoms 
in length, who with fins erect stays in the small orange- 
tree house. I will consult with him.' So he took Ho no 
ori no Mikoto with him, and went to see the sea-monster. 
The sea-monster then suggested a plan, saying : — * I could 
bring the Heavenly Grandchild to the Sea-Palace after a 
journey of eight days, but my King has a courser, a sea- 
monster of one fathom, who will without doubt bring him 
thither in one day. I will therefore return and make him 
come to thee. Thou shouldst mount him, and enter the 
sea. When thou enterest the sea, thou wilt in due course 
find there ** the Little-shore of delight.'* Proceed along this 
shore and thou wilt surely arrive at the palace of my King. 
Over the well at the palace gate there is a multitudinous 
branching cassia-tree. Do thou climb up on to this tree 
and stay there.' Having so said, he entered into the sea, 
and departed. Accordingly the Heavenly Grandchild, in 
compliance with the sea-monster's words, remained there, 
and waited for eight days, when there did indeed appear to 
him a sea-monster of one fathom. He mounted on it, and 
entered the sea, where he followed in every particular the 
former sea-monster's advice. Now there appeared an 
attendant of Toyo-tama-hime, carrying a jewel-vessel, with 

* The " Kojiki " gives a different version of this poem. Vide Ch. K. , p. 1 28. 
' Ageru means to exalt, hence to praise, and ageuta may be rendered 
"complimentary poetry." 


which she was about to draw water from the well, when 
she espied in the bottom of the water the shadow of a man. 
She could not draw water, and looking up saw the Heavenly 
Grandchild. Thereupon she went in and informed the 
King, saying : — * I had thought that my Lord alone was 
supremely handsome, but now a stranger has appeared who 
far excels him- in beauty.' When the Sea-God heard this, 
he said : — * I will try him and see.' So he prepared a 
threefold dais. Thereupon the Heavenly Grandchild wiped 
both his feet at the first step of the dais. At the middle 
one he placed both his hands to the ground ; at the inner 
one he sat down at his ease* upon the cushion covering 
the true couch. When the Sea-God saw this, he knew that 
this was the grandchild of the Heavenly Deity, and treated 
n* 47- him with more and more respect, etc., etc. 

The Sea-God summoned the Akame and the Kuchime, 
and made inquiry of them. Then the Kuchime drew a 
fish-hook from her mouth and respectfully delivered it to him. 
[The Akame is the Red Tahi and the Kuchime is the Nayoshi^ 
The Sea-God then gave the fish-hook to Hiko-hoho-demi 
no Mikoto, and instructed him, saying : — * When thy 
elder brother's fish-hook is returned to him, let the 
Heavenly Grandchild say : — " Let it be to all thy descend- 
ants, of whatever degree of relationship, a poor hook, a paltry 
poor hook." When thou hast thus spoken, spit thrice, and 
give it to him. Moreover, when thy elder brother goes to 
sea a-fishing, let the Heavenly Grandchild stand on the 
sea-shore and do that which raises the wind. Now that 
which raises the wind is whistling. If thou doest so, I will 
forthwith stir up the wind of the offing and the wind of the 
shore, and will overwhelm and vex him with the scurrying 
waves.' Ho no ori no Mikoto returned, and obeyed 
implicitly the instructions of the God. When a day came 
on which the elder brother went a-fishing, the younger 
brother stood on the shore of the sea, and whistled. Then 
there arose a sudden tempest, and the elder brother was 
forthwith overwhelmed and harassed. Seeing no means of 

* i.e. with Ieg5 crossed, which is less respectful than the usual squatting 
posture. ' Mullet. 

The Age of the Gods. 107 

saving his life, he besought his younger brother from afar, 
saying: — 'Thou hast dwelt long in the ocean-plain, and 
imust possess some excellent art. I pray thee teach it to 
me. If thou save my life, my descendants of all degrees 
of relationship shall not leave the neighbourhood of thy 
precinct, but shall act as thy mime-vassals.' Thereupon 
the younger brother left off whistling, and the wind again 
returned to rest. So the elder brother recognized the 
younger brother's power, and freely admitted his fault. But 
the younger brother was wroth, and would hold no converse 
with him. Hereupon the elder brother, with nothing but 
his waistcloth on, and smearing the palms of his hands and 
his face with red earth, said to his younger brother: — n. 48. 
*Thus do I defile my body, and make myself thy mime for 
ever.' So kicking up his feet, he danced along and 
practised the manner of his drowning struggles. First 
of all, when the tide reached his feet, he did the foot- 
divination ; * when it reached his knees, he raised up his feet ; 
when it reached his thighs, he ran round in a circle ; when 
it reached his loins, he rubbed his loins ; when it reached 
his sides, he placed his hands upon his breast ; when it 
reached his neck, he threw up his hands, waving his palms. 
From that time until now, this custom has never ceased. 

Before this, Toyo-tama-hime came forth, and when the 
time came for her delivery, she besought the Heavenly 
Grandchild, saying, etc., etc. 

The Heavenly Grandchild did not comply with her 
request, and Toyo-tama-hime resented it greatly, say- 
ing : — ' Thou didst not attend to my words, but didst put 
me to shame. Therefore from this time forward, do not 
send back again any of the female servants of thy handmaid 
who may go to thy place, and I will not send back any of 
thy servants who may come to my place.' At length she 
took the coverlet of the true couch and rushes, and 
wrapping her child in them, laid him on the beach. She 
then entered the sea and went away. This is the reason 
why there is no communication between land and sea.'' n. 49. 

One version says : — ''The statement that she placed the 

^ i e. shuffled with his feet, as when performing this kind of divination. 


child on the beach is wrong. Toyo-tama-hime no Mikoto 

departed with the child in her own arms. Many days 

after, she said : — * It is not right that the offspring of the 

Heavenly Grandchild should be left in the sea,' so she made 

Tama-yori-hime to take him, and sent him away. At first, 

when Toyo-tama-hime left, her resentment was extreme, 

and Ho no ori no Mikoto therefore knew that they would 

never meet again, so he sent her the verse of poetry which 

is already given above." 

Hiko-nagisa-take-u-gaya-fuki-ahezu no Mikoto took his aunt 

Tama-yori-hime as his consort, and had by her in all four 

male children, namely, Hiko-itsu-se * no Mikoto, next Ina-ihi* 

no Mikoto, next Mi-ke-iri-no' no Mikoto, and next Kamu- 

yamato-Ihare-biko no Mikoto. Long after, Hiko-nagisa-take-u- 

gaya-fuki-ahezu no Mikoto died, in the palace of the western 

country, and was buried in the Misasagi on the top ef Mount 

Ahira in Hiuga. 

One writing says : — ** His first child was Hiko-itsu-se no 
Mikoto, the next Ina-ihi no Mikoto, the next Mi-ke-iri-no no 
Mikoto, and the next Sano no Mikoto, also styled Kamu*- 
yamato-Ihare-biko no Mikoto. Sano was the name by 
which he was called when young. Afterwards when he 
had cleared and subdued the realm, and had control of the 
11^ jo^ eight islands, the title was added of Kamu-yamato Ihare- 

biko no Mikoto." 

In one writing it is said : — ** His first child was Itsu-se 
no Mikoto, the next Mikeno no Mikoto, the next Ina-ihi no 
Mikoto, and the next Ihare-biko no Mikoto, also styled 
Kamu-yamato Ihare-biko Hoho-demi no Mikoto." 

In one writing it is said : — ** First he had Hiko-itsuse no 
Mikoto, next Ina-ihi no Mikoto, next Kamu-yamato Ihare 
biko Hoho-demi no Mikoto, next Waka-mi-ke-no no 

In one writing it is said : — ** First he had Hiko-itsu-se 
no Mikoto, next Ihare-biko Hoho-demi no Mikoto, next 
Hiko Ina-ihi no Mikoto, next Mi-ke-iri-no no Mikoto." 

* Prince-five-reaches. ^ Boiled rice. 

3 Three-hairs-enter.moor. * Or Kami. 



^^B Emperor Kami Yamato Ihare-biko's personal name wa 

*t "•ihrr:! 

Emperor is as near an equivalent as possible of the Chinese ^ 

^^^1 are foreign words. The Japanese interlinear gloss is Sumera Mikoto 
^^preme majesty," sumera having the same root as suberu, " to unite as a 
*^ole"; hence, "to have general control of." See Satow, "Rituals," 
A.S.J.," VII., ii., p. 113. 
'Vfamato, see above, note to p. 13. 

I hare is the name of a district of Yamato ; Hiko means prince. 
Jimmu (divine valour) is a posthumous name. These names for the 
lier Mikados were invented in the reign of Kwammu (782 — 806), after the 
ihongi " was written, but it is necessary to mention them, as they are in 
aniversal use by Japanese writers. 

In this narrative we have probably a legendary echo of a real movement 

of" population from Kiushiu eastwards to Yamato, at some time before the 

Christian epoch, but it is not safe to go further than this. The details are 

'^'^^ifestly fictitious, some of them, as the quotations from Chinese books put 

JQtothe mouth of Jimmu Tenno, demonstrably so. 

Granting for a moment that the narrative of the Conquest of Yamato by J immu 

*eatio is substantially true, the question arises. Of what race were the tribes 

*'nom he found there ? I would suggest that they may have been the Southern 

^^ Tnentioned in the " Shan hai king," a very ancient Chinese book, as being, 

^iOTig ^^^lh the Northern Wa, subject to the kingdom of Yen. The Chinese in 

^nci^nt times had a notion that Yamato lay to the south of Kiushiu. Yen, 

^ "^^rigdom of Northern Chin«i, had an independent existence from B.C. 11 22 

to li.c. 265. Chamberlain has pointed out that the ancient legends of Japan 

^^^ connected with three distinct centres— I dzumo, Yamato, and Tsukushi, 

^'^'^^liis some indication that these places were also centres of governmental 

^^^^ority. The names given to the chieftains subdued by Jimmu Tenno are 

ui^rnistakably Japanese, as are also those of the places which they inhabited. 

' ^^linot agree with Chamberlain in deriving Yamato, Ki, Shima, etc., from 

Aino ivords, when obvious Japanese explanations are available. There is 

^"other Yamato in Chikugo, where the Aino derivation is surely out of place. 

*^ave no desire, however, to dispute all his Aino derivations of place names 

no NiHONGI. 

Hiko-hoho-demi. He was the fourth child * of Hiko-nagisa-take- 
xi-gaya-fuki-ahezu no Mikoto. His mother's name was Tama- 
yori-hime, daughter of the Sea-God. From his birth, this 
Emperor was of clear intelligence and resolute will. At the 
III. 2. age of fifteen he was made heir to the throne. When he grew 
up, he married Ahira-tsu-hime, of the district of Ata in the 
province of Hiuga, and made her his consort. By her he had 
Tagishi-mimi no Mikoto and Kisu-mimi no Mikoto. 

When he reached the age of forty-five, he addressed his elder 
brothers and his children, saying : — ** Of old, our Heavenly 
Deities Taka-mi-musubi no Mikoto, and Oho-hiru-me no 
Mikoto, pointing to this land of fair rice-ears of the fertile reed- 
1^ plain, gave it to our Heavenly ancestor, Hiko-ho no ninigi 
' no Mikoto. Thereupon Hiko-ho no ninigi no Mikoto, throwing 
open the barrier of Heaven and clearing a cloud-path, urged on 
his superhuman course until he came to rest. At this time the 
world was given over to widespread desolation. It was an age 
of dar kness and dis o rder . In'this gToom, therefore, he fostered 
justice, and jo go ve rned this west ern_J:)order.* Our Imi>erial 
ancestors and Imperial parent, like gQds,Hkesages, accumulated 
happiness and amassed glory. Many years elapsed. From the 
date when our Heavenly ancestor descended until now it is over 
III. 3. 1,792,470 years.' But the remote regions do not yet enjoy the 
( blessings of Imperial rule. Every town has always been allowed 
to have its lord, and every village its chief, who, each one for 
himself, makes division of territory and practises mutual 
._ aggression and conflict. 

Now I have heard from the Ancient of the Sea,* that in the 
East there is a fair land encircled on all sides by blue mountains. 
Moreover, there is there one who flew down riding in a 
Heavenlv Rock-boat. I think that this land will undoubtedly 


in this part of Japan, and I think it very probable that the first Japanese who 
settled here drove out a population of Aino race. 

* Primogeniture was evidently not recognized in Japan at the time this 
story was written. 

^ i.e. Kiushiu. 

' This is in imitation of the great number of years ascribed to the reigns 
of the early Chinese monarchs. 

* Shiho tsutsu no oji. 


be suitable for the extension of the Heavenly task,^ so that its 

giory should fill the universe. It is, doubtless, the centre of 

the world.* The person who flew down was, I believe, Nigi- 

haya-hi.' Why should we not proceed thither, and make it the 

capital ? " 

All the Imperial Princes answered, and said : — " The truth of 
this is manifest. This thought is constantly present to our 
mirids also. Let us go thither quickly." This was the year m, ^ 
Kirioye Tora (51st) of the Great Year.* b.c. 667. 

I n that year, in winter, on the Kanoto Tori day (the 5th) of 

th^ loth month, the new moon of which was on the day Hinoto 

^f i , the Emperor in person led the Imperial Princes and a naval 

fc^rce on an expedition against the East. When he arrived at 

ttk^ Haya-suhi gate,* there was there a fisherman who came 

riding in a boat. The Emperor summoned him, and then in- 

<1 vi^ired of him, saying : — ** Who art thou ? " He answered and 

s^id: — **Thy servant is a Country-God, and his name is Utsu- 

^ilco.' I angle for fish in the bays of ocean. Hearing that 

^lx« son of the Heavenly Deity was coming, therefore I forth- 

•'" ith came to receive him." Again he inquired of him, saying : — 

Canst thou act as my guide ? " He answered and said :— ** I 

*ill do so." The Emperor ordered the end of a pole of shihi 

"^^v-ood' to be given to the fisher, and caused him to be taken 

^-nd pulled into the Imperial vessel, of which he was made pilot. 

* i.e. for the further development of the Imperial power. 

* The world is here the six quarters, N., S., E., W., Zenith, Nadir. This 
is, of course, Chinese, as indeed is this whole speech. 

* Nigi-haya-hi means soft- swift- sun. 

* The great year is the Chinese cycle of sixty years. This system of 
reckoning time is described in Legge's " Classics," Chalmers' " Essay in 
prolegomena to Shooking," " Japanese Chronological Tables," by E.M.S., 
Bramsen's " Chronological Tables," Mayers' " Chinese Manual," etc. It was 
not in use to record years before the Christian era even in China, and could 
hardly have been known in Japan before the introduction of writing in the 
5th century, A.D. It is needless to add that such dates are, in this part of 
the " Nihongi," purely fictitious. 

* The days of the month are throughout the " Nihongi " given in this clumsy 
fashion. I have not thought it necessary to follow the example, except in 
this one instance. 

* The Quick-suck-gate or Bungo Channel, so called from its rapid tides. 
' Rare-prince. ' Quercus cuspidata. 

112 NiHONGI. 

A name was specially granted him, and he was called Shihi-ne- 
III. 5. tsu-hiko.* He was the first ancestor of the Yamato no Atahe. 

Proceeding on their voyage, they arrived at Usa* in the 
Land of Tsukushi. At this time there appeared the ancestors 
of the Kuni-tsu-ko'* of Usa, named Usa-tsu-hiko and Usa-tsu- 
hime. They built a palace raised on one pillar * on the banks 
of the River Usa, and offered them a banquet. Then, by 
Imperial command, Usa-tsu-hime was given in marriage to the 
Emperor's attendant minister Ama no tane ' no Mikoto. Now 
Ama no tane no Mikoto was the remote ancestor of the 
Nakatomi Uji/ 

nth month, gth day. The Emperor arrived at the harbour 
of Oka ' in the Land of Tsukushi. 
III. 6. j2th month, 27th day. He arrived at the province of Aid, 
where he dwelt in the Palace of Ye. 
B.C. 666. The year Kinoto U, Spring, 3rd month, Tth day. Going 
onwards, he entered the land of Kibi,® and built a tem- 
porary palace, in which he dwelt. It was called the Palace 
of Takashima. Three years passed, during which time he set 
in order the helms ^ of his ships, and prepared a store of pro- 
visions. It was his desire by a single effort to subdue the 
B.C. 663. xhe year Tsuchinoye Muma, Spring, 2nd month, nth day. 
The Imperial forces at length proceeded eastwards, the prow of 
one ship touching the stern of another. Just when they reached 
Cape Naniha they encountered a current of great swiftness. 
Whereupon that place was called Nami-haya (wave- swift) or 

^ I'rince of shihi root. 

■ Usa is now a^ district (^kori) in the province of Buzen. Tsukushi is used by 
old writers both for the whole island of Kiushiu and for the northern part of it. 
^ Or Kuni no miyakko, local hereditary nobles. 

* Vide Ch. K., p. 130, and " Night of the Gods," p. 224, where a curious 
coincidence with an Irish legend is noted. "In Mailduin's voyage he came 
to an island called Aenchoss, that is One-foot, so called because it was 
supported by a single pillar in the middle." The "Kojiki" and a note to 
the **Nihongi" have for one pillar, "one foot.*' Possibly there is here a 
reminiscence of a nomadic tent life. 

* Heavenly seed. 

^ i.e. house, or noble family. ''In Chikuzen. 

** Including the present provinces of Bizen, Bitlchiu, and Bingo. 

'••Or oars. 


JiMMU. 113 

Nami-hana (wave-flower). It is now called Naniha/ which is 
a corruption of this. 

3rd month, loth day. Proceeding upwards against the 
stream, they went straight on, and arrived at the port of Awo- 
kumo no Shira-date, in the township of Kusaka, in the province 
of Kafuchi.' ill. 7. 

Summer, 4th month, 9th day. The Imperial forces in martial 
array marched on to Tatsuta. The road was narrow and pre- 
<^ipitous, and the men were unable to march abreast, so they 
returned and. again endeavoured to go eastward, crossing over 
Mount Ikoma. In this way they entered the inner country.' 

Now when Naga-sune-hiko * heard this, he said: — *'The 
object of the children of the Heavenly Deity in coming hither is 
^suredly to rob me of my country." So he straightway levied all 
^f^e forces under his dominion, and intercepted them at the Hill 
of Kusaka. A battle was engaged, and Itsuse no Mikoto was hit 
"y* a random arrow on the elbow. The Imperial forces wen: 
"'^able to advance against the enemy. The Emperor was vexed, 
^'>d revolved in his inmost heart a divine plan, saying: — ** I 
^'^ the descendant of the Sun-Goddess, and if I proceed 
^^ainst the Sun to attack the enemy, ! shall act contrary to the | 
^^"^y of Heaven. Better to retreat and make a show of weak- \ 
^^ss. Then sacrificing to the Gods of Heaven and Earth, and 
*^i*inging on our backs the might of the Sun-Goddess, let us 111. 8. 
fallow her rays and trample them down. If we do so, the 
^tiemy will assuredly be routed of themselves, and we shall not 
^tain our swords with blood.'' They all said : — '* It is good." 
Thereupon he gave orders to the army, saying: — ** Wait a 
^\'hile, and advance no further." So he withdrew his forces, 
^nd the enemy also did not dare to attack him. He then re- 
tired to the port of Kusaka, where he set up shields, and made 
a warlike show. Therefore the name of this port was changed 
to Tatetsu,* which is now corrupted into Tadetsu. 
Before this, at the battle of Kusaka, there was a man who 

' Naniha is now a poetical name for Ohosaka. The current referred to is 
no doubt the tide on the bar at the river-mouth, a most dangerous place for 
small craft in bad weather. 

* Pronounced Kawachi. ' Yamato. 

* Prince Longshanks. Naga-sune is the name of a place. 

* Shield-port or shield- ferry. 

114 NiHONGI. 

hid in a great tree, and by so doing escaped danger. So 
pointing to this tree, he said : — ** I am grateful to it, as to my 
mother/' Therefore the people of the day called that place 
Omo no ki no Mura/ 

5th month, 8th day. The army arrived at the port of 
Yamaki in Chinu [also called Port Yavia no wt\. Now Itsuse 
no Mikoto's arrow wound was extremely painful. He grasped his 
sword, and striking a martial attitude, said : — ** How exaspera- 
ting it is that a man should die of a wound received at the 
hands of slaves, and should not revenge it ! " The people of that 
ni. 9. day therefore called the place Wo no minato." 

Proceeding onwards, they reached Mount Kama in the Land 
of Kii, where Itsuse no Mikoto died in the army, and was 
therefore buried at Mount Kama. 

6th month, 23rd day. The army arrived at the village of 

Nagusa, where they put to death the Tohe* of Nagusa. Finally 

they crossed the moor of Sano, and arrived at the village of 

Kami* in Kumano. Here he embarked in the rock-boat of 

Heaven, and leading his army, proceeded onwards by slow 

degrees. In the midst of the sea, they suddenly met with a 

violent wind, and the Imperial vessel was tossed about. Then 

Ina-ihi no Mikoto exclaimed and said: — "Alas ! my ancestors 

were Heavenly Deities, and my mother was a Goddess of the 

Sea. Why do they harass me by land, and why moreover do 

they harass me by sea ? " When he had said this, he drew 

his sword and plunged into the sea, where he became changed 

into the God Sabi-mochi.^ 

III. 10. Mike Irino no Mikoto, also indignant at this, said : — 

'* My mother and my aunt are both Sea-Goddesses : why 

do they raise great billows to overwhelm us ? " So treading 

upon the waves, he went to the Eternal Land/' The Emperor 

was now alone with the Imperial Prince Tagishi-mimi no 

Mikoto. Leading his army forward, he arrived at Port 

Arazaka in Kumano \also called Nishiki Bay\ where he put to 

death the Tohe of Nishiki. At this time the Gods belched up 

* Mother-tree-village. ^ Port Man (vir). 

* Tohe seems to have been a word for chieftain. 

* Or it may be of the Deity of Kumano. 

* i.e. the blade-holder. ^ Toko-yo no Kuni. 


JiMMU. 115 

a poisonous vapour, from which everyone suffered. For this 
reason the Imperial army was again unable to exert itself. 
Then there was there a man by name Kumano no Takakuraji, 
who unexpectedly had a dream, in which Ama-terasu no Oho- 
bmi spoke to Take-mika-tsuchi no Kami,* saying : — ** I still 
hear a sound of disturbance from the Central Land of Reed- 
Plains. Do thou again go and chastise it." Take-mika-tsuchi 
no Kami answered and said : — " Even if I go not, I can send 
down my sword, with which I subdued the land, upon which the 
country will of its own accord become peaceful." To this 
Ama-terasu no Kami assented. Thereupon Take-mika-tsuchi 
no Kami addressed Takakuraji, saying : — ** My sword, which 
is called Futsu no Mitama, I will now place in thy storehouse. 
1^0 thou take it and present it to the Heavenly Grandchild." HI. n. 
Takakuraji said " Yes," and thereupon awoke. The next 
horning, as instructed in his dream, he opened the storehouse, 
^nd on looking in, there was indeed there a sword which had 
feUendown (from Heaven), and was standing upside down^ on 
^he plank floor of the storehouse. So he took it and offered 
^^ to the Emperor. At this time the Emperor happened to be 
^leep. He awoke suddenly, and said : — ** What a long time 
^ have slept ! " On inquiry' he found that the troops who had 
°^en affected by the poison had all recovered their senses and 
^^'ere afoot. The Emperor then endeavoured to advance into 
^he interior, but among the mountains it was so precipitous 
that there was no road by which they could travel, and they 
P^a.ndered about not knowing whither to direct their march, 
^lien Ama-terasu no Oho-kami instructed the Emperor in a 
^t-eam of the night, saying: — " I will now send thee the Yata- 
ff^rasu,' make it thy guide through the land." Then there did 

* The Thunder-God. ' i.e. point upwards. 

* Yata-garasu. The Chinese characters used here mean ** The crow with 

^ head eight feet long.'' But this is a case where we must put aside the 

^^incsc characters, and attend solely to the Japanese word which they are 

'^eant to represent. This is undoubtedly yata-garasu, as we know from the 

*Kojiki" and from the traditional Kana rendering. Much has been written about 
this bird by Motowori and other Shint5 scholars, which is, I venture to think, 
wholly wide of the mark. The clue to its meaning is afforded by the ** Wamio- 
sh6,"a Chinese-Japanese vocabulary of the tenth century, which says, on the 
authority of the " Shiki," still more ancient commentaries on the ** Nihongi," 



V I 

indeed appear the Yata-garasu flying down from the Void. 
The Emperor said: — r'*The coming of this crow is in due 
accordance with my auspicious dream. How grand! How 
splendid ! My Imperial ancestor, Ama-terasu no Oho-kami, 
desires therewith to assist me in creating the * hereditj.ry 
institution." * 

At this time Hi no Omi* no Mikoto, ancestor of the Oho- 
III. 12. tomo * House, taking with him Oho-kume* as commander of 
the main body, guided by the direction taken by the crow, 
looked up to it and followed after, until at length they arrived 
at the district of Lower Uda. Therefore they named the 
place which they reached the village of Ukechi ' in Uda. 

that the Yang-wu or Sun-crow is in Japanese yata-garasu. The Yang-wu is a 
bird\vith three claws, and of a red colour, which, according to Chinese myth, 

inhabits the sun. If we accept this identifi- 
cation, the meaning of the epithet yata becomes 
clear. It means eight hands, or, as ya in i^ncient 
Japanese meant .also many or several, many 
hands, a sufficiently accurate description for 
popular myth of the Yang-wu with its three 
claws. The late M. Terrien de La-Couperie, 
in his ** Western Origin of Early Chinese 
Civilization," says that "the first allusion to 
the three-legged crow supposed to roost in 
the sun occurs in the " Li Sao" of Kiii-yuen, 
the poet of Ts'u, 314 B.C. in China. A three- 
legged bird in various forms was figured on 
coins of Pamphylia and Lycia of older times. 
Comte Goblet d'Alviella has reproduced some of 
them in his interesting work on ** La Migration 
des Symboles," 1891, p. 222. See a paper on* 
the Hi no maruin "T.A.S.J.," Vol. XXII., p. 27, 
and Ch. K., p. 136. The guidance of con- 
•querors or colonists to their destination by a supernatural bird or beast 
is a familiar feature of old-world story. See Lang, " Custom and Myth," 


' The sovereignty. ^ Hi means sun ; Omi, minister. 

^ Oho-tomo means ** great companion." The Oho-tomo were the Imperial 

* Oho-kume, as Chamberlain points out, probably means simply a great 
force. But when the " Kojiki " and " Nihorigi " were written, this meaning 
was forgotten, and it was supposed to be a man's name. 

'" Ugatsu means to pierce, and the name was given because they penetrated 
the mountains to this place. All these derivations are very fanciful. 

Sun -crow. 

JiMMU. I I 7 

At this time, by an Imperial order, he commended Hi no 
Omi no Mikoto, saying : — ** Thou art faithful and brave, and 
art morepver a successful guide. Therefore will I give thee a 
new name, and will call thee Michi no Omi."* 

Autumn, 8th month, 2nd day. The Emperor sent to 
summon Ukeshi the Elder and Ukeshi the Younger. These 
two were chiefs of the district of Uda. Now Ukeshi the 
Elder did not come. But Ukeshi the Younger came, and 
making obeisance at the gate of the camp, declared as 
follows : — *' Thy servant's elder brother, Ukeshi the Elder, 
shows signs of resistance. Hearing that the descendant of 
Heaven was about to arrive, he forthwith raised an army with 
^hichto make an attack. But having seen from afar the might 
^f the Imi>erial army, he was afraid, and did not dare to oppose 
'^- Therefore he has secretly placed his troops in ambush, and 
"3.S built for the occasion a new palace, in the hall of which 
"^ has prepared engines. It is his intention to invite the 
^^*»»peror to a banquet there, and then to do him a mischief. 
^ pray that his treachery be noted, and that good care be taken m. 13, 
^^ make preparation against it." The Emperor straightway 
^^nt Michi no Omi no Mikoto to observe the signs of his 
opposition. Michi no Omi no Mikoto clearly ascertained his 
l^ostile intentions, and being greatly enraged, shouted at him 
J*^ jai blustering manner:—** Wretch ! thou shalt thyself dwell 
*^ the house which thou hast made." So grasping his sword, 
^^d drawing his bow, he urged him and drove him within it. 
^ keshi the Elder being guilty before Heaven, and the matter 
'^ot admitting of excuse, of his own accord trod upon the 
^rigine and was crushed to death. His body was then brought 
^\it and decapitated, and the blood which flowed from it 
Reached above the ankle. Therefore that place was called 
vJda no Chi-hara.* After this Ukeshi the Younger prepared a 
^eat feast of beef and sake,*^ with which he entertained the 

* The Minister of the Road. ^ - The bloody plain of Uda. 

' We might be inclined to infer from this (what was probably the case) 
that the Ancient Japanese lived more on animal food than their descendants 
in modem times. IJut there is much room for suspicion that this statement 
s nothing more than a reminiscence of a passage in a history of the Later 
Han dynasty of China, which speaks of beef and sake being presented to 
the Emperor Kwang Wu Ti, who came to the throne a.d. 25. 


Imperial army. The Emperor distributed this flesh and sake 
to the common soldiers, upon which they sang the following 
verses : — 

I set a snare for woodcock, 

And waited, 

But no woodcock came to it ; 

in. 14. A valiant whale came to it.* 

• * « * 

« * « • 

This is called a Kume " song. At the present time, when the 
Department of Music performs this song, there is still the * 
measurement of great and small by the hand, as well as a 
distinction of coarse and fine in the notes of the voice. This 
is by a rule handed down from antiquity. 

After this the Emperor wished to inspect the Land of 
Yoshino, so taking personal command of the light troops, he 
III. 15- made a progress round by way of Ukechi mura in Uda. 

When he came to Yoshino, there was a man who came out 
of a well. He shone, and had a tail. The Emperor inquired 
of him, saying : — ** What man art thou ? " He answered and 
said: — ** Thy servant is a local Deity, and his name is Wi- 
hikari." * He it is who was the first ancestor of the Yoshino no 
Obito, Proceeding a little further, there was another man 
with a tail, who burst open a rock and came forth from it. The 
Emperor inquired of him, saying : — ** What man art thou ? " 
He answered and said : — *^ Thy servant is the child of Iha-oshi- 

* Ki in the first line of this poem means probably both tree and castle. 
The words are put into the mouth of Ukeshi the Elder, who found a whale 
(the Emperor) in his springe instead of the harmless woodcock he expected. 
The wild boar is now called the yama-kujira or mountain- whale, and is 
perhaps the animal intended here. 

I confess that I can make no satisfactory sense of the remainder of this 
poem. The version given by Chamberlain (Ch. K., p. 140), following Moribe, 
is as good as any, but it seems to me very conjectural. It should be noted, 
however, that this part of the poem contains an indication of the polygamous 
customs of the Japanese at this time in the use of two words signify- 
ing respectively elder wife (konami) and younger wife (uhanari). The 
" Nihongi" omits the interjectional refrain given in the " Kojiki." 

• Kume means no doubt " soldier " in this passage. 

^ Beating time is perhaps meant. *. Well-brightness. 

JiMMU. 119 

wake." * It is he who was the first ancestor of the Kuzu ^ of 

Then skirting the river, he proceeded westward, when there 

appeared another man, who had made a fish trap and was 

catching fish. On the Emperor making inquiry of him, he 

Answered and said : — " Thy servant is the son of Nihe-motsu." ' 

We it is who was the first ancestor of the U-kahi of Ata.* 

9th month, 5th day. The Emperor ascended to the peak of 

-Woiint Takakura in Uda, whence he had a prospect over all ill. 16. 

^'^'S land. On Kuni-mi* Hill there were descried eighty 

**^iidits. Moreover at the acclivity of Me-zaka* there Was 

^^^^sted an army of women, and at the acclivity of Wo-zaka * 

^^re was stationed a force of men. At the acclivity of Sumi- 

'^^Ica • was placed burning charcoal. This was the origin of 

*^€ names Me-zaka, Wo-zaka and Sumi-zaka. 

Again there was the army of Ye-shiki,' which covered all the 
Xllage of Ihare. All the places occupied by the enemy *° 
ere strong positions, and therefore the roads were cut off and 
^^l)structed, so that there was no room for passage. The 
Imperor, indignant at this, made prayer on that night in 
srson, and then fell asleep. The Heavenly Deity appeared to 
V:iim in a dream, and instructed him, saying: — ** Take earth 
^Tom within the shrine " of the Heavenly Mount Kagu, and of it 
^rnake eighty Heavenly platters. Also make sacred jars '* and ill. 17. 
"therewith sacrifice to the Gods of Heaven and Earth. More- 
over pronounce a solemn imprecation. If thou doest so, the 

• Rock-push-divide. 

' Kuzu were local chiefs. They are mentioned again in Ojin's reign. 
' Food-holder or purveyor. 

• U-kahi means cormorant-keepers. Fishing with cormorants is still 
practised in Japan. 

• Land-view. ^ Women's acclivity. 

' Men's acclivity. The terms Me-zaka and Wo-zaka are now applied to 
^ roads or stairs leading up to the same place, one of which (the women's) 
^ less precipitous than the other. 

• Sumi-zaka means charcoal acclivity. 

• Shiki the Elder. ^® Lit. Robber-slaves or prisoners. 

'* A shrine, like a templum, might be merely a consecrated plot of ground. 
*^agu-yama is a mountain in Yamato. 

^ Idzube. The platters were for rice, the jars for sake. See Satow s 
** Rituals" in " J.A.S.T.,'^ VI 1., ii^ p. 109. 


enemy will render submission of their own accord." The 
Emperor received with reverence the directions given in his 
dream, and proceeded to carry them into execution. 

Now Ukeshi the Younger again addressed the Emperor^ 
saying : — ** There are in the province of Yamato, in the village 
of Shiki, eighty Shiki bandits. Moreover, in the village of 
Taka-wohari [some say Katsurakt] there are eighty Akagane * 
bandits. All these tribes intend to give battle to the Emperor, 
and thy servant is anxious in his own mind on his account. 
It were now good to take clay from the Heavenly Mount 
Kagu, and therewith to make Heavenly platters with which to 
sacrifice to the Gods of the Heavenly shrines and of the Earthly 
shrines. If after doing so, thou dost attack the enemy, they 
may be easily driven off." The Emperor, who had already 
taken the words of his dream for a good omen, when he now 
heard the words of Ukeshi the Younger, was still more pleased 
in his heart. He caused Shihi-netsu-hiko' to put on ragged 
garments and a grass hat, and to disguise himself as an oldman« 
He also caused Ukeshi the Younger to cover himself with a 
winnowing tray, so as to assume the appearance of an old 
woman, and then addressed them, saying : — ** Do ye two pro- 
ceed to the Heavenly Mount Kagu, and secretly take earth from 
its summit. Having done so, return hither. By means of 
you I shall then divine whether my undertaking will be 
successful or not. Do your utmost and be watchful." 
III. i8. Now the enemy's army filled the road, and made all passage 
' impossible. Then Shihi-netsu-hiko prayed, and said : — ** If it 
will be possible for our Emperor to conquer this land, let the 
road by which we must travel become open. But if not, let 
the brigands surely oppose our passage." Having thus spoken 
they set forth, and went straight onwards. Now the hostile 
band, seeing the two men, laughed loudly, and said : — ** What 
an uncouth old man and old w^oman ! " So with one accord 
they left the road, and allowed the two men to pass and proceed 
to the mountain, where they took the clay and returned with 
it. Hereupon the Emperor was greatly pleased, and with this 

* Akagane means red metal, i.e. copper, but the text is doubtful. The 
" Kiujiki " has a different reading. 
- Sec above, p. in. 

JiMMU. 12 1 

clay he made eighty platters, eighty Heavenly small jars and 
sacred jars,* with which he went up to the upper waters of the 
River Nifu and sacrificed to the Gods of Heaven and of Earth. 
Immediately, on the Asa-hara plain by the river of Uda, it 
became as it were like foam on the water, the result of the curse 
cleaving to them.^ 

Moreover the Emperor went on to utter a vow, saying : — " I 

^ill now make ame' in the eighty platters without using water. 

If the ame is formed, then shall I assuredly without effort and 

vvithout recourse to the might of arms reduce the Empire to 

peace." So he made ame, which forthwith became formed of 


Again he made a vow, saying : — ** I will now take the sacred 
jars and sink them in the River Nifu. If the fishes, whether 
great or small, become every one drunken and are carried down 
the stream, like as it were to floating maki * leaves, then shall 
I 3.ssuredly succeed in establishing this land. But if this be 
not so, there will never be any result.'' Thereupon he sank in. 19. 
the jars in the river with their mouths downward. After a 
wViile the fish all came to the surface, gaping and gasping as 
they floated down the stream. Then Shihi-netsu-hiko, seeing 
this, represented it to the Emperor, who was greatly rejoiced, 
a-i^d plucking up a five-hundred-branched masakaki tree of the 

The reader who wishes to realize what the ancient potter)' of Japan was 

"*c should visit the British Museum and inspect the Gowland collection. 

'"Crc is also a collection in the Uyeno Museum in Tokio. Ninagawa 

*^ori fane's work entitled " Kwan-ko-dzu-setsu " gives very good drawings of 

^ci^nt pottery. The common Japanese name for this ware is Giogi-yaki, 

'^Si being the name of a Buddhist priest who lived 670-749, and who is 

^']^^ited with the invention of the potter's wheel. But the wheel was cer- 

^■^1^ known in Japan long before his time. This very passage contains an 

^^d^^nce of this fact. Both the Chinese characters and the Japanese word 

^'^^lajiri given in the ancient commentary for the small jars here mentioned 

'^^^i.n "hand-made," leading to the conclusion that this was exceptional. 

*nci^ed, nearly all thepotter>' of the Nihongi period which has come down to 

"s is wheel-made, 

I*oam on water is a favourite emblem of the transitoriness of human 

Ame (sweetness) is usually made of millet, malted, and is nearly identical 
'^ Composition with what our chemists call " malt extract." It is a favourite 
s^eettneat in the far East. 

^f. Judges vi. 36. ' Podocarpus macrophylla. 

122 NiHONGI. 

upper waters of the River Nifu, he did worship therewith to all 
the Gods. It was with this that the custom began of setting 
sacred jars.* 

At this time he commanded Michi no Omi no Mikoto, say- 
ing: — "We are now in person* about to celebrate a public * 
festival to Taka-mi-musubi no Mikoto, and I appoint thee 
Ruler of the festival, and grant thee the title of Idzu-hime.* 
The earthen jars which are set up shall be called the Idzube 
or sacred jars, the fire shall be called Idzu no Kagu-tsuchi or 
sacred-fire-elder, the water shall be called Idzu no Midzu-ha 
no me or sacred-water- female, the food shall be called Idzu- 
uka no me or sacred-food-female, the firewood shall be called 
Idzu no Yama-tsuchi or sacred-mountain-elder, and the grass 
shall be called Idzu no No-tsuchi or sacred-moor-elder." 
III. 20. Winter, loth month, ist day. The Emperor tasted* the 
food of the Idzube, and arraying his troops set forth upon his 
march. He first of all attacked the eighty bandits at Mount 
Kunimi, routed and slew them. It was in this campaign that 
the Emperor, fully resolved on victory, made these verses, 

saying :— 

Like the Shitadami 

Which creep around 

The great rock 

Of the Sea of Ise 

Where blows the divine wind — 

Like the Shitadami, 

My boys ! my boys 1 

We will creep around, 

And smite them utterly. 

And smite them utterly.* 

* A note says that they were set up in the courtyard. 

* The Mikado deputed most of his priestly functions to the Nakatomi. 

' The ancient commentary gives the Japanese word utsushi, i.e. manifest, 
visible. This suggests that there was a distinction between esoteric and 
exoteric in the Shinto rites of this time. 

* Idzu-hime means dread or sacred princess, 'i'he " Tsusho " commentator 
says that the persons entrusted with this function were usually women, as may 
be seen in the case of the priestesses of Ise, Kamo, and Kasuga. But as no 
women were available at this time, Michi-no-Omi was given a feminine title 
for the occasion. 

* The interlinear Kana has tatematsuri, i.e. oflfercd. The reference is to 
the feast of Nihiname described above. See p. 86. 

® The shitadami is a small shell of the turbinida^ class. Its introduction 

JiMMU. 123 

In this poem, by the great rock is intended the Hill of 


After this the band which remained was still numerous, and 

^heir disposition could not be fathomed. So the Emperor 

privately commanded Michi no Omi no Mikoto, saying: — *' Do 

thou take with thee the Oho-kume, and make a great muro at 

Ae village of Osaka.^ Prepare a copious banquet, invite the 

enemy to it, and then capture them." Michi no Omi no 

Milcoto thereupon, in obedience to the Emperor's secret behest, 

dug a muro at Osaka, and having selected his bravest soldiers, 

statyed therein mingled with the enemy. He secretly arranged 

wi-th them, saying : — ** When they have got tipsy with sake, 

I Awill strike up a song. Do you, when you hear the sound of 

iJ^y song, all at the same time stab the enemy." Having in. u. 

i>^swie this arrangement they took their seats, and the drinking- 

tx:>ut proceeded. The enemy, unaware that there was any plot, 

a^l>andoned themselves to their feelings, and promptly became ' 

^Xitoxicated. Then Michi no Omi no Mikoto struck up the 

*<^llowing song : — 

At Osaka 

In the great muro -house, 
Though men in plenty 
Enter and stay, 
We the glorious 
Sons of warriors, 
Wielding our mallet-heads. 
Wielding our stone-mallets, 
Will smite them utterly.^ 

Now when our troops heard this song, they all drew at the 

Ijcre does not seem very appropriate. Perhaps the meaning is " in number 
like the turbinidae." Cf. Ch. K., p. 143. The " Shukai " editor thinks that the 
shitadami represent the bandits. The great rock is, perhaps, the Miy6to- 
seki at Futami, so often represented in Japanese pictures. See Anderson's 
Catalogue, p. 320, or Satow and Hawes' Handbook, p. 150. 

* In Yamato. To be distinguished from the city of Ohosaka. 

* The muro-ya is a pit-dwelling (see above, p. 71). The poem speaks of 
mallet-heads, but the text which follows of mallet-headed swords. I have 
little doubt that the former is the true phrase, and that stone weapons are 
referred to. The stone-mallets are unmistakably the weapons figured above 
(p. 87). The mallet-heads and stone-mallets are perhaps the same thing 
under different names. 

124 NiHONGI. 

same time their mallet-headed swords, and simultanously slew 
the enemy, so that tHere were" ho eaters left/ The Imperial 
army were greatly delighted ; they looked up to Heaven and 
laughed. Therefore he made a song, saying : — 

Though folk say 

That one Yemishi 

Is a match for one hundred men, 

They do not so much as resist.* 

The practice according to which at the present time the 
Kume sing this and then laugh loud, had this origin. 
Again he sang, saying : — 

Ho ! now is the time ; 
Ho ! now is the time ; 
Ha! Ha! Psha ! 
Even now 
My boys ! 
Even now 
My boys ! ' 

All these songs were sung in accordance with the secret 
behest of the Emperor. He had not presumed to compose 
HI. 22. them of his own motion. 

Then the Emperor said : — ** It is the part of a good general 
when victorious to avoid arrogance. The chief brigands have 
now been destroyed, but there are ten bands of villains of a 
similar stamp, who are disputatious. Their disposition cannot 

' That is, none were left ali\e. 
The Yemishi are the Ainos, or more correctly Ainus, of whom a remnant 
of some ten thousand souls now inhabit the island of Yezo. When the 
" Nihongi " was written they still occupied a large part of the main island of 
Japan, and in earlier times, as we gather from the evidence of place-names 
(See Chamberlain's Essay published by the Imperial University), they ex- 
tended west even of Yamato. But it would not be safe to draw any con- 
clusion from their mention in this poem. 1 he writer of the " Nihongi " is in the 
habit of fitting ancient poetry into his narrative in a very arbitrary manner. 
The " Kojiki " omits it. Yemishi or Yebisu is also applied to barbarous tribes 
generally, and this is probably its primary meaning. It ought, perhaps, to 
be added to the group of onomaiopoetic words ending in su or shi^ mentioned 
at p. 65, the b or m having the same function as these letters in the words 
barbarian, babble, munnur, etc. See Index — Yemishi. 

* Nothing could well be more primitive than this. The metre is irregular, 
and, like all Japanese poetr)-, there is no rhyme, quantity or regular recur- 
rence of accent to distinguish it from prose. 

JiMMU. 125 

be ascertained. Why should we remain for a long time in one 
place? By so doing we could not have control over emer- 
gencies." So he removed his camp to another place. 

I ith month, 7th day. The Imperial army proceeded in great 

force to attack the Hiko * of Shiki. First of all the Emperor 

sent a messenger to summon Shiki the Elder, but he refused to 

obey. Again the Yata-garasu was sent to bring him. When 

thie crow reached his camp it cried to him, saying : — " The 

child of the Heavenly Deity sends for thee. Haste ! haste ! " 

Shiki the Elder was enraged at this, and said : — "Just when I 

^^srd that the conquering Deity of Heaven was coming and 

^^''^^ indignant at this, why shouldst thou, a bird of the crow tribe, 

^^'t'ter such an abominable cry ? " So he drew his bow and 

^^xified at it. The crow forthwith fled away, and next proceeded 

^^^ the house of Shiki the Younger, where it cried, saying : — 

The child of the Heavenly Deity summons thee. Haste ! 

*^^ste ! " Then Shiki the Younger was afraid, and, changing 

^^^untenance, said : — " Thy servant, hearing of the approach of 

le conquering Deity of Heaven, is full of dread morning and 

^ening. Well hast thou cried to me, O crow.'* He straight- 

"^V-ay made eight leaf-platters,' on which he disposed food, and 

Entertained the crow. Accordingly, in obedience to the crow, 

*>e proceeded to the Emperor and informed him, saying : — " My 

^Ider brother, Shiki the Elder, hearing of the approach of the 

^c^hild of the Heavenly Deity, forthwith assembled eighty bandits iii. 23. 

^nd provided arms, with which he is about to do battle with 

'%hee. It will be well to take measures against him without delay." 

The Emperor accordingly assembled his generals and inquired 

of them, saying : — " It appears that Shiki the Elder has now 

rebellious intentions. I summoned him, but again he will not 

come. What is to be done ? " The generals said : — '* Shiki 

the Elder is a crafty knave. It will be well, first of all, to send 

Shiki the Younger to make matters clear to him, and at the 

same time to make explanations to Kuraji the Elder and 

Kuraji the Younger. If after that they still refuse submission, 

it wiU not be too late to take warlike measures against them.'* 

Shiki the Younger was accordingly sent to explain to them 

* Princes. 

* Or trays, made of the leaves of Kashiha, a kind of evergreen oak. 

J 26 NlHONGI. 

their interests. But Shiki the Elder and the others adhered to 
their foolish design, and would not consent to submit. Then 
Shihi-netsu-hiko advised as follows : — ** Let us first send out 
our feebler troops by the Osaka road. When the enemy sees 
them he will assuredly proceed thither with all his best troops. 
We should then straightway urge forward our robust troops, 
and make straight for Sumi-zaka.* Then with the water of the 
River Uda we should sprinkle the burning charcoal, and 
suddenly take them unawares, when they cannot fail to be 
routed." The Emperor approved this plan, and sent out the 
feebler troops towards the enemy, who, thinking that a power- 
ful force was approaching, awaited them with all their power. 
Now up to this time, whenever the Imperial army attacked, 
they invariably captured, and when they fought they were 
invariably victorious, so that the fighting men were all wearied 
III. 24. out. Therefore the Emperor, to comfort the hearts of his 
leaders and men, struck off this verse : — 

As we fight, 

Going forth and watching 

From between the trees 

Of Mount Inasa, 

We are famished. 

Ye keepers of cormorants 

(Birds of the island), 

Come now to our aid.^ 

In the end he crossed Sumi-zaka with the stronger troops, 
and, going round by the rear, attacked them from two sides 
and put them to the rout, killing their chieftains Shiki the 
Elder and the others. 

I2th month, 4th day. The Imperial army at length attacked 
Naga-sune-hiko and fought with him repeatedly, but was 
unable to gain the victory. Then suddenly the sky became 
overcast, and hail fell. There appeared a wondrous kite of a 
golden colour which came flying and perched on the end of 
the Emperor's bow. The lustre of this kite was of dazzling 

* The charcoal acclivity. 

^ The metre is nearly regular naga-uta, which consists of alternate lines of 
five and seven syllables, with an additional line of seven syllables at the 
end. The cormorant-keepers were appealed to to supply fish for the army's 

JiMMU. 127 

brightness, so that its appearance was like that of lightning. 
In consequence of this all Naga-sune-hiko's soldiers were 
dazzled and bewildered so that they could not fight stoutly. III. 25. 

Nagasune was the original name of the village, whence it 
became the name of a man. But in consequence of the 
Imperial army obtaining the favourable omen of the Kite, the 
men of that time called it Tobi no mura.* It is now called 
Tomi, which is a corruption of this. 

Ever since Itsuse no Mikoto was hit by an arrow at the 
battle of Kusaka and died, the Emperor bore this in mind, and 
constantly cherished resentment for it. On this campaign it 
was his desire to put all to death, and therefore he composed 
these verses, saying : — 

My mouth tingles 

With the ginger planted 

At the bottom of the hedge 

By the glorious 

Sons of warriors — 

I cannot forget it ; 

Let us smite them utterly. 

'*^^ain he sang, saying : — 

In the millet -field 

Is one stem of odorous garlic : — 

The glorious 

Sons of warriors 

Binding its stem 

And binding its shoots 

Will smite it utterly. 

^ again letting loose his army, he suddenly attacked him. 
general, all these songs composed by the Emperor are 
^"^>ied ku79ie uta, in allusion to the persons who took and sang 

, '^^ow Naga-sune-hiko sent a foot-messenger, who addressed 
*^ Emperor, saying : — ** There was formerly a child of the 

Kite- village. 

"As the taste of ginger remains hi the mouth for a long time after it is 
'^ so do my feelings of resentment for my brother's death remain present 
^y mind. I cannot forget it, so let us revenge it by destroying the enemy 

The word for shoots is me, which also means females. This is no 
^^iibt intentional. Naga-sune-hiko is to be destroyed with all his family. 


Heavenly Deity, who came down from Heaven to dwell here, 
riding in a Rock-boat of Heaven. His name was Kushi-dama 
Nigi-haya-hi no Mikoto. He took to wife my younger sister 

III. 26 Mi-kashiki-ya-bime ' \also called Naga-sune-hime, or Tomi-ya- 
////«^]* of whom he at length had a child, named Umashi-ma-te' 
no Mikoto. Therefore did I take Nigi-haya-hi no Mikoto for my 
Lord, and did service to him. Can it be that there are two 
seeds of the children of the Heavenly Deity ? Why should 
any one else take the name of Child of the Heavenly Deity 
and therewith rob people of their dominions ? I have pondered 
this in my heart, but, have as yet failed utterly to believe it." 
The Emperor said : — ** There are many other children of the 
Heavenly Deity. If he whom thou has taken as thy Lord were 
truly a child of the Heavenly Deity, there would be surely 
some object which thou couldst show to us by way of proof." 
Naga-sune-hiko accordingly brought a single Heavenly- 
feathered-arrow of Nigi-haya-hi no Mikoto, and a foot-quiver,* 
and exhibited them respectfully to the Emperor. The Emperor 
examined them, and said : — ** These are genuine." Then in 
his turn he showed to Naga-sune-hiko the single Heavenly- 
feathered-arrow and quiver which he wore. When Naga-sune- 
hiko saw the Heavenly token he became more and more em- 
barrassed. But the murderous weapons were already prepared, 
and things were in such a state that he was unable to pause in 
his career. Therefore he adhered to his misguided scheme, 
and would not alter his purpose. 

Nigi-haya-hi no Mikoto, knowing from the first that the 
Heavenly Deity had simply generously bestowed the Empire 
on the Heavenly Grandchild, and that in view of the perverse 
disposition of Naga-sune it would be useless to instruct him 

III. 27. in the relation of Heaven to Man,* put him to death. He then 
came with his army and made submission. The Emperor, 
who from the first had heard that Nigi-haya-hi no Mikoto had 
come down from Heaven, finding that he now had actually 
performed faithful service, accordingly praised him, and was 
gracious to him. He was the ancestor of the Mono no Be House." 

* Three-cook-house-princess. ' Wealth -house. ' Sweet-true-hand. 
^ A foot- soldier's quiver is meant. * i.e. of Lord and Vassal. 

* The Mononobe were soldiers. Here, however, the hereditary chiefs 
only arc meant, the Mononobe no Muraji. 

JiMMU. 129 

The year Tsuchi no to Hitsuji, Spring, 2nd month, 20th b.c* 662, 
day. The Emperor commanded his generals to exercise the 
troops. At this time there were Tsuchi-gumo ^ in three places, 
viz. : — ^The Tohe ' of Nihiki at Tada no Oka-zaki ' in the 
district of Sofu, the Kose Hofuri at Wani no Saka-moto,* and 
the Wi-Hofiiri * at Hosomi no Nagara no Oka-zaki. All of these, 

' The Tsuchi-gumo are mentioned in four or five passages of the 
"Nihongi" and one passage of the " Kojiki," all of which belong to the 
highly legendary period of Japanese history. We gather from them that 
the Tsuchi-gumo were usually, though not invariably, outlaws who defied the 
Imperial authority. They had Japanese names, and inhabited such long- 
settled parts of Japan as Yamalo, Harima, and even Kiushiu. There is 
'iotliing, if we put aside the mention of Yemishi at p. 124, to suggest that 
tli^y were not of Japanese race. The "short bodies," etc., of the " Nihongi " 
de:scription I take to be nothing more than a product of the popular 
I Invagination working on the hint contained in the name Tsuchi-gumo, which 
*^ literally " earth spider." Some etymologists prefer the derivation which 
nntcts Jtumo (or ^mo) with komort\Xo hide, thus making tsuchi-gumo 
^ " earth-hiders.'' But this is probably a distinction without a difference, 
ese two words containing the same root, and the animal which we call 
e spider, i.e. spinner, being in Japan termed the " hider," an epithet of 
^^'"liich no one who has observed its habits will dispute the appropriateness. 
"^Vn ancient Japanese book says Tsuchi-gumo is a mere nickname, to be 
^^ompared therefore with our clod-hopper or bog-trotter. 

In one of the passages above referred to, the Tsuchi-gumo are described 
^^ inhabiting a rock-cave, but in others they are said to live in muro or 
^it-dwellings, and this is obviously the origin of the name. 

There are several notices of Tsuchi-gumo in the ancient ** Fudoki," or 
•* County Histories," but they are probably mere echoes of the older legends 
related in the *' Nihongi " and " Kojiki," and in any case they add nothing of 
importance to our information about them. It may be noted, however, that 
Hiuga and Higo arc mentioned in them as habitats of bands of these outlaws. 
An amusing expansion by a modern writer of the spider conception of the 
Tsuchi-gumo will be found at p. 140 of Anderson's B.M. Catalogue. See 
also Ch. K., p. 141, and Index. 

A little work called " Kek-kio-ko," in a cbllection entitled " Haku-butsu- 
s6-sho," published by the Japanese Imperial Museum, has brought together 
all the available information respecting Muro and Tsuchi-gumo. 

* Chiefs. 

' Oka-zaki means hill-spur, and is perhaps to be so understood here, and 
not as a proper name. 

* Saka-moto (acclivity bottom) may be also a description and not a proper 

* Hofuri is a kind of Shinto priest. It is unlikely that persons not of 
Japanese race should be so called. 


130 NiHONGI. 

trusting to their valour, refused to present themselves at Court. 
The Emperor therefore sent detachments separately, and put 
them all to death. There were, moreover, Tsuchi-gumoat the 
village of Taka-wohari, whose appearance was as follows : — 
They had short bodies, and long arms and legs. They were 
of the same class as the pigmies. The Imperial troops wove 
nets of dolichos, which they flung over them and then slew 
in. 28. them. Wherefore the name of that village was changed to 
Katsuraki.* It is in the land of Ihare. Its ancient name was 
Kataru, or Katatachi. When our Imperial forces routed the 
enemy, a great army assembled and filled that country'. Its 
name was accordingly changed to Ihare.* 

Another account says that when the Emperor on a previous 
occasion tasted the food of the sacred jars, he moved forward 
his army on an expedition towards the West. At this time the 
eighty bandits of Katsuraki were encamped together there. A 
great battle with the Emperor followed, and they were at 
length destroyed by the Imperial army. Therefore that place 
was called the village of Ihare.* Again, the place where the 
Imperial troops made a warlike stand was called Takeda.* 
The place where he built a castle was named Kita.* More- 
over, the place where the enemy fell in battle, their dead bodies 
prostrate, with their forearms for pillows, was called Tsura- 

The Emperor, in Autumn, the gth month of the previous 
year, secretly took clay of the Heavenly Mount Kagu, with 
which he made eighty platters, and thereafter performing 
abstinence in person, sacrificed to all the Gods. He was 
thereby at length enabled to establish the world' in peace. 
Therefore he called the place where the clay was taken Hani- 


* Dolichos Castle. 

- The interlinear Kana gives for'* fill," ihameri,a word which I do not know. 

* The " original commentary " says that the Japanese word corresponding 
to the Chinese characters rendered "encamp'' is ihami, aword not otherwise 
known to me. 

* Brave-field. * Castle-field. • Face-pillow-field. 

7 "World" is not quite a merely rhetorical expression for the Empire of 
Japan. Hirata justifies Hideyoshi's invasion of Corea on the grounds that 
the sovereigns of Japan are de jure lords of the whole earth. 

** Clay-easy or clay-peace. 

JiMMU. 131 

3rd month, 7th day. The Emperor made an order,^ say- III. 29 
ing : — " During the six years that our expedition against the , 
East has lasted, owing to my reliance on the Majesty of 
Imperial Heaven, the wicked bands have met death. It is 
true that the frontier lands are still unpurified, and that a 
remnant of evil is still refractory. But in the region of the 
Central Land there is no more wind and dust. Truly we 
sbould make a vast and spacious capital, and plan it great 
and strong.' 

-At present things are in a crude and obscure condition, and i 

the people's mind s are unso phisticated. They roost in nests 

oir^ ^well in caves.^ Their manners are simply what is customary. 

^^ CDw if a great man were to establish laws, justice could not 

f^a-il to flourish. And even if some gain should accrue to 

the people, in what way would this interfere with the Sage's^ 

^<^tion ? Moreover, it will be well to open up and clear the 

^i^cuntains and forests, and to construct a palace. Then I may 

reverently assume the Precious Dignity, and so give peace to III. 30 

^^y good subjects. Above, I should then respond to the 

kindness of the Heavenly Powers in granting me the Kingdom, 

^xid below, I should extend the line of the Imperial descendants 

^nd foster rightmindedness. Thereafter the capital may be 

Extended so as to embrace all the six cardinal points, and the 

eight cords may be covered so as to form a roof.* Will this 

not be well ? 

When I observe the Kashiha-bara ® plain, which lies 

' This whole speech is thoroughly Chinese in every respect, and it is 
preposterous to put it in the mouth of an Emperor who is supposed to have 
lived more than a thousand years before the introduction of Chinese learning 
into Japan. The strange thing is that it is necessary to make this remark. 
Yet there are still writers who regard this part of the "Nihongi** as 

• The Kana rendering is mi-araka, ** an august shrine " or " an august 

palace." This would imply a different reading, jfc instead of ^, 

• The reader must not take this as any evidence of the manners and 
customs of the Ancient Japanese. It is simply a phrase suggested by the 
author's Chinese studies. 

• Meaning tlie Emperor's action. - 

• The character for roof ^ also means the universe. The eight cords, 
or measuring tapes, simply mean " everywhere." 

• Kashiha is an evergreen oak, the Quercus dentata. Hara means plain. 

K 2 

i32 NiHONGI. 

S.W. of Mount Unebi, it seems the Centre of the Land. I 
must set it in order." 

Accordingly he in this month commanded officers to set 
about the construction of an Imperial JResidence. 

B,c.66i. Year Kanoye Saru, Autumn, 8th monTH7^6th day. The 
Emperor, intending to appoint a wife, sought afresh ' 
childrenof noble families. Now there was a man who made 
representation to him, saying : — ** There is a child who was 

III. 31. born to Koto-shiro-nushi no Kami by his union with Tama- 
kushi-hime, daughter of Mizo-kuhi-ni no Kami of Mishima. 
Her name is Hime-tatara-i-suzu-hime no Mikoto. She is a 
woman of remarkable beauty." The Emperor was rejoiced, 
and on the 24th day of the 9th month he received Hime- 
tatara-i-suzu-hime no Mikoto and made her his wife. 

B.C. 660. Year Kanoto Tori, Spring, ist month, ist day. The 
Emperor assumed the Imperial Dignity in the Palace of 
Kashiha-bara. This year is reckoned the first year of his 
reign.' He honoured his wife by making her Empress. The 
children born to him by her were Kami-ya-wi-miipi no Mikoto 
and Kami-nunagaha mimi no Mikoto. 

Therefore ' there is an ancient saying in praise of this, as 
follows :— ** In Kashiha-bara in Unebi, he mightily established 
his palace-pillars on the foundation of the bottom-rock, and 

III. 32. reared aloft the cross roof-timbers to the Plain of High Heaven.^ 

This afterwards became a proper name. Here it is perhaps simply a 

* He had already a consort, but she was apparently not considered a 

' Japanese History is often said to begin with this year. The fact is that 
nothing which really deserves the name of history existed for nearly a 
thousand years more. This date is very much like that given for the 
foundation of Rome by Romulus, B.C. 753. The very calendar by which the 
reckoning was made was not invented or known in Japan until many 
centuries after. See Bramsen's ** Chronological Tables," and " Early Japanese 
History " in *' T.A.S.J." 

' As above remarked, the author often introduces this word without much 

* It was a mark of Shrines or Imperial Palaces to have the rafters at each 
end of the roof projecting upwards for several feet beyond the roof-tree, 
as in the illustration. These were called Chigi. See Ch. K., p. 311. Shintd 
temples at the present day are thus distinguished. What would those Japanese 



The name of the Emperor who thus began to rule the Empire 
viis Kami Yamato Ihare-biko Hohodemi." 

On the day on which he first began the Heavenly institution, 
Michi no Omi no Mikoto, the ancestor of the Ohotomo House, 
accompanied by the Oho-kiime Be, was enabled, by means of 
a secret device received from the Emperor, to use incantations 
and magic formulae so as to dissipate evil influences. The use . 
of magic formulae had its origin from this. 

znd year, Spring, 2nd month, 2nd day. The Emperor ascer-"B 
tained merit and dispensed rewards. To Michi no Omi no 

Mikoto he granted a site for a house in which to dwell at the 
village of Tsuki-zaka, thereby showing him special favour. 

Moreover, he caused the Oho-kume to dwell at a place on the 
river -bank, west of Mount Unebi, now called Kume no mura.' 
Such was the origin of this name. Utsu-hiko was made 
Miyakko of the land of Yamato, Moreover, he gave to Ukeshi 111,33. 
the younger the village of Takeda, constituting him Agata- 

Euhcmensls who think Takama ga hara (the Plain of High Heaven) to 
be [he name of a country, make of this passage ? 
' i.e. the village of the kume or soldiers. 

134 NiHONGI. 

nushi * of Takeda. He was the ancestor of the Mohi-tori * of 
Uda. Shiki the younger, whose personal name was Kuro-haya, 
was made Agata-nushi of Shiki. Moreover, he appointed a 
man called Tsune to be Miyakko of the Land of Katsuraki. 
The Yata-garasu was also included in the ranks of those who 
received rewards. His descendants are the Agata-nushi of 
Katsurano and the Tonomori ' Be. 

B.C. 657. 4th year. Spring, 2nd month, 23rd day. The Emperor issued 
the following decree : — ** The spirits of our Imperial ancestors 
reflecting their radiance down from Heaven, illuminate and 

m\ 34- assist us. All our enemies have now been subdued, and there 
is peace within the seas. We ought to take advantage of this 
to perform sacrifice to the Heavenly Deities, and therewith 
develop filial duty.'* 

He accordingly established spirit-terraces amongst the Tomi 
hills, which were called Kami-tsu-wono no Kaki-hara and 
Shimo-tsu-wono no Kaki-hara.^ There he worshipped his 
Imperial ancestors, the Heavenly Deities.* 

B.C. 630. 31st year, Summer, 4th month, 1st day. The Imperial 
palanquin * made a circuit, in the course of which the Emperor 
ascended the Hill Waki Kamu no Hotsuma. Here, having 
viewed the shape of the land on all sides, he said : — ** Oh ! 
what a beautiful country we have become possessed of! 
Though a blessed land of inner-tree-fibre," yet it resembles a 
dragon-fly licking its hinder parts." From this it first received 
the narne of Akitsu-shima." 

' Ruler of district. 

" The Mohi-tori, afterwards mondori or mondo, were originally the 
officials charged with the water supply of the Palace. The designation 
Mondo no Kami remained until quite recent times. 

* Tonomori, guardian of a palace or shrine. 

* These names mean respectively the Persimmon plain of Upper Little- 
mbor and the Persimmon plain of Lower Little-moor. The " spirit terraces" 
(a Chinese phrase) seems meant for the plots of ground consecrated for 
Shinto worship. See above, p. 81. 

* The union of the offices of priest and king is to be noted all through this 

* It is considered respectful to speak of the Imperial car or palanquin 
when the Emperor himself is meant. 

' The inner-tree-fibre is the inner bark of the paper mulberry, used for 
weaving into cloth. It is here an ornamental epithet. 

* The real meaning of Aki-tsu-shima is the " region of har\'ests." See 

JiMMU. 135 

Of old, Izanagi no Mikoto, in naming this country, s^-id : — 
** Yamato is the Land of Ura-yasu : ^ it is the Land of Hoso- 
hoko no Chi-taru : ' it is the Land of Shiwa-Kami-Ho-tsu-ma." ' 

Afterwards Oho-namuchi no Oho-kami named it the Land in. 35. 
of Tama-gaki no Uchi-tsu-kuni/ 

FinaUy, when Nigi-haya-hi no Mikoto soared across the 
Great Void in a Heaven-rock-boat, he espied this region and * 
descended upon it. Therefore he gave it a name and called it 

42nd year. Spring, ist month, 3rd day. He appointed Prince b.c. 6ic 
Kami-nunagaha-mimi no Mikoto Prince Imperial. 

76th year. Spring, 3rd month, nth day. The Emperor died b.c. 581 
^n the palace of Kashiha-bara. His age was then 127.* The 
'oilowing year. Autumn, the 12th day of the 9th month, he was 
ouried in the Misasagi ' N.E. of Mount Unebi. 

**^ve, p. 13. It has nothing to do with akitsu, the dragon-fly. This insect 

^y often be seen with its tail touching its mouth, so that its body forms a 

^^S- The appearance of the province of Yamato, which is a plain sur- 

'■pur^^g^ by a ring of mountains, suggested the simile in the text. Later 

'J'stoxians have converted this into a comparison of Japan to a dragon-fly 

^^^rx outstretched wings. 

^ay-easy. Explained to mean " which has peace within its coasts." 
^lender-spears-thousand-good. " Well supplied with weapons,'' say the 

Kock-ring-upper-pre-eminent-truc (land). 
Jewel-fence- within-land. 

Sky-saw- Yamato. But Sora-mitsu really means "that fills the sky," i.e. 
^'^^^^ reaches to the farthest horizon. These names are merely poetical 
^^'^'^ntions. They were never in actual use. 
* The " Kojiki " makes him 137. 

The Misasagi are still to be seen in large numbers in Japan, especially 
*^ the Gokinai or five metropolitan provinces. They are particularly 
^^tnerous in Kahachi and Yamato. 

In the most ancient times, say the Japanese antiquarians, the Misasagi or 
^^mbs of the Mikados were simple mounds. At some unknown period. 

Misasagi, side view. 

however, perhaps a few centuries before the Christian epoch, a highly 
specialized form of tumulus came into use for this purpose, and continued 
for several hundreds of years without much change. It consists of two 



mounds, one having a circular, the other a triangular^base, merging into 
each other after the manner shown in the illustration, the whole being 
surrounded by a moat, or sometimes by two concentric moats with a narrow 
strip of land between. The interment took place n the circular mound, the 
other probably ser\ing as a platform on which were performed the rites in 
honour of the deceased. Seen from the side the appearance is that of « 
saddle-hill, the circular mound being somewhat higher than the other. 
There are sometimes two smaller mounds at the base of the larger ones, 
filling up the angle vhcre they meet. The slope of the tumulus is not 

Ground plan of Misasogi. 

regular, but is broken up by terraces, on which are placed in rows, a few 
inches apart, curious cylinders made of baked clay shaped in a mould, and 
measuring from i to z feet in height, and from 6 to 14 inches in diameter. 
They are buried in the earth, their upper rjms being just level with the 

In some, perhaps in most cases, the Misasagi contains a large vault of 
great unhewn stones without mortar. The walls of the vault converge 




The Emperor Kami-Nunagaha-mimi was the third child of the 
Emperor Kami-Yamato-Ihare-biko Hohodemi. His mother's 
name was Hime-tatara-Isuzu no Mikoto, the eldest daughter of 
Koto-shiro-nushi no Kami. 

This Emperor was of distinguished manners and appearance. 
As a child he possessed the vigour of manhood ; when he grew 
to manhood, his form was gigantic. He excelled in warlike 
accomplishments, and his will was resolute in the extreme. 
IV. 2. When he reached the age of forty-eight, the Emperor Kami- 
Yamato-Ihare-biko died. Now Kama-Nunagaha-mimi no 
Mikoto's disposition was profoundly filial, and his grief and 
longing knew no bounds. He made the funeral ceremonies 
his especial care. 

His elder half-brother," Tagishi-mimi no IMikoto, was now 
advanced in years,' and had a long experience of matters of 

* This book contains the reigns of eight emperors, and covers a period of 
483 years, giving an average of over sixty years for each reign. This is far 
too much for real history, especially when we consider the ages to which 
these sovereigns are said to have reached. Kosho lived to the age of 1 14, 
K6an to 137, and so on. Most of it is not even legendary. The account of 
the period previous to the accession of Suizei seems to contain a genuine 
ancient tradition, but the rest is plainly fictitious and the invention of some 
one imbued with Chinese ideas. 

Kami means upper or lord ; Nunagaha is the name of a river ; mimi 
means august body. 

Suizei means quiet, tranquil. 

* The word employed indicates that the mother of this prince was not of 
full rank, but there is no such stigma as is implied by our word " bastard." 

' As he was present with his younger brother at a council held by the 
Emperor Jimmu before starting on his expedition to the East, B.C. 667, we 

SUIZEI. 139 

State. Therefore he was again charged with the conduct of 
affairs, and the Emperor treated him as an intimate friend. This 
prince, however, was of a perverse disposition, and his natural 
bent was opposed to justice. During the period of sincere 
seclusion ' his authority at last became independent, and con- 
cealing his malicious purposes, he plotted the destruction of 
his two younger brothers. 

Now in the year Tsuchinoto U of the cycle. Winter, the 
nth month, Kami-Nunagaha-mimi no Mikoto and his elder 
brother Kami-Ya-wi-mimi no Mikoto learnt privately his 
intentions and effectively prevented him. When the business 
of the misasagi was ended, they caused Yumi Be no Waka- 
hiko to make a bow, and Yamato no Kanuchi ' Ama-tsu-ma- 
ura* to make a true-deer arrow-point, and the Ya^ Be to 
prepare arrows. When the bow and arrows were ready, 
Kami-Nunagaha-mimi no Mikoto wished therewith to shoot iv. 3. 
to death Tagishi-mimi no Mikoto, who happened just then to 
1^ in a great muro at Kataoka, lying alone on a great couch. 
Then Kami-Nunagaha-mimi no Mikoto spake to Kami-Ya-wi 

^y suppose that he was at that time twenty years of age at least. We are 
now in B.C. 585, so that he must have been over 100. 

* i.e. of mourning. 

* Yumi-be is the Be of bow-makers ; Kanuchi, smith. 

* Ama-tsu-ma-ura. This name is obviouslv identical with that of the 
smith-god, Ama-tsu-mara, mentioned in the **Kojiki" (see Ch. K., p. 55), upon 
which Chamberlain remarks, " Obvius hujus nominis sensus foret * Ca;lestis 
Penis.' " Ma-ura means literally true-heart, or inwards, and hence came to 
be used as a decent term for penis, corresponding somewhat to our word 
" nakedness." In modem times it is a very vulgar word. This is Hirata's 
view. Another derivation connects it with Mdra, the Indian God of lust, 
sin, and death. 

If Ama-tsu-ma-ura or mara stood alone, we might be disposed with 
Motowori to pass it by as a proper name of doubtful derivation. But Hirata 
{•* Koshiden " v. 48) quotes from old books three other names of deities which 
contain this element, viz. Oho (great) mara no Mikoto, Ama-tsu-aka (red) 
mara no Mikoto and Ama-teru (shining) mara take-wo (brave male) no 
Mikoto. He thinks it sufficient to say that as these are the names of Gods, 
a phallic interpretation is inadmissible, but in this European scholars will 
hardly agree with him. There is a Mara no Sukune in the Japanese 
peerage of the ninth century, known as the Seishiroku. See Index— 
Phallic worship. 

* Ya, arrow. 


no Mikoto, saying: — "The right time has now arrived. In 
words, secrecy is to be prized : in deeds, caution is advisable. 
Therefore, we have never had any partner in our conspiracy, and 
the enterprise of to-day is to be carried out by thee and me alone. 
I will first open the door of the muro. Do thou then shoot 
him." They accordingly went forward and entered in together. 
Kami-Nunagaha-mimi no Mikoto pushed open the door, 
while Kami-Ya-wi-mimi no Mikoto's arms and legs trembled 
so that he was unable to let fly the arrow. Then Kami- 
Nunagaha-mimi no Mikoto snatched the bow and arrows which 
his elder brother held and shot Tagishi-mimi no Mikoto. 
The first shot struck him on the breast, the second on the 
back, and so at length he killed him. Hereupon Kami-Ya-wi- 
mimi no Mikoto was troubled and submitted himself, yielding 
the sovereignty to Kami-Nunagaha-mimi no Mikoto, saying : — 
'* I am thy elder brother.* But I am timid and weak, and 
unfit for effective action. On the present occasion thou hast 
specially displayed divine valour, and hast thyself put to death 
our chief enemy. Is it not expedient that thou shouldst 
illuminate the Celestial station - and take over the functions of 
IV. 4. our Imperial ancestors ? I will be thy assistant and will 
attend to the worship of the Gods of Heaven and Earth." He 
was the first ancestor of the Oho no Omi. 

B.C. 581. 1st year, Spring, ist month, 8th day. Kami-Nunagaha-mimi 
no Mikoto assumed the rank of Emperor. He made his 
capital at Katsuraki. It was called the palace ' of Takaoka. 
He honoured the Empress by granting her the title of Kwo- 
dai-go or Grand Empress.* This was the year Kanoye Tatsu 
of the cycle. 

B.C. 580, 2nd year. Spring, ist month. Isuzu-yori-bime was appointed 

One writing says : — ** Kaha-mata-bime, daughter of the 
Agata-nushi of Shiki." 

^ In this and other passages of the ** Nihongi," there is a sort of recog- 
nition of a right of primogeniture, but cases are numerous where the eldest 
son is ignored or set aside without very strong reason in favour of a 
brother, widow, or younger son of the deceased sovereign. 

^ i.e. the rank of Emperor. 

' Capital and palace are interchangeable terms in this narrative. 

* Equivalent to Empress Dowager. This is a Chinese title. 

. Annei. 141 

One writing says : — " Itori-hime, daughter of Ohohimoro, 
Agata-nushi of Kasuga." 
She was the Emperor's aunt. The Empress bore a son, the 
Emperor Shiki-tsu-hiko-tama-demi. 

4th year, Summer, 4th month. Kami-Ya-wi-mimi no Mikoto b. 
died, and was buried on the Northern side of Mount Unebi. 

25th year, Spring, ist month, 7th day. The Imperial Prince b 
Shiki-tsu-hiko-tama-demi no Mikoto was made heir to the I 
Imperial throne. 

33rd year. Summer, 5th month. The Emperor took ill, and ■ 
on the loth day of the same month, he died, at the age of 



The Emperor Shiki-tsu-hiko-tama-demi was the eldest child 
of the Emperor Kami-Nunagaha-mimi. His mother's name 
was Isuzu-yori-bime no Mikoto, the younger daughter of 
Koto-shiro-nushi no Kami. This Emperor had been made 
Prince Imperial in the 25th year of the Emperor Kami- 
Xunagaha-mimi. He was then twenty-one ' years of age. In 
the 5th month, Summer, of the 33rd year of his reign, the 
Emperor Kami-Nunagaha-mimi died. In the 7th month of 
that year, on the 3rd day of the month/ the Prince Imperial 
assumed the Imperial Dignity. 

- 1st year,' Winter, loth month, nth day. The Emperor 
Kami-Nunagaha-mimi was buried in the Misasagi on Tsukida 
Hill in Yamato. 

The Emperor honoured the Empress with the title of Kw6- 

* Annei means peace. 

' The editor of the Shukai edition alters this to eleven, in order to agree 
with other passages. But when the whole chronolog>' is utterly fanciful, 
there is no use attempting to make it consistent. 

' For purposes of chronology, these reigns begin with the next year 
following the previous Emperor's death. The first year of Annei's reign is 
therefore B.C. 548, although his predecessor died B.C. 549. 

142 NiHONGl. 

This was the year Midzunoto Ushi of the cycle. 
B.C. 547* 2nd year. The capital was removed to Katashiho. It was 

called the Palace of Ukiana. 
B.C. 546. 3rd year, Spring, ist month, 5th day. Nuna-soko-naka-tsu 
IV. 6. hime no Mikoto was appointed Empress. 

Others call her Nuna-so hime. 

One writing says : — " Kaha-tsu hime, daughter of Haye, 
Agata-nushi of Shiki." 

One writing says : — " Daughter of Ohoma no Sukune." * 
Before this, his consort had given birth to two Imperial 
princes. The first was called Ikishi-mimi no Mikoto, the 
second, the Emperor Oho-Yamato-hiko-suki-tomo. 

One version says : — " She bore three princes, the first of 
whom was called Toko-tsu-hiko-iro-ne ; the second, the 
Emperor Oho-Yamato-hiko-suki-tomo ; and the third, 
Shiki-tsu-hiko no Mikoto." 
B.C 538. ^^^^ year, ist month, ist day. Oho-Yamato-hiko-suki-tomo 
no Mikoto was made Prince Imperial. His younger brother, 
Shiki-tsu-hiko no Mikoto was the first ancestor of the Wi-tsu- 
kahi no Muraji. 
B.C. 511. 38th year, Winter, nth month, 6th day. The Emperor died 
at the age of 57.^ 


\irOKU'' TENNO.) 

IV. 7^ The Emperor Oho-Yamato-hiko-suki-tomo was the second 
child of the Emperor Shiki-tsu-hiko-tama-demi. His mother's 
name was Nuna-soko-naka-tsu-hime, grandchild of Koto-shiro- 
nushi no Kami, and daughter of the Prince * of Kamo. He was 
made Prince Imperial in the nth year, Spring, the ist month 

* A title, derived by Yamada from Sukuna, small, and e or ye, elder 

' The " Kojiki " makes him 49- 

* Admirable virtue. 

* Prince is here J, a lower rank than ^ ^ or Imperial Prince. 

144 NiHONGI. 



The Emperor Mi-matsu-hiko-Kayeshine was the eldest son 
of the Emperor Oho-Yamato-hiko-suki-tomo. The name of 
the Empress, his mother, was Ama-toyo-tsu-hime no Mikoto. 
She was the daughter of Ikishi-mimi no Mikoto. 

The Emperor had been made Prince Imperial in Spring, the 
second month of the 22nd year of the reign of the Emperor Oho- 
Yamato-hiko-suki-tomo. The Emperor Oho-Yamato-hiko- 
suki-tomo died in autumn, the ninth month of the 34th year of 
his reign. On the 13th day of the loth month of the following 
year, the Emperor Oho-Yamato-hiko-suki-tomo was buried in 
the Misasagi over the Masago Valley to the south of Mount 
IV, 9. 1st year, Spring, ist month, 9th day. The Prince Imf)erial 
B.C. 475. assumed the Imperial Dignity. 

Summer, 4th month, Sth day. The Empress was honoured 
with the title of Grand Empress.* 

7th month. The capital was removed to Wakigami.' It 
was called the Palace of Ikegokoro. This year was the year 
Hinoye Tora of the cycle. 
B.C. 447. 29th year, Spring, ist month, 3rd day. Yoso-tarashi-hime 
was appointed Empress. 

One version says : — " Nunaki-tsu hime, daughter of 
Haye, Agata-nushi of Shiki." 

One version has : — " Oho-wi-hime, daughter of Toyo- 

aki-sata-wo of the Land of Yamato." 

The Empress gave birth to Ama-tarashi-hiko-kuni-oshi-bito 

no Mikoto, and to the Emperor Yamato-tarashi-hiko-kuni-oshi- 


B.C. 408. 68th year, Spring, ist month, 14th day. Yamato-tarashi- 

hiko-kuni-oshi-bito no Mikoto was made Prince Imperial. He 

\ Filial piety manifested. * Kwo-dai- o. 

'In Yamato. 

KOAN. 145 

Mras twenty years of age. Ama-tarashi-hiko-kuni-oshi-bito no 
Mikoto was the first ancestor of the Wani no Omi. 

83rd year. Autumn, 8th month, 5th day. The Emperor b.c. 393. 



The Emperor Yamato-tarashi-hiko-kuni-oshi-bito was the IV. 16. 

^ond child of the Emperor Mi-matsu-hiko-kayeshine. His 

l^other's name was Yoso-tarashi-hime. She was the younger 

^^ster of Okitsu Yoso, the ancestor of the Ohari no * Muraji. 

^he Emj)eror was made Prince Imperial in Spring, the ist 

'^^iith of the 68th year of the reign of the Emperor Mi-matsu- 

niko-kayeshine. The Emperor Mi-matsu-hiko-kayeshine died 

in A^iitumn, the 8th month of the 83rd year of his reign. 

*^st year. Spring, ist month, 7th day. The Prince Imperial b-c 392. 

assvxmed the Imperial Dignity. 

A^utumn, 8th month, ist day. The Empress was honoured 

^^'^'^t the title of Grand Empress. This year was the year 

'Tsuchi no to Ushi of the cycle. 

2nd year. Winter, loth month. The capital was removed to b.c. 391. 

Muro. It was called the Palace of Akitsushima. 

26th year. Spring, 2nd month, 14th day. The Emperor b.c. 367. 

appointed his niece,'! Oshi-bime, Empress. 

One version has: — " Naga-hime, daughter of Haye, 

Agata-nushi of Shiki." 

One version has : — " Isaka-hime, daughter of Isaka-hiko, 

Agata-nushi of Tohochi." 

The Empress was the mother of the Emperor Oho-Yamato- 


38th year. Autumn, 8th month, 14th day. The Emperor Mi- b.c. 355. 

matsu-hiko-kayeshine was buried in the Misasagi on Mount 

Hakata in Wakigami. 

76th year. Spring, ist month, 5th day. Oho-Yamato-neko- iv. u. 

B.C. 317. 

* Filial piety-peace. * Or Owari. ' A brother's daughter. 


146 NiHONGI. 

hiko-futo-ni no Mikoto was made Prince Imperial. He was 
then twenty-six years of age. 
«.c. 291. 102nd year, Spring, ist month, 9th day. The Emperor 



The Emperor Oho-Yamato-neko-hiko-futo-ni was the eldest 
child of the Emperor Yamato-tarashi-hiko-Wuni-oshi-bito. His 
mother's name was Oshi-bime. He had been appointed Prince 
Imperial in Spring, the ist month of the 76th year of the reign 
of the Emperor Yamato-tarashi-hiko-kuni-oshi-bito. In Spring, 
the 1st month of the 102nd year of his reign, the Emperor 
Yamato-tarashi-hiko-kuni-oshi-bito died. In Autumn^ the 9th 
month, 13th day, the Emperor Yamato-tarashi-hiko-kuni-oshi- 
bito was buried in the Misasagi on Tamade Hill. 

Winter, 12th month, 4th day. The Prince Imperial removed 
the capital to Kuroda.' It was called the Palace of Ihodo. 
B.C. 290. ist year. Spring, ist month, 12th day. The Prince Imperial 
assumed the Imperial Dignity. He honoured the Empress 
with the title of Grand Empress. This year was the year 
Kanoto Hitsuji of the cycle, 
ly. 12. 2nd year. Spring, 2nd month, nth day. Hoso-bime no Mi- 
B,c. 289. koto was appointed Empress. 

One version has : — " Kasuga no Chichi-haya-yamaka- 

One version has: — " Mashita-bime, daughter of Toso, 

Agata-nushi of Tohochi." 

The Empress was the mother of the Emperor Oho-Yamato- 

neko-hiko-kuni-kuru^ A concubine named Yamato no kuni-ka- 

hime [also called Haye-irone] was the mother of Yamato-to-to- 

^ Several of the Emperors' names have the element Yamato-neko (neko 
is a honorific), and one Emperor styles himself Yamato-neko in an edict, 
although this was not his name. It may be suspected that Yamato-neko was 
at one time a general title for the sovereigns of Japan. 

» Filial piety-spirit. ' In Yamato. 

145 NiHOKGI. 

B.C. 208. 7th year, Spring, 2nd month, 2nd day. Uchi-shiko-me no 
Mikoto was appointed Empress. She had three children, two 
boys and one girl. The name of the eldest was Oho-hiko no 
Mikoto ; of the second, the Emperor Waka-Yamato-neko-hiko 
Oho-hihi ; and of the third, Yamato-toto-hime no Mikoto. 

One version has : — " The Emperor's brother by the 

mother's side was Sukuna-biko-wo-kokoro * no Mikoto." 

IV. 14. A concubine named Ika-shiko-me no Mikoto was the mother 

of Hiko-futo-woshi-makoto no Mikoto. The next concubine,. 

named Hani-yasu-hime, daughter of Awotama of Kahachi, was 

the mother of Take-hani-yasu no Mikoto. 

The elder brother Oho-hiko no Mikoto was the first ancestor 
of the Abe no Omi, the Kashihade* no Omi, the Ahe no Omi^ 
the Sasaki-yama no Kimi, the Tsukushi no Miyakko, the Koshi 
no Miyakko and the Iga no Omi, in all seven families. 
IV. 15. Hiko-futo-woshi-makoto no Mikoto was the grandfather of 
Takechi no Sukune. 
B.C. 193. 22nd year, Spring, ist month, 14th day. Waka-Yamato- 
neko-hiko-oho-hihi no Mikoto was made Prince Imperial. He 
was sixteen years of age. 
B.C. 158. 57th year. Autumn, gth month, 2nd day. The Emperor 



The Emperor Waka-Yamato-neko-hiko-oho-hihi was the 
second child of the Emperor Oho- Yamato-neko-hiko-kuni-kuru. 
His mother's name was Uchi-shikome, the ancestor of the 
Hodzumi no Omi, and younger sister of Uchi-shiko-wo no 

The Emperor had been created Prince Imperial in Springs 
the ist month of the 22nd year of the reign of the Emperor 
Oho-Yamato-neko-hikq-kuni-kuru. He was then sixteen years 
of age. _ 

* Small-prince manly-heart. ' This word means steward. 

' Civilization. 

Kaikwa. 149 

The Emperor Oho-Yamato-nekohiko-kuni-kuru died in 
Autumn, the 9th month of the 57th year of his reign. 

In Winter, the nth month, 12th day, the Prince Imperial 
assumed the Imperial Dignity. 

1st year, Spring, ist month, 4th day. The Empress was i 
honoured with the title of Grand Empress. 

Winter, loth month, 13th day. The capital was removed to 
Kasuga. It was called the Palace of Isa-kaha. This year l 
^as the year Kinoye Saru of the cycle. 

5th year. Spring, 2nd month, 6th day. The ^nperor Oho- i 
* aniato-neko-hiko-kuni-kuru was buried in the >|feasagi on the 
'siand of Tsunigi-ike.* 

6th year. Spring, ist month, 14th day. Ikashiko-me no 1 
^ikoto was appointed Empress. [Ske was his father's concu- 
y^^J\ The Empress was the mother of the Emperor Mimaki- 

i^lie Emperor had previously taken to himself as cbncubine 
T^rxiha no Takano-hime. She was the mother of Hiko-yu- 
>^^-^^umi no Mikoto. [Alsocalled Hikokomosuno Mikoto.'] There 
^^^^-^ a subordinate concubine named Oke-tsu-hime, younger 
Si^'t.^r of Oke-tsu no Mikoto, the ancestor of the Wani no Omi. 
6*^^ was the mother of Prince - Hiko-imasu. 

^8th year. Spring, ist month, 5th day. Mimaki-iri-hiko no ] 
Mikoto was created Prince Imperial. He was nineteen years ' 
^^ age. 

60th year. Summer, 4th month, 9th day. The Emperor 1 

Winter, loth month, 3rd day. He was buried in the Saka- 
moto Misasagi at Isa-kaha in Kasuga. 1.^ 

One version has : — ** The Misasagi of Saka no kami." ' 
His age was then 115. 

' Ike means a pond or artificial lake. 

' Where Prince stands alone without the word Imperial before or after it, 
it represents the Chinese character I, which inthe" Nihongi" is applied 
sometimes to the kings or princes of Corea, but more usually to Japanese 
princes who did not belong to the family of the reigning sovereign. 

• It is difficult to say whether Saka-moto and Saka no kami are proper 
names or merely descriptions. They mean respectively the " bottom of the 
acclivity " and the " top of the acclivity." 




The Emperor Mimaki-iri-biko-i-niye was the second child of 
the Emi>eror Waka-yamato-neko-hiko-oho-hi-hi. His mother's 
name was Ika-shiko-me, daughter of Oho-he-so-ki no Mikoto, 
the ancestor of the Mononobe House.^ 

The Emperor was created Prince Imperial at the age of 
nineteen. He was of a quick intelligence, and in his boyhood 
was fond of manly devices. When he grew up to manhood, he 
was of wide culture and circumspect in his behaviour. He 
honoured profoundly the Gods of Heaven and Earth. His 
mind was constantly directed to the management of the 
Celestial Institution." 

The^ Emperor Waka-yamato-neko-hiko-oho-hihi died in 
Summer, the 4th month of the 6oth year of his reign. 
B.C. 97. 1st year. Spring, ist month, 13th day. The Prince Imperial 
assumed the Imperial Dignity. He honoured the Empress 
with the title of Grand Empress. 

2nd month, i6th day. Mimaki-hime was appointed Em- 
press. Before this she had given birth to the Emperor Iku- 
me-iri-hiko-i-sachi, Kuni-kata-hime no Mikoto, Chichi-tsuku 
Yamato-himeno Mikoto, Yamato-hiko no Mikoto, and Ika-tsuru- 
V. 2. hiko no Mikoto. By a concubine, Tohotsu Ayume ma-kuwashi- 
hime, daughter of Araka, the Tohe of the Land of Kii, he 
had Toyo-suki-iri-hiko no Mikoto, and a subordinate con- 
cubine named Ohari no Oho-ama. 

One version has : — " Ya-saka-furu-ama-irohe, daughter of 
Oho-umi no-Sukune." 

* Siljin means "honouring the Gods." ' In Japanese Uji. 

' The sovereignty. 


SUJIN. 151 

bore to him Ya-saka-iri-hiko no Mikoto, Nunaki-iri-bime no 
Mikoto, and Toho-chi-ni-iri-bime no Mikoto. 
This year was the year Kinoye Saru of the cycle. 
3rd year. Autumn, gth month. The capital was removed to ^-c- 95- 
Shiki. It was called the Palace of Midzu-gaki. 

4th year. Winter, loth month, 13th day. The Emperor b.c. 94. 
issued a decree, saying: — "When our Imperial ancestors 
gloriously assumed the Supreme Rank, was it for the benefit of 
themselves alone ? It was doubtless in order that they 
'night thereby shepherd men and spirits,^ and regulate the 
Empire. Therefore it was that from generation to generation 
they were able to extend their unfathomable merit, and in their 
day to spread abroad their perfect virtue. 

We, having now received at their hands the mighty inheri- 
tance, lovingly nourish our good subjects. In so doing, let us 
follow obediently in the footsteps of our Imperial ancestors, 
and long preserve the unbounded felicity. And ye too. Our 
Ministers and functionaries, should you not co-operate with all v. 3. 
loyalty in giving peace to the Empire ? '" 

5th year. There was much pestilence throughout the b.c. 93. 
country, and more than one half the people died. 

6th year. The people took to vagabondage, and there was b.c. 92. 
rebellion, the violence of which was such that by worth alone 
it could not be assuaged.' 

Therefore, rising early in the morning and being full of awe 
until the evening, the Emperor requested punishment * of the 
Gods of Heaven and Earth. 

Before this the two Gods Ama-terasu no Oho-kami and 
Yamato no Oho-kuni-dama' were worshipped together within 
the Emperor's Great Hall. He dreaded, however, the power 
of these Gods, and did not feel secure in their dwelling 
together. Therefore he entrusted Ama-terasu no Oho-kami to 
Toyo-suki-iri-bime no Mikoto to be worshipped at the village 

> The Kana has simply hito, men. 

* This decree is a mere cento of Chinese phrases. 

* i.e., by the virtues of the Sovereign commanding the respect and 
obedience of the people. 

^ In accordance with the Chinese notion that national calamities arc 
owing to the faults of the Emperor. 

* The numen of the great land of Yamato. 

152 NiHONGI. 

of Kasariuhi in Yamato, where he established the sacred en- 
V, 4. closure of Shiki. Moreover, he entrusted Yamato-oho-kuni- 
dama no Kami to Nunaki-iri-bime no Mikoto to be worshipped. 
But Nunaki-iri-bime no Mikoto was bald and lean, and there- 
fore unfit to perform the rites of worship. 
inc. 91. 7th year, Spring, 2nd month, 15th day. The Emperor 
decreed as follows : — " Of old our Imperial ancestors greatly 
extended the vast foundation, and under the later Emperors 
the institution became more and more exalted. The royal in- 
fluence spread and flourished. But now that it has devolved upon 
Us, numerous calamities have unexpectedly befallen it. It is to 
be feared that from the absence of good Government in the Court, 
We have incurred the blame of the Gods of Heaven and Earth. 
Would it not be well to commit the matter to the Sacred 
Tortoise * and thereby ascertain the cause of the calamity ? " 

Accordingly, the Emperor hereupon proceeded to the plain 
of Kami-asachi, where he assembled the 80 myriads of Deities, 
and inquired of them by means of divination. At this time the 
Gods inspired Yamato-to-to-hi-momoso-hime no Mikoto to say 
as follows : — " Why is the Emperor grieved at the disordered 
state of the country ? If he duly did us reverent worship it 
would assuredly become pacified of itself." The Emperor in- 
V. 5. quired, saying : — " What God is it that thus instructs me ? " 
The answer was : — " I am the God who dwells within the 
borders of the land of Yamato, and my name is Oho-mono- 
nushi no Kami." 

Now, having obtained this divine message, the Emperor 
worshipped as he was told, but without effect. Then, having 
bathed and practised abstinence, and purified the interior of 
the Hall, he prayed, saying: — " Is Our observance of due cere- 
monies towards the Gods not yet complete? This non- 
acceptance is cruel. We pray that We may be further instructed 
in a dream, and the divine favour thereby consummated.'' 

That night he had a dream. A man of noble appearance 
stood opposite to him in the door of the hall, and, announcing 
himself as Oho-mono-nushi no Kami, said : — " Let the 

* The ancient Japanese divination was by roasting deer's shoulder-blades 
and observing the cracks thus caused, not by the shell of a tortoise, which is 
the Chinese practice. 

SujiN. . 153 

Emperor grieve no more for the disorder of the country. This 
is my will. If thou wilt cause me to be worshipped by my 
child, Oho-tata-neko, then will there be peace at once. More- 
over the lands beyond the sea will of their own accord render 

Autumn, 8th month, 7th day. Yamato-to-to-kami-asachi- 
hara-ma-guhashi-hime, Oho-mina-kuchi-no Sukune, the an- 
cestor of the Hodzumi no Omi, and the Kimi of Wo-umi in 
Ise had all three the same dream, which they reported to the 
Emperor, saying : — " Last night we had a dream in which there 
appeared a man of noble aspect, who admonished us, saying : — 
*Let Oho-tata-neko no Mikoto be appointed master of the 
worship of Oho-mono-nushi-no-oho-kami, and let Ichi-shi no 
Naga-ochi be appointed master of the worship of Yamato no 
Oho-kuni-dama no Kami. Then assuredly the Empire will 
have profound peace.' " 

The Emperor, when he learned the words of the dream, was 
more and more delighted in his heart. By a proclamation to 
the Empire he sought for Oho-tata-neko, who was accordingly 
found in the village of Suye, in the district of ChinUj' and sent 
to the Emperor, who forthwith proceeded in person to the plain 
of Kami-asachi, and assembled all the Princes and Ministers, and 
the eighty Be. He then inquired of Oho-tata-neko, saying : — 
" Whose child art thou ? " He answered and said : — " My 
father's name is Oho-mono-nushi no Oho-kami. My mother's 
name is Ikudama-yori-bime, daughter of Suye-tsu mimi." 

Also called Kushi-hi-kata-ame-hi-kata, daughter of 
The Emperor said : — " Now we shall be prosperous." So 
he ascertained by divination that it would be lucky to send Ika- 
shiko-wo to distribute offerings to the Gods. He also divined 
that it would be unlucky to take advantage of this opportunity 
to worship other Gods.' 

nth month, 8th day.' The Emperor took the articles* for 

* In Idzumi. ' Than the two above mentioned. 

* The original has cyclical characters which would make it the 56th day of 
the month. I have adopted an emendation which does not make obvious 
nonsense. But where the whole series of dates is fictitious, it is hardly 
worth while noticing minor inaccuracies of this kind. 

* Of pottery. 

154 NiHONGI. 

the worship of the Gods which he ordered Ika-shiko-wo to have 
made by the hands of the eighty Mononobe, and appointed 
Oho-tata-neko Master of the worship of Oho-mono-nushi no 
Oho-kami. Moreover he made Nagaochi Master of the 
worship of Yamato no Oho-kuni-dama no Kami. 

After that, he divined that it would be lucky to worship the 
other Gods. So he took the opportunity of separately wor- 
shipping the assemblage of eighty myriads of Deities. He also 
settled which were to be Heavenly shrines and which Earthly 
shrines, and allotted land and houses for the service of the 
Gods. Thereupon the pestilence first ceased ; the country 
at length had peace, the five kinds of grain were produced, and 
the peasantry enjoyed abundance. 
B.C. 90. 8th year. Summer, 4th month, 6th day. A man of the 
village of Takahashi, named Ikuhi, was appointed Brewer to 
the Great Deity. 

Winter, 12th month, 20th day. The Emperor caused Oho- 
tata-neko to worship the Great Deity. On this day, Ikuhi, in 
person, presented to the Emperor sacred sake, with a song, as 
follows : — 

This sacred sake 

Is not my sacred sake : 

*Tis sacred sake brewed 

By Oho-mono-nushi, 

Of Yamato, 

How long ago ! 

How long ago ! * 

Having thus sung, they feasted in the Shrine of the God. 
As soon as the feast was over, the various high officials sang as 
follows : — 

V. 8. The Hall of Miwa 

(Of sweet sake fame), 
Even its morning door 

We would go forth from — 
The door of the Hall of Miwa. 

Hereupon the Emperor sang as follows : — 

' ** How long ago " is in Japanese Ikuhisa, an obvious allusion to the 
Brewer's name, Ikuhi, in short a pun. 

SUJIN. 155 

The Hall of Miwa 

(Of sweet sake fame), 
Even its morning-door 

I would push open— 
The dopr of the Hall of Miwa.' 

So the door of the Shrine of the God was thrown open, and 
the Emperor proceeded on his way. 

He who was called Oho-tata-neko was the first ancestor of the 
Kimi of Miwa. 

9th year, Spring, 3rd month, 15th day. The Emperor had b.c. 8- 
^ dream in which a divine person appeared to him and in- 
structed him, saying: — "Take eight red shields and eight red 
spears and do worship to the God of Sumi-zaka. Take more- 
^^Gr eight ^black shields and eight black spears and do wor- 
^bif> to the God of Oho-zaka.'' 
Slammer, 4th month, i6th day. In accordance with the in- 
sfnac:tion he had received in the dream, he worshipped the 
^^<is of Sumi-zaka and Oho-zaka." 

^CDth year, Autumn, 7th month, 24th day. He proclaimed ''C & 
to "t: lie company of Ministers, saying: — "For the guidance of 
tu^ people, the chief thing is education. Now that I have 
P^'^formed due rites to the Gods of Heaven and Earth, all 
^Wmity has become spent. The distant savages, however, do 
t^^t receive our calendar because they are yet unaccustomed to 
t^^ civilizing influences of our rule. We will, therefore, select V. 9. 
some of our company of Ministers and despatch them to the 
four quarters, so that they may cause our Will to be known." 

9th month, gth day. The Emperor sent Oho-hiko no 
Mikoto to the northern region, he sent Takenu-kaha wake to 
the Eastern Sea,'** he sent Kibi^-tsu-hiko to the Western road, 

* The sentiment of these poems seems to be the same as that of our own 
** We won't go home till morning." 

Metre irregular. 

' However unhistorical all this may be, one thing clearly appears from it, 
viz., that in the early days of Japan the king and high priest were identical. 
Both the civil and religious functions, however, might be equally delegated. 

* In the original To-kai, whence Tokaido, East-sea-road, the great high- 
way from Kioto to the East and also the provinces lying to each side of 

* Kibi is the ancient name for Bizen, Bingo, and Bittchiu, which lie west of 

156 NlHONGI. 

he sent Tamba no chi-nushi no Mikoto to Tamba. On this 
occasion he addressed them, saying : — " If there be any who 
do not receive our instructions, prepare war and smite them." 
Having said so, he granted them all alike seals and ribbons/ 
and appointed them generals. 

27th day. Oho-hiko no Mikoto arrived at the top of the 
Wani acclivity. Now there was there a maiden who sang as 
follows : — 

One version has : — ** Oho-hiko-no Mikoto arrived at the 
Hira-zaka acclivity, in Yamashiro. Now there was by the 
road-side a young woman who sang as follows : " — 

Ah ! Prince Mimaki-iri ! 
Unaware that some are stealthily 
Preparing to cut 
The thread of thine own life. 
Thou amusest thyself like a lady I 

^* '^- Another version is : — 

Unaware that some are preparing 

To slay thee, 

On the watch 

At the great gate, 

Thou amusest thyself like a lady ! - 

Wondering at this, Oho-hiko inquired of the maiden, saying : 
— " What are these words that thou say est ? " She answered 
and said : — " I was saying nothing : I was only singing." So she 
sang over again the above song, and suddenly disappeared. 
Oho-hiko accordingly returned and reported these circumstances 
to the Emperor. Upon this Yamato-toto-hi momo so bime no 
Mikoto, the Emperor's aunt by the father's side, a shrewd and 
intelligent person, who could foresee the future, understood 
what was portended by this song, and told the Emperor that 
it was a sign that Take-hani-yasu-hiko ^ was about to plot 
treason against him. ** I have heard," she said, "that Ata- 
bime, Take-hani-yasu-hiko's wife, came secretly and took earth 

' The seals and ribbons are Chinese, and could not have been used as 
emblems of office in Japan at this time. The word for general is Shogun, 
so familiar at a later period of Japanese History. 

^ The text of this poem is very doubtful. The " Kojiki" has a third version. 
Prince Mimaki-iri is the Emperor. 

' A half-brother of the Emperor. He lived in Yamashiro. 

SUJIN. 157 

from Mount Kako * in Yamato, which she wrapped in her 
neckerchief and prayed, saying : — 'This earth represents the V. n. 
Land of Yamato,' and turned it upside down. By this I know 
that there will be troubles. If thou dost not speedily take 
naeasures, it will assuredly be too late." Hereupon he recalled 
^1 the generals and consulted with them. No long time after, 
Take-hani-yasu-hiko and his wife Ata-bime conspired to revolt, 
^nd arrived suddenly with an army which they had raised. 
They came each by different roads, the husband by way of 
^amashiro, the wife by Oho-saka. They intended to join their 
forces and attack the capital. Then the Emperor sent Isaseri- 
^^ko no Mikoto to attack the force led by Ata-bime. He 
^^cordingly intercepted it at Oho-saka and put^it all to a great 
^^ut, Ata-bime was killed, and her troops were all slain, 
^ft^rwards he sent Oho-hiko and Hiko-kuni-fuku, the ancestor 
^^ tihe Wani no Omi, towards Yamashiro to attack Take-hani.- 
3^^^vi. Here they took sacred jars and planted them at the top 
^\ "^le acclivity of Takasuki in Wani.' Then they advanced 
^'"-"^li their best troops and ascended Mount Nara and occupied 
it* Now when the Imperial forces were encamping, they trod 
lexr^l ^j^g herbs and trees, whence that mountain was given the 
^^me of Mount Nara.^ Then abandoning Mount Nara, they v. 12. 
V^'^oceeded as far as the River Wakara. Hani-yasu-hiko was 
^'Hcamped on both sides of the river, and the two armies 
challenged each other. Therefore the men of that time changed 
the name of the river, and called it the River Idomi,^ which is 
now corrupted into Idzumi. 

Hani-yasu-hiko, standing on the bank of this river, inquired 
of Hiko-kuni-fuku, saying : — ** Why hast thou raised an army 
and come hither ? " He answered and said : — ** Thou, in oppo- 
sition to Heaven, and regardless of right, dost intend to over- 
turn the Royal chamber.* Therefore I have raised a loyal 
army to punish thy revolt. This is the Emperor's command." 
Hereupon there was a struggle who should shoot first. Hani- 
yasu-hiko shot first at Hiko-kuni-fuku, but missed him. Then 

* The same as Mount Kagu above referred to. 

' i.e. they sacrificed to the Gods before entering on the campaign. 
' Narasu means to make leveL 

* Challenge River. ' We would say the throne. 

158 NiHONGI. 

Hiko-kuni-fuku aimed at Hani-yasu-hiko, hit him in the breast, 
and killed him. His troops lost courage and retreated. They 
were consequently pursued and driven in rout to the north oi 
the river. More than half had their heads cut off, and of dead 
bodies there was a plentiful overflow. Therefore that place 
was named Hafu-sono.' 

Again the troops fled in fear and their excrements were voided 
on their breeches. So they took off their armour and ran. 
Knowing that they could not escape, they bowed their heads to 
the ground, and said, " Our Lord." Therefore the men of that 
time called the place where the armour was taken off " Ka- 
wara," ^ and the place where the breeches were defiled they 
caUed Kuso-bakama.* It is now called Kusuba, which is a 
corruption of this word. 
V. 13. Moreover the place where they bowed their heads was called 

After tkis Yamato-toto-hi-momo-so-bime no Mikoto became 
the wife of Oho-mono-nushi no Kami. This God, however, 
was never seen in the day-time, but came at night. Yamato- 
toto-hime no Mikoto said to her husband : — " As my Lord is 
never seen in the day-time, I am unable to view his august 
countenance distinctly ; I beseech him therefore to delay a while, 
that in the morning I may look upon the majesty of his 
beauty.'^ The Great God answered and said : — *' What thou 
sayest is clearly right. To-morrow morning I will enter thy toilet- 
case and stay there. I pray thee be not alarmed at my form." 
Yamato-toto-hime no Mikoto wondered secretly in her heart at 
this. Waiting until daybreak, she looked into her toilet-case. 
There was there a beautiful little snake,' of the length and thick- 
ness of the cordof a garment. Thereupon she was frightened, 
and uttered an exclamation. The Great God was ashamed, and 
changing suddenly into human form, spake to his wife, and 

' Afureru is ** to overflow," sono means garden. Hafu is more probably for 
hafuri, sacrifice. 

^ An old word for " armour." ■ " Excrement-breeches." 

* Our Lord. See above. 

* This is one of numerous evidences of serpent-worship in Ancient Japan. 
The interlinear Kana for snake is worochi, where the last syllable is a 

SUJIN. 159 

said : — " Thou didst not contain thyself, but hast caused me 

shame : I will in my turn put thee to shame." So treading 

the Great Void, he ascended to Mount Mimoro. Hereupon 

Yamato-toto-hime no Mikoto looked up and had remorse. 

She flopped down on a seat and with a chopstick stabbed 

herself in the pudenda so that she died. She was buried at 

Oho-chi. Therefore the men of that time called her tomb the 

Hashi ho haka.* This tomb was made by men in the day-time, V. 14. 

^nd by Gods at night. It was built of stones carried from 

Mount Oho-saka. Now the people standing close to each other 

Passed the stones from hand to hand, and thus transported 

^^em from the mountain to the tomb. The men of that time 

^^de a song about this, saying : — 

If one passed from hand to band 

The rocks 

Built up 

On Oho-saka,' 

How hard 'twould be to send them ! • 

"V^inter, loth month, ist day. The Emperor gave com- 

^^-xid to his Ministers, saying : — " The rebels have now all 

y^^^lded themselves to execution and there is peace in the home 

^^trict.* But the savage tribes abroad' continue to be 

^^Hiultuous. Let the generals of the four roads now make 

^^te to set out." On the 22nd day, the four generals set out 

^H their journeys simultaneously. 

» The Chopstick Tomb. 

' The great acclivity. 

' The tombs of men of rank at this period of Japanese History consisted 
of a round mound of earth varying in size according to the station of the 
person interred, and containing a vault of megalith ic stones, with an 
entrance gallery similar to those of the Imperial Misasagi, but of much 
smaller size. Many of these are still to be seen in Japan, especially in 
the provinces near Yamato. Of course it is utterly impossible to pass from 
hand to hand stones of the size used in constructing these tombs. 

^ The original is Kinai, more familiarly known as Gokinai, and comprising 
the provinces of Yamato, Vamashiro, Settsu, Kawachi, and Idzumi. 

• Lit. outside the sea. This is a Chinese expression which must not 
be taken too literally. The Ainos may be referred ^o. But the whole 
passage seems inspired by recollections from Chinese literature, and is 
probably entirely fictitious. 

l60 NiHONGI. 

B.C. 87, iith year, Summer, 4th month, 28th day. The generals of the 
four roads reported to the Emperor the circumstances of their 
pacification of the savages. This year strapge tribes came in 
great numbers and there was tranquillity throughout the land. 

B.C. 86. i2th year, Spring, 3rd month, nth day. The following 
decree was issued: — ** Ever since we received the Celestial 
Dignity and undertook the guardianship of the ancestral 
shrines. Our light has been subject to obscuration, and Our 
influence has been wanting in pla;cidity. Consequently there 
has been disaccord in the action of the male and female 
principles of nature, heat and cold have mixed their due order, 
epidemic disease has been rife, and calamities have befallen 
V. 15. the people. But now in order to be absolved from Our 
offences and to rectify Our errors, we have reverently worshipped 
the Gods of Heaven and Earth. We have also dispensed 
Our instructions and thus pacified the savage tribes, and 
by force of arms have chastised those who refused sub- 
mission. In this way authority has been maintained, while 
below there are no retired people/ Education ' is widespread ; 
the multitude take delight in their industries ; ^ strange tribes 
come employing several interpreters ; the countries beyond the 
sea offer allegiance. At this time We think it fit to make a new 
recension of the people, and to acquaint them with grades of 
seniority, and the order of forced labour.** 

Autumn, gth month, i6th day. A census of the people was 
begun and taxes were imposed anew. These are called the 
men's bow-end tax and the women's finger-end tax.'* Therefore 
the Gods of Heaven and Earth were harmonious. The wind 

' By "retired people " are probably meant those who have concealed them- 
selves in order to escape from oppression. The phrase occurs in the " Con- 
fucian Analects " (Legge, p. 200), where, however, it is used of a voluntary 
retirement from the world. 

» The " education " is not juvenile education, but the education of the 
people by the good example of the monarch, with, perhaps, an occasional 
discourse from the throne, 

8 From " authority *^ to " industries " is copied from a Chinese History of 
the Han Dynasty. The whole decree is utterly impossible as a document of 
Japanese History at this period. It is as Chinese as it can be. 

* That is, a tax of animals' skins and game to be paid by the men, and of 
textile fabrics to be levied on women. See Ch. K., p. 182. • " 

SujiN. i6i 

and rain came in their season, the hundred kinds of grain 
formed duly. Families did not become extinct, population was 
sufi&cient. Profound peace prevailed in the Empire. There- 
fore he received the title of** The Emperor, the august ^founder 
of the country." 

17th year. Autumn, 7th month, ist day. The following ^.c. 81. 
decree was issued : — 

" Ships are of cardinal importance to the Empire. At 
present the people of the coast, not having ships, suffer 
?;rievously by land-transport. Therefore, let every province be 
caused to have ships built." 
Winter, loth month. The building of ships was begun. 
48th year, Spring, ist month, loth day. The Emperor gave b.c. 50. 
command to Toyoki no Mikoto and Ikume no Mikoto, say- 
mg:^" Ye, my two children, are alike in Our affection, and We 
tnovv not which of you to make Our successor. Do each of 
you dream, and We will form an augury from your dreams.*' 
"^reupon the two princes, having received this command. 
Performed their ablutions and prayed. In their sleep each of 
tnetti had a dream. The next dawn the elder brother, Toyoki 
^^ Xfikoto, reported to the Emperor the story of his dream, 
spying : — ** I myself ascended Mount Mimoro, and turning to 
^"^ East, eight times I flourished a spear, and eight times dealt 
Wo\^s with a sword." 

The younger brother, Ikume no Mikoto, reported the story 
0* his dream, saying : — ** I myself ascended to the summit of 
Mount Mimoro, and stretched a cord to the four quarters with 
which to drive away the sparrows which fed upon the 

The Emperor compared the dreams, and spake to his two 
sons, saying : — ** The elder of you turned to the East only, and 
it is therefore meet that he should rule the Eastern Land. But 
the younger looked down generally over the four quarters, and 
he ought therefore to succeed to Our Dignity." 

Summer, 4th month, igth day. Ikume no Mikoto was 
appointed Prince Imperial, and Toyoki no Mikoto was made 
ruler of the Eastern Land. He was the first ancestor of the 
Kimi of Kami-tsuke * and of the Kimi of Shimotsuke. 

Now Kodzukc. 

l62 NiHONGI. 

Bc. 38. 60th year, Autumn, 7th month, 14th day. The Emperor 
' '^' addressed his ministers, saying : — **Take-hi-teru no Mikoto 

Another version is Take-hina-tori or Ama-no-hina- 
brought from Heaven the divine treasures and stored them in 
the Temple of the Great God at Idzumo. I wish to see them." 
Accordingly Take-moro-sumi, the ancestor of the Yata-be no 
Miyakko, was sent for them 

One writing says : — *' Also called Oho-moro-sumi." 
that he might lay them before the Emperor. Now at this time 
Idzumo Furune, the ancestor of the Idzumo no Omi, held 
charge of the divine treasures. He had gone to the Land of 
Tsukushi and did not come to meet him. His younger brother, 
Ihi-iri-ne, accordingly received the Imperial command and 
entrusted them to his younger brother, Umashi-Kara*-hisa and 
his son Uka-tsuku-nu, and so rendered them up to the Emperor. 
Now w^hen Idzumo Furune returned from Tsukushi and heard 
that the divine treasures had been rendered up to the Court, he 
rebuked his.younger brother Ihi-iri-ne, saying: — " Thou shouldst 
have waited for some days. What wert thou afraid of that thou 
didst so lightly part with the divine treasures ? " On this account 
V. 18. he still, after years and months had passed, cherished wrath 
against his younger brother and had a mind to slay him. So 
he deceived his younger brother, saying: — ** Of late the mo^ 
plant grows plentifully in the Yamiya pool. Pray let us go 
together and see it.'* So he followed his elder brother and 
went there. Before this, the elder brother had secretly made 
a wooden sword, in appearance like a real sword, which at this 
time he himself wore. The younger brother was girt with a 
real sword. When they both came to the head of the pool, 
the elder brother said to the younger : — ** The water of the 
pool is limpid and cool ; pray let us both bathe in it." The 
younger brother agreed to his elder brother's proposal, and 
thev each took off the sword which he wore and laid it on 

* Note the occurrence of Kara, the name of a Corean Kingdom, in a 
proper name at a time when it was not supposed that Japan had relations 
with Corea. 

2 Defined as " a water plant with round leaves and stems which vary in 
length accordmg to the depth of the water." It is edible. 

SUJIN. 163 

the bank of the pool. Having bathed in the water, the elder 
brother came first to land, and taking the younger brother's 
real sword, girded it on himself. Afterwards the younger . 
brother, surprised, took up his elder brother's wooden sword, 
but on coming to mutual blows, the younger brother was 
unable to draw the wooden sword. So the elder brother smote 
his younger brother, Ihi-iri-ne, and killed him. Therefore the 
men of that day made a song, saying, — 

The sword girt on 

By the warrior of Idzumo 

(Where many clouds arise *) — 

There is the sheath enwound with creepers, 

But, alas ! there is no blade. 

Hereupon Umashi-Kara-hisa and Uka-tsuku-nu proceeded to 

Court, where they reported this affair in detail. Accordingly, 

'^^W-tsu-hiko and Takenu-kaha-wake were sent to put to death 

-^dztaino Furune. Therefore the Omi of Idzumo, in dread of 

^"*s, desisted for a while from the worship of the Great God. 

Now a man of Higami, in Tamba, named Hika-tohe, made 
^ ^^presentation to the Prince Imperial, Iku-me no Mikoto, 
^^ying: — ** One of my children is a young infant. Yet of his own V. i^ 
^^c^ord he has said this : — * These are the Gods worshipped by 
^^e men of Idzumo — Idzumo of the gem-like water-plant * and 
^he sunken stone ^ — viz. the true-kind-beautiful-august-mirror, 
^*^e pinion-flapping-beautiful- august-God, the bottom-treasure- 
^Ugust-treasure-master ; the august-spirit-plunged-in-the-water- 
of-the-mountain-stream, the peacefully-wearing (jewels ?) -august- 
deity, the bottom-treasure-august-treasure-master.' * These do 
not seem like the words of a young infant. May they have 
been spoken by divine inspiration ? " 

Hereupon the Prince Imperial reported to the Emperor, who 
accordingly caused them to be worshipped. 

62nd year, Autumn, 7th month, 2nd day. The following b.c. 36. 
edict was issued : — 

** Agriculture is the great foundation of the Empire. It is 

• See above, p. 54. 

- The mo, above referred to. 

' Perhaps a precious stone found at the bottom of rivers. 

* The Shiki says that this is the description of two deities only. 

M 2 

164 ' NiHONGI. 

that upon which the people depend for their subsistence/ At 
present the water of Hanida of Sayama in Kahachi is scarce, 
and therefore the peasants of that province are remiss in 
their husbandry. Open up therefore abundance of ponds and 
runnels, and so develop the industry of the people." 
Winter, loth month. The Yosami pond was made, 
nth month. The Karusaka pond and the Sakahori pond 
were made. 

One version has : — ** These three ponds were made 

w^hen the Emperor dwelt in the Palace of Kuhama." 

B.C. 33. 65th year, Autumn, 7th month. The Land of Imna' sent 

* ^°' Sonaka-cheulchi and offered tribute. Imna is more than 

2000 ri to the north of Tsukushi, from which it is separated by 

the sea. It lies to the south-west of Ke-rin. 

In the 68th year of his reign, Winter, the 12th month, 5th 
day, the Emperor died at the age of 120.^ 

In the following year, Autumn, the 8th month, nth day, he 
was buried in the Misasagi above the road at Yamanobe. 

* The above two sentences are copied word for word from a Chinese 

* The traditional Japanese pronunciation of this name is Mimana. I have 
followed here, as elsewhere, the Corean pronunciation of Corean proper 
names* On any estimate of the length of the ri, the distance given is far 
too great. 

Imna or Mimana is also known as Kara. It is a small kingdom lying to 
the S.W. of the River Naktong. 

Kerin, in Japanese Kirin, is another name for Silla (in Japanese Shinra 
or Shiragi). See " Early Japanese History ■' in " J.A.S.T.," p. 43. 

Sonaka-cheulchi looks like a genuine Corean name. 

^ The age given here is inconsistent with other data found in the 
" Nihongi" itself, and with the " Kojiki," which makes him 168 at the time 
of his death. 





* HE Emperor Iku-me-iri-hiko-i-sachi was the third child of the 

^niperor Mimaki-iri-hiko-iniye. The Empress his mother 

^^ called Mimaki-hime. She was the daughter of Oho-hiko 

^^ Mikoto. The Emperor was born in the Palace of Midzu- 

^^i in the 29th year of the Emperor Mimaki, the 50th year 

^\ the cycle, Spring, the ist month, the ist day. From his 

'^^^h he was of a distinguished appearance ; when he grew to 

^^nhood, he had superior talent and large principles. His 

^^Sposition was to be guided implicitly by truth and to avoid 


The Emperor loved him, and retained him near his own 
Person. At the age of twenty-four,' in accordance with the 
prognostic of a dream, he made him Prince Imperial. 

The Emperor Mimaki-iri-hiko-iniye died in Winter, the 12th 
nionth of the 68th year of his reign. 

1st year, Spring, 2nd day. The Prince Imperial assumed uc. 29. 
the Imperial Dignity. 

Winter, loth month, nth day.* The Emperor Mimaki was VI. 2, 
buried in the Misasagi over the road at Yamanobe. 

nth month, 2nd day. The Empress was granted the 

^ Dispense-bcnevolence. 

* This does not agree with what precedes. He was bom in the 29th year 
of his father's reign, and made Prince Imperial in the 48th. He would 
therefore be only twenty, and not twenty-four. Note that the Japanese 
always count both the year of birth and the current year in their calculations 
of age. 

^ This does not agree with the date on the previous page. 

l66 NiHONGI. 

honorary title of Grand Empress. This was the year Midzu- 
noye Tatsu of the cycle. 
B.C. 28. 2nd year, Spring, 2nd month, gth day. Saho-hime was 
appointed Empress. She gave birth to Homu-tsu-wake no 
•Mikoto. From his birth the Emperor loved him, and kept him 
near his own person. When he grew to manhood, he could 
not speak. 

Winter, loth month. The capital was removed to Maki- 
muku. It was called the Palace of Tamaki. In this year the 
man of Imna, Sonaka cheulchi,^ asked permission to return to 
his country. Therefore gifts were liberally bestowed on him, 
and there were entrusted to him as a present for the King of 
Imna 100 pieces of red silk. But the Silla people waylaid and 
robbed him, and at this time began the enmity between the 
two countries.' 

One account says : — ** In the reign of the Emperor 
Mimaki, there was a man with horns on his forehead* who 
came riding in a ship and anchored in the Bay of Kebi in 
the land of Koshi. Therefore that place was called 
Tsunoga.* He was asked what countryman he was. He 
replied, saying : — * I am the son of the King of Great Kara. 
VI. 3. My name is Tsunoga ^rashito, and I am also called Ushiki 

arishichi kanki.^ It having come to my ears that there is 
in the Land of Japan a sage Emperor, I wished to offer 

' Corean pronunciation. The Japanese would be Sonaka shichi. 

- There is probably some historical foundation for this. But the chrono- 
logy must be wrong. According to the Tongkam, Kara (Imna) was not 
formed into a kingdom until A.D. 42, and hostilities between Kara and Silla 
are first mentioned in that work in A.D. 94. They were also at war 
in 97, 115, 116, and 203. See** Early Japanese History" in "J.A.S.T.," 

p. 44. 

•* The ancient Chinese Emperors are so depicted. 

^ Now Tsuruga in Echizen. A derivation from Tsuno-nuka (horn-fore- 
head) seems intended. 

* The Chinese characters in the text arc probably intended to be read 
with their Japanese pronunciation, and I have accordingly in this instance 
followed the traditional Kana rendering. If the Corean pronunciation were 
followed, we should read Tonoka Arasateung and Usaki ari cheulchi kanki. 
The Shiki says that kanki is a Silla rank equal to the Japanese senior 3rd 
rank. From a passage in Keidai Tenno's reign, year 23, it would appear 
that Arashito, or Arasilteung, was the name of some office or dignity. 

SUININ. 167 

him my allegiance and came to Anato.' ' Now in that land 
there was a man named Itsutsu-hiko, who spoke to thy 
servant, saying : — * I am the King of this land, and there 
is no other king but me. Do not thou therefore proceed 
farther/ But when I observed him closely and saw what 
manner of man he was, I knew surely that he was not a 
king. So I departed again from that place, and not 
knowing the road, anchored at one island and bay after 
another, going round by way of the Northern Sea and 
passing the Land of Idzumo until I arrived here." 

It so happened that at this time the Emperor died, so 
he was detained and served the Emperor Ikume for three 

Then the Emperor inquired of Arashito, saying : — ** Dost 
thou wish to return to thy country ? " He answered and 
said : — " I earnestly desire to do so." The Emperor then 
addressed Arashito, saying : — ** If thou hadst not lost thy 
way, thou wouldst certainly have arrived here sooner — in 
time tf) serve the late Emperor. Do thou, therefore, change 
the name of thy country. In future take the august name VI. 4. 
of the Emperor Mimaki and make it the name of thy 
country. So he gave Arashito red silk stuffs and sent him 
back to his native land. This was the reason why the 
name of that country is called Mimana.^ Hereupon Ara- 
shito took the red silk which had been given him, and 
stored it in the magazine of his country. The people of 
Silla hearing this, raised an army and proceeding thither 
robbed him of all the red silk. This was the beginning of 
the enmity between these two countries." 

One writing says: — ** In the beginning, when Tsunoga 
Arashito was still in his own land, he went into the country 
with an ox loaded with implements of husbandry. The 
ox suddenly disappeared, and seeking for it by its tracks, he 
found that Xhe foot-prints ceased in a certain village. 
Now there was here an old man who said : — * The ox 
which thou art in search of entered this village, and the 

' Anato, lit. hole-door, is the ancient name of Nagato (long-door) or 
Choshiu. The door is the Strait of Shimonoseki. 
' Imna, according to the Corean pronunciation of the characters. 

1 68 NiHONGI. 

village chiefs said : — '* With the implements which he is 
carrying let us fell the ox. We must surely . prepare to 
slay and eat him. If the owner comes in search of him, 
we shall indemnify him with something." So they slew 
and ate him. If thou art asked what thing thou desirest 
as the price of the ox, do not ask for treasures, but say 
that thou wishest to have the God worshipped by the 
village. Tell them so.' Presently the village chiefs came 
and said : — * What dost thou desire as the price of thy 
ox ? ' And he replied as the old man had instructed him. 
Now the God whom they worshipped was a white stone. 
So they gave the w^hite stone to the ow^ner of the ox, and 
he accordingly brought it away with him and placed it in 
his bed-chamber. This divine stone became changed into 
V^' 5- a beautiful maiden, upon which Arashito was greatly re- 

joiced, and wished to be united to her. But while he was 
away in another place, the maiden suddenly disappeared. 
Arashito was greatly alarmed, and inquired of his wife, 
saying : — ' Whither has the maiden gone ? ' Khe replied 
and said : — * She has gone towards the East.* So he 
went in search of her, and at length, drifting far over the 
sea, he thus arrived in our country. The maiden whom 
he sought came to Naniha, where she became the Deity of 
the Himegoso shrine. Then proceeding to the district ot 
Kusaki, in the Land of Toyo, she afterwards became the 
Deity of the Himegoso shrine. She is worshipped in both 
these places." 
B.C. 27. 3rd year. Spring, 3rd month. The Silla prince, Ama no 
hi-hoko,* arrived. The objects which he brought were — one 
Ha-buto gem, one Ashi-daka gem, one red-stone Ukaka gem, 
one Idzushi short sword, one Idzushi spear, one sun-mirror, 
one Kuma-himorogi," seven things in all. These were stored in 
the Land of Tajima,*^ and made divine things for ever. 

' This means " The sun-spear of Heaven," and is purely Japanese. It 
cannot be a Corean name. 

- Kuma-himorogi. See above, p. 82. 

•* In the district of Idzu-shi (which I take to be for Idzu-ishi, sacred stone)> 
a name which is suggestive of stone-worship. The *^ Kojiki *' mentions eight 
objects, not at all the same, however, and calls them the Eight Great 

lyo NiHONGI. 

fixed his dwelKng-place. Therefore the potters of Kagami 
no hasama/ in the province of Ohomi, are the servants of 
VI. 7. Ama no hi-hoko. Accordingly Ama no hi-hoko took to 

wife Matawo, the daughter of Futomimi, a man of Idzushi 
in Tajima, who bore to him Tajima Morosuke, who was 
the father of Tajima no Hinaraki, who was the father of 
Kiyohiko, who was the father of Tajima-mori." 
B.C. 26. 4th year, Autumn, 9th month, 23rd day. The Empress's 
elder brother by the mother's side, Prince Sahohiko, plotted 
treason and tried to endanger the State. Therefore he watched 
for an occasion when the Empress was enjoying her leisure, 
and addressing her, said as follows : — " Whom dost thou love 
best — thy elder brother or thy husband ? " Upon this, the 
Empress, ignorant of his object in making this inquiry, straight- 
way answered and said : — ** I love my elder brother." Then 
he enticed the Empress, saying : — " If one serves a man by 
beauty, when the beauty fades, his affection will cease.' There 
are now many beautiful women in the Empire. They will 
come one after another and seek affection. How, then, canst 
thou trust always to thy beauty ? It is my wish, therefore, to 
ascend to the immense felicity,* and of a certainty to rule over 
the Empire along with thee. So making high our pillows,* we 
shall complete a long hundred years. Would not this be 
VI. 8. delightful ? I beg thee, therefore, to slay the Emperor for me." 
So he took a dagger, and giving it to the Empress, said : — 
** Gird on this dagger among thy garments, and when the 
Emperor goes to sleep, do thou stab him in the neck, and thus 
kill him." Upon this the Empress trembled in her heart 
within, and knew not what she should do. But in view of the 
determination of the Prince, her elder brother, she felt that 
remonstrance would be useless. Therefore she took the dagger, 
and having herself nowhere to deposit it, she placed it in her 
garments, intending all the while to remonstrate with her elder 
B.C. 25. 5th year. Winter, loth month, ist day. The Emperor pro- 

* Minor-valley. * A Chinese saying. 

^ i.e. to take possession of the throne. 

■* A Chinese metaphor meaning "in security." 

SuiNIN. 171 

ceeded to Kume, where he dwelt in Taka-miya." ' Now the 
Emperor took his noon-day sleep with the Empress's knees as 
his pillow. Up to this time the Empress had accomplished 
nothing, but thought vainly to herself : — ** This would be the 
time to do that which the Prince, my elder brother, plotted." 
And she wept tears which fell on the Emperor's face. The 
Emperor woke up and addressed the Empress, saying : — '* To- 
day We have had a dream. A small brocade-coloured snake 
coiled itself round Our neck and a great rain arose from Saho, 
which coming hither wet Our face. What does this portend ? " 
The Empress thereupon, knowing that she could not concea 
the plot, in fear and awe bowed herself to the earth, and 
informed the Emperor fully of the circumstances of the Prince, 
her elder brother's, treason. Accordingly she addressed him, 
saying: — ** Thy handmaiden was unable to resist the purpose 
of the Prince, her elder brother, and yet could not be false to 
the gratitude due to the Emperor. If I confessed I destroyed 
the Prince, my elder brother. If I said nothing, I over- 
turned the temples of the earth and of grain,^ so that on 
the one hand there was fear, and on the other there was 
grief. Whether I looked up or down there was lamenta- vi. 9. 
tion, whether I advanced or retired there was weeping and 
wailing. Night and day I was disturbed in mind, and could 
find no way to give information. Only to-day when Your 
Majesty went to sleep with his handmaiden's knee as a pillow, 
she thought — * If I were mad enough to accomplish the pur- 
pose of my elder brother, at this very time the deed could be 
done without difficulty.' With this thought still in my mind, 
the tears flowed spontaneously. So I raised my sleeve to wipe 
away the tears, and they overflowed from the sleeve and 
moistened Your Majesty's face. Therefore the dream of to-day 
must have been an effect of this thing. The small brocade- 
coloured snake is nothing else than the dagger which was given 
me : the great rain which arose suddenly is nothing else than 
thy handmaiden's tears.'' Then the Emperor addressed the 
Empress, saying : — ** This is not thy crime," and raising a force 
from the neighbouring district, he commanded Yatsunada, the 

* Taka-miya means high-palace or shrine. 

* A Chinese expression for the State. 

172 NiHONGI. 

remote ancestor of the Kimi of Kodzuke, to slay Saho-hiko. 
Now Saho-hiko withstood him with an army, and hastily piling 
up rice-stalks made thereof a castle, which w-as so solid that it 
could not be breached. This is what was called a " rice-castle." * 
A month passed, and yet it did not surrender. Hereupon the 
Empress, grieved at this, said : — ** Even though I am Empress, 
with what countenance can I preside over the Empire, after 
bringing to ruin the Prince, my elder brother ? " Accordingly, 
she took in her arms the Imperial Prince Homutsu wake no 
Mikoto, and entered the rice-castle of the Prince, her elder 
brother. The Emperor increased his army still more, and 
having surrounded the castle on all sides, proclaimed to those 
within it, saying : — ** Send forth quickly the Empress and the 
Imperial Prince." But they would not send them out. So the 
VI. lo. General Yatsunada set fire to the castle. Then the Empress, 
taking in her bosom the Imperial child, crossed over the castle 
and came out from it. Therewithal she besought the Emperor, 
saying: — **The reason why thy handmaiden at first fled into 
her elder brother's castle was in the hope that her elder brother 
might be absolved from guilt for the sake of her and of her 
child. But now he has not been absolved, and I know that I 
am guilty. Shall I have my hands tied behind my back ? There 
is nothing left for me but to strangle myself. But even though 
I, thy handmaiden, die, I cannot bear to forget the favour 
shown me by the Emperor. I pray, therefore, that the 
Empress's palace, which I had charge of, may be granted to 
fair mates for thee. In the land of Tamba there are five 
ladies, all of virtuous minds, the daughters of the Prince, who is 
Michi no Ushi ' of Tamba. 

Prince Michi no Ushi was a grandson of the Emperor 

Waka-Yamato-Neko oho-hi-hi, and son of Prince Hiko- 


* The Japanese word for rice-castle is inaki. It may be doubted whether 
there ever was any such castle as that described here. Artless attempts at 
derivation furnish a considerable portion of the old myths and legends of 
Japan. Inaki is the tenii used for the Imperial granaries in the provinces, 
and was also applied to their custodians. It therefore became a title of 
nobility which is frequently met with in the later history. 

* Lit. master of the road. 

SUININ. 173 

One version has : — ** Son of Prince Hiko-yu-musubi- 
Let them be placed in the side courts to complete the number 
of the consort chambers." To this the Emperor agreed.^ Then 
the fire blazed up, and the castle was destroyed. The troops 
all ran away, and Saho-hiko and his younger sister died together 
inside the castle. Thereupon the Emperor commended the 
j^ood service of General Yatsunada, and granted him the name 
of Yamato-hi-muke take-hi-muke-hiko ' Yatsunada. 

7th year, Autumn, 7th month, 7th day. The courtiers repre- b.c. 23. 
sented to the Emperor as follows : — ** In the village of Taima"* "* 
there is a valiant man called Kuyehaya of Taima. He is ot 
great bodily strength, st) that he can break horns and straighten 
out hooks. He is always saying to the people : — * You may 
search the four quarters, but where is there one to compare 
with me in strength ? O that I could meet with a man 01 
might, with whom to have a trial of strength, regardless of life 
or death.' " 

The Emperor, hearing this, proclaimed to his ministers, 
saying : — ** We hear that Kuyehaya of Taima is the champion of 
the Empire. Might there be any one to compare with him ? " 

One of the ministers came forward and said : — ** Thy ser\ ant 
hears that in the Land of Idzumo there is a valiant man named 
Nomi no Sukune. It is desirable that thou shouldst send for 
him, by way of trial, and match him with Kuyehaya.'* 

That same day the Emperor sent Nagaochi, the ancestor of 
the Atahe of Yamato, to summon Nomi no Sukune. There- 
upon Nomi no Sukune came from Idzumo, and straightway he 
and Taima no Kuyehaya were made to wrestle together. The 
two men stood opposite to one another. Each raised his foot 
and kicked at the other,^ when Nomi no Sukune broke with a 
kick the ribs of Kuyehaya and also kicked and broke his loins 
and thus killed him. Therefore the land of Taima no Kuyehaya 
was seized, and was all given to Nomi no Sukune. This was 

But did not act on it till nine years later I 

* Yamato- sun-facing bravc-sun-facing prince. 
^ In Yamato. 

* The wrestling seems to have been of the nature of a (ircck nayKpaTioi, 
or the French savate. 

1/4 NiHONGI. 

the cause why there is in that village a placfe called Koshi-ore- 
da, i.e. the field of the broken loins. 

VI. 12. Nomi no Sukune remained and served the Emperor. 

B.C. 15. 15th year, Spring, 2nd month, loth day. The five women of 
Tamba were sent for and placed in the side-court. The name 
of the first was Hibasu-hime, of the second Nuba-tani-iri-hime, 
of the third Matonu-hime, of the fourth Azami-ni-iri-hime, and 
of the fifth Takano-hime.* 

Autumn, 8th month, ist day. Hibasu-hime no Mikoto was 
appointed Empress, and the Empress's three younger sisters 
were made concubines. Only Takano-hime, on account of the 
ugliness of her form, was sent back to her own country. 
Accordingly in her shame at being sent back, when she came 
to Kadono, she purposely tumbled from the carriage and was 
killed. Therefore that place received the name of Ochi-kuni.' 
The present name, Oto-kuni, is a corruption of this. The 
Empress Hibasu-hime no Mikoto had three sons and two 
daughters. The eldest was called Ini-shiki-iri-hiko no Mikoto, 
the second Oho-tarashi-hiko no Mikoto, the third Oho-nakatsu- 
hime no Mikoto, the fourth Yamato-hime no Mikoto, and the 
fifth Wakaki-ni-iri-biko no Mikoto. The concubine Nuba-tani- 
iri-hime gave birth to Nuteshi-wake no Mikoto and Ika-tarashi- 
bime no Mikoto. The next concubine Azami-ni-iri-bime gave 

VI. 13. birth to Ike-haya-w'ake no Mikoto and Waka-asa-tsu-hime no 

B,c. 7. 23rd year, Autumn, gth month, 2nd day. The Emperor 
addressed his ministers, saying: — ** Prince Homutsu-wake is now 
thirty years of age.'^ His beard is eight span long, yet he weeps 
like an infant, and never speaks. What can be the reason 
of this ? " So he caused Commissioners to consider the matter. 
Winter, loth month, 8th day. The Emperor stood before 
the Great Hall, with the Imperial Prince Homutsu-wake in 
attendance on him. Now there was a swan which crossed the 
Great Void, uttering its cry. The Imperial Prince looked up, 

* The "Kojiki" {^vide Ch. K., p. 197) makes only four princesses, and in 
another passage only two. * Fall-country. 

■* The ** Kojiki " makes this Prince born at the time of Saho-hiko's rebellion, 
i.e. in the fifth year of Suinin Tenno's reign. The " Nihongi " is less precise, 
but it is plain from the narrative that he cannot have been thirty at this time. 

SUININ. 175 

and seeing the swan, said : — ** What thing is this ? " The 
Emperor, observing that the Imperial Prince had gained his 
speech on seeing the swan, was rejoiced, and commanded his 
courtiers, saying: — ** Which of you will catch this bird and 
present it to me ? " Thereupon, Amano Yukaha Tana, the 
ancestor of the Tottori * no Miyakko, addressed his Majesty, 
saying : — " Thy servant will surely catch it, and present it to 
thee." So the Emperor declared to Yukaha Tana, saying : — ** If 
thou present this bird to me, I will certainly reward thee 
liberally." Now, Yukaha Tana, looking from afar towards the 
quarter whither the swan had flown, followed in search of it to 
Idzumo and there captured it. 

Some say " To the land of Tajima." Yj 

nth month, 2nd day. Yukaha Tana presented the swan to 
the Emperor. Homutsu-wake no Mikoto played with this swan 
and at last learned to speak. Therefore, Yukaha Tana was 
liberally rewarded, and was granted the title of Tottori no Mi- 
yakko.' In consequence there was further established the Be 
of bird-catchers, the Be of bird-feeders,* and the Homu-tsu Be. 

25th year. Spring, 2nd month, 8th day. The Emperor com- b.c. 5, 
manded the five Daibu,^ Takenu Kaha-wake, ancestor of the 
Abe no Omi, Hiko-kuni-fuku,' ancestor of the Wani no Omi, 
Oho-kashima, ancestor of the Nakatomi no Muraji, Tochine, 
ancestor of the Mononobe no Muraji, and Take-hi, ancestor of 
the Ohotomo no Muraji, saying: — ** The sagacity of our pre- 
decessor on the throne, the Emperor Mimaki-iri-hiko-iniye, 
was displayed in wisdom : he was reverential, intelligent and 
capable. He was profoundly unassuming, and his disposition 
was to cherish self-abnegation. He adjusted the machinery of 
Government, and did solemn worship to the Gods of Heaven vi. i 
and Earth. He practised self-restraint and was watchful as to 

* Tottori for tori-tori, i.e. bird-catcher, is the name of a number of places in 
Japan, notably of the capital of the province of Inaba. 

* Lord of the bird-catchers. The Chinese character for title is Jt» 
which means properly family name, surname. But, as this instance shows, 
such appellations were primarily official designations. Then they became 
hereditary titles, and in the last place were attenuated into mere surnames. 

^ Tori-kahi-be. * Daibu, great man, is a general term for high officials. 

* Both these men are named in Sujin Tenno's reign, loth year, eighty- five 
years before. 

176 NiHONGI. 

his personal conduct. Every day he was heedful for that day. 
Thus the weal of the people was sufficient, and the Empire was 
at peace. And now, under Our reign, shall there be any re- 
missness in the worship of the Gods of Heaven and Earth ? " ' 

3rd month, loth day. Ama-terasu no Oho-kami^ was taken 
from Toyo-suki-iri-hime no Mikoto," and entrusted to Yamato- 
hime no Mikoto. Now Yamato-hime no Mikoto sought for a 
place where she might enshrine the Great Goddess. So she 
proceeded to Sasahata in Uda. Then turning back from 
thence, she entered the land of Ohomi, and went round east- 
wards to Mino, whence she arrived in the province of Ise. 
[. 16. Now Ama-terasu no Oho-kami instructed Yamato-hime no 
Mikoto, saying: — ** The province of Ise, of the divine wind,* is 
the land whither repair the waves from the eternal world, the 
successive waves. It is a secluded and pleasant land. In this 
land I wish to dwell." In compliance, therefore, with the 
instruction of the Great Goddess, a shrine was erected to her 
in the province of Ise. Accordingly an Abstinence Palace 
was built at Kaha-kami in Isuzu. This was called the palace of 
Iso. It was there that Ama-terasu no Oho-kami first descended 
from Heaven. 

One story is that the Emperor made Yamato-hime no 
Mikoto to be his august staff,' and offered her to Ama- 
terasu no Oho-kami. Thereupon Yamato-hime no Mikoto 
took Ama-terasu no Oho-kami, and having enshrined her 
at Idzu-kashi no Moto in Shiki,* offered sacrifice to her. 
Thereafter, in compliance with the Goddess's instruc- 
tions, she, in Winter, the loth month of the year Hinoto 

' This speech is thoroughly Chinese. It contains numerous phrases 
borrowed from the Chinese classics. 

- She had been appointed nx. 92, eighty-seven years before. 
•♦ This is a stock epithet (makura kotoba) of this province. 

* Abstinence Palace or Worship Palace. "On the accession of an 
Emperor, an unmarried Princess of the Imperial House was selected for the 
service of the Shrine of Ise, or if there was no such unmarried Princess, 
then another Princess was fixed upon by divination and appointed worship- 
princess (jJP 3£)- The Worship- Palace was for her residence." Shinto 
miomoku ruijiusho, III. 23. See above, note to p. 41- 

* i e. assistant or deputy. 

* In Yamato. Idzu means sacred ; kashi is the name of a tree; moto 

means bottom. 

SuiNiN, r7'7 

Mi,* on the i8th day, removed to the Palace' of Watarahi 
in the province of Ise. At this time the Great God of VI. i 
Yamato inspired Ohominakuchi no Sukune, the ancestor of 
the Hodzumi no Omi, and admonished (the Emperor by his 
mouth), saying: — ** At the' time of the Great Beginning, it 
was covenanted that Ama-terasu no Oho-kami should 
govern all the Plain of Heaven, and that her august 


Imperial descendants should hold absolute rule over the 
eighty spiritual beings of the Central Reed-plain Land. 
My personal tenure of the governance of the great land is 
already at an end. But although the worship of the Gods 
in Heaven and Earth was maintained by the late Emperor 
Mimaki, he failed to search out the root of the matter in 
its details ; he was wanting in thoroughness, and stopped 
short at the leaves and branches. Therefore that Emperor 
was short-lived.' For this reason do thou, our august 
descendant, now show regret for the shortcomings of the 
late Emperor and be watchful in regard to the ceremonies 
of worship. If thou dost so, the life of thine augustness 
will be long, and moreover the Empire will have peace." 

Now when the Emperor heard these words, he caused 
Fukayu nushi, the ancestor of the Nakatomi no Muraji, to 
use divination in order to discover who should be appointed 
to conduct the worship of the Great God of Yamato. 
Thereupon Nunaki-waka-hime no Mikoto answered to the 
divination, and was consequently appointed. A sacred 
plot of ground was fixed on in the village of Anashi, and 
worship performed at Point ^ Naga-oka of Oho-chi. But 
this Nunaki-waka-hime no Mikoto's body was already all 
emaciated, so that she was unable to do sacrifice, and 
therefore Nagaochi no Sukune, ancestor of the Yamato no 
Atahe, was made to offer the sacrifices. 
26th year. Autumn, 8th month, 3rd day. The Emperor b.c 

' Corresponding to the 26th year of Suinin Tenno's reign, or B.C. 4. 
Or shrine. 

He died at the age of 120, or 168 if we take the " Kojiki " as an 
authority. This is one of numerous indications that the chronology of 
fhis period is worthless. 

The word misaki (point) is used both of a promontory and of a spur of 
^ ^iii. Naga-oka is long-hill. 


. 178 NiHONGI. 

commanded the Mononobe, Tochine no Oho-muraji/ saying: — 
VI. 18. ** We have repeatedly despatched messengers to the Land of 
Idzumo to inspect the divine treasures of that Land, but we have 
had no clear report. Do thou go thyself to Idzumo, and having 
made inspection, attest them.''' So Tochine no Oho-muraji, 
having examined and attested the divine treasures, made a 
clear report thereof to His Majesty. He was accordingly 
appointed to the charge of the divine treasures. 
B.C. 3. 27th year, Autumn, 8th month, 7th day. The Department 
of Worship was made to ascertain by divination what imple- 
ments of war would be lucky as offerings to the Gods. Conse- 
quently bows, arrows, and cross-swords were deposited in the 
shrines of all the Gods. The land and houses consecrated to 
their service were fixed anew, and they were sacrificed to in 
due season. The practice of offering weapons in sacrifice to the 
Gods of Heaven and Ejirth probably had its origin at this time. 
This year granaries were erected in the village of Kume." 
B c. 2. 28th year, Winter, loth month, 5th day. Yamato-hiko no Mi- 
koto, the Emperor's younger brother by the mother's side, died, 
nth month, 2nd day. Yamato-hiko was buried at Tsuki- 
zaka in Musa. Thereupon his personal attendants were 
assembled, and were all buried alive upright in the precinct 
of the misasagi. For several days they died not, but wept and 
wailed day and night. At last they died and rotted. Dogs 
and crows gathered and ate them. 
VI- 19. The Emperor, hearing the sound of their weeping and 
wailing, was grieved in heart, and commanded his high 
officers, saying : — ** It is a very painful thing to force those 
whom one has loved in life to follow him in death. Though it 
be an ancient custom, why follow it, if it is bad ? From this 
time forward, take counsel so as to put a stop to the following 
of the dead."' 

' Great-village-elder. This word is nearly equivalent to Prime Minister. 

* As explained above, Kume is probably a variant of the Chinese word 
for army. There is at present a village of this name in Yamato, but it was 
no doubt originally the barrack quarter, and the storehouses here referred to 
were to contain grain for the food of the army. The original commentary 
gives miyake as the Japanese name for these granaries. At a later period 
the miyake were local government offices. 

^ The " Kojiki " (Ch. K., p. 174) says that this was the first time a hedge of 

SUININ. 1/9 

30th year, Spring, ist month, 6th day. The Emperor a.d. i, 
commanded Inishiki no Mikoto and Oho-tarashi-hiko no 

men was set up round a tumulus. But the '* Nihongi's " statement that it 
was an old custom must be correct. 

This custom is too much in accordance with what we know of other races 
io the barbaric stage of culture to allow us to doubt that we have here a 
genuine bit of history, though perhaps the details may be inaccurate, and 
the chronology is certainly wrong. In an ancient Chinese notice of Japan 
we read that ** at this time (a.d. 247) Queen Himeko died. A great mound 
was raised over her, and more than a hundred of her male and female 
attendants followed her in death." 

Funeral human sacrifice for the service of the dead is described by Dr. 
Tylor (" Primitive Culture," i. 458) as " one of the most wide-spread, distinct, 
and intelligible rites of animistic religion. Arising in the lower barbaric 
stsige, it develops itself in the higher, and thenceforth continues or dwindles 
in survival." He proceeds to quote numerous examples of it from all parts 
of the world, and from many ages of history. 

It is well known to have existed among the Manchu Tartars and other 
races of North-Eastern Asia until modem times. The Jesuit missionar>' 
Du Halde relates that the Emperor Shunchi, of the T'sing dynasty (died 
1662), inconsolable for the loss of his wife and infant child, " signified by his 
will that thirty men should krll themselves to appease her manes, which cere- 
mony the Chinese look upon with horror, and was abolished by the care of 
his successor "—the famous Kanghi. 

Another missionary, Alvarez Semedo, in his history of the Tartar inva- 
sion, says : — **The Tartarian King vowed to celebrate his Father's Funerals 
with the lives of two hundred thousand of the inhabitants of China. For it 
is the custome of the Tartars, when any man of quality dieth, to cast into 
that fire which consumes the dead corpse as many Servants, Women and 
Horses with Bows and Arrows as may be fit to atend and serve them in the 
next life." 

This custom was also practised in China in the most ancient times, though 
long condemned as barbarous. Confucius disapproved of it. An ode in 
the " Sheking" (Legge, iv. i. 198) laments the death of three brothers who 
were sacrificed at the funeral of Duke Muh, B.C. 621. When the Emperor 
She Hwang-ti died, B.C. 209, his son Urh said, " My father's palace ladies 
who have no children must not leave the tomb," and compelled them all to 
follow him in death. Their number was very great. For other cases see a 
paper by Mayers in the Journal of the North China Branch of the Asiatic 
Society, new Series, xii. 

A King of Kokuryo in Corea died ad. 248. He was beloved for his 
virtues, and many of his household wished to die with him. His successor 
forbade them to do so, saying that it was not a proper custom. Many of 
them, however, committed suicide at the tomb. ** Tongkam," iii. 20. 

In A.D. 502, Silla prohibited the custom of burying peo|.le alive at the 

N 2 

l8o NiHONGI. 

Mikoto, saying: — ** Do ye each tell me the thing ye would 
dearly like to have." The elder Prince said : — ** I should like 
to have a bow and arrows." The younger Prince said : — ** I 
should like to have the Imperial Dignity." Thereupon the 
Emperor commanded, saying : — " Let the desire of each of you 
be conriplied with." So a bow and arrows were given to 
Inishiki no Mikoto, and a decree was addressed to Oho-tarashi 
hiko no . Mikoto, saying : — ** Thou must succeed to Our 

A.D. 3. 32nd year, Autumn, 7th month, 6th day. The Empress 
Hibasu-hime no Mikoto died. 

One version has Hibasu ne no Mikoto. 
Some time before the burial, the Emperor commanded his 
Ministers, saying : — " W^ have already recognized that the 
practice of following the dead is not good. What should now 
be done in performing this burial ? " Thereupon Nomi no 
Sukune came forward and said: — ** It is not good to bur^'Hving 
men upright at the tumulus of a prince. How can such a 
practice be handed down to posterity ? I beg leave to propose 
an expedient which I will submit to Your Majesty." So he 
sent messengers to summon up from the Land of Idzumo a 
hundred men of the clay-workers' Be. He himself directed the 
men of the clay-workers* Be to take clay and form therewith 

VI. 20. shapes of men, horses, and various objects, which he presented 
to the Emperor, saying : — *' Henceforward let it be the law for 
future a^es to substitute things of clay for living men, and to 
set them up at tumuli." Then the Emperor was greatly rejoiced, 
and commanded Nomi no Sukune, saying : — ** Thy expedient 
hath greatly pleased Our heart." So the things of clay were 
first set up at the tomb of Hibasu-hime no Mikoto. And a 

funerals of the sovereigns. Before this time five men and five women were 
put to death at the King's tomb. " Tongkam," v. 5. 

Cases of suicide at the tomb of a beloved lord or sovereign have not been 
uncommon in Japan even in modern times. There was one in 1868. 

The Japanese, like the Chinese, make no distinction between voluntary 
deaths and human sacrifices. Both are called jun-shi, a, term which means 
^* following in death." Indeed, as we may see by the Indian Suttee, it is 
often hard to draw the line between these two forms of what is really the 
same custom. 

SUININ. l8l 

name was given to these clay objects. They were called 

Another name is Tatetnono} 

Then a decree was issued, saying :— " Henceforth these clay 
figures must be set up at tumuli : let not men be harmed." 
The Emperor bountifully rewarded Nomi no Sukune for this 
service, and also bestowed on him a kneading-place, and 
appointed him to the official charge of the clay-workers* Be. 
His original title was therefore changed, and he was called 
Hashi no Omi. This was how it came to pass that the Hashi 
no Muraji superintend the burials of the Emperors.' 

The said Nomi no Sukune was the first ancestor of the Hashi VI. 2 
no Muraji.* 

34th year, Spring, 3rd month, 2nd day. The Emperor made a-o. j 
a progress to Yamashiro. At this time his courtiers represented 
to him that there was in that country a beautiful person named 
Kambata no Tohe.* She was very handsome, and was the 
daughter of Fuchi of Ohokuni in Yamashiro. Hereupon the 
Emperor, spear in hand, made a vow, saying : — ** I must be 
united to this beautiful person." On his way he saw an omen. 

* Clay-rings. ' Things set up. • 

' The date ascribed to this incident cannot be depended on. At least 
Chinese accounts speak of the custom of human sacrifices at the burial of a 
sovereign as in full force in Japan so late as a.d. 247. Probably all the 
events of this part of Japanese history are very much antedated. But of the 
substantial accuracy of the narrative there can be no doubt. Some of these 
clay figures (known as tsuchi-ningio) are still in existence, and one may be 
seen in the British Museum, where it constitutes the chief treasure of the 
Gowland collection. The Uyeno Museum in Tokio also possesses specimens, 
both of men and horses. None, however, remain in situ at the tombs. The 
hani-wa (clay-ring) cylinders which may now be seen embedded in the 
earth round all the principal misasagi are so numerous that they can hardly 
have all been surmounted by figures. But they are of the same workman- 
ship and of the same date, and no doubt some of them are the pedestals of 
images, the above-ground part of which has been long ago destroyed by 
the weather or bv accident. 

A similar substitution of straw or wooden images for living men took 
place in China in ancient times, though by a curious inversion of ideas, the 
former practice is described as leading to the latter. See Legge's " Chinese 
Classics, Mencius," p. 9. 
^ * Hashi (clay-worker) is also read hanishi, hashibe, or hasebe. 

* As above stated, Tohe means chief. 


When he was arriving at his lodging,' a large tortoise came out | 


the river. The Emperor raised his spear aijd thrust at ■ 

f -_™ 



^ 1 










M^^-^ m 

dr^ ♦ -||& 


tortoise, when it suddenly became changed into a ^ 


I stone. Then the courtiers said ; — " If one were only to think H 

^^^^ ' Lilcrally. iravelling-palace. H 

SUININ. 183 

this out, it must prognosticate something." So Kambata no 
Tohe was sent for, and lodged in the hinder palace. She was 
the mother of Iha-tsuku-wake no Mikoto, who was the ancestor 
of the Kimi of Miho. Before this he had taken to wife Kari- 
hata-tohe, who bore him three sons. The first was called Oji- 
wake no Mikoto, the second Ika-tarashi-hiko no Mikoto, and 
the third I-take-wake no Mikoto. 

Ika-tarashi-hiko no Mikoto was the first ancestor of the Kimi vi. : 
of Ishida. 

35th year, Autumn, 9th month. Inishiki no Mikoto was a.d. 
sent to the province of Kahachi to construct the pond of 
Takashi, and the pond of Chinu. 

Winter, loth month. He made the pond of Saki in Yamato, 
and the pond of Tomi. In this year, the various provinces 
were commanded extensively to excavate ponds and channels, 
to the number of eight hundred and more. Much attention 
was thus paid to husbandry. Therefore the people enjoyed 
abundance, and the Empire was at peace. 

37th year. Spring, ist month, ist day. Oho-tarashi-hiko no a.d. 
Mikoto was made Prince Imperial. 

39th year, Winter, loth month. Inishiki no Mikoto, while a.d. 
dwelling in the palace at Kahakami of Udo in Chinu, made a 
thousand swords. Therefore those swords were called the 
Kahakami set. 

Another name was the Naked * Companions. 
They were deposited in the shrine of Iso no kami. After this vi. 
the Emperor gave orders to Inishiki no Mikoto, and made him 
to have charge of the divine treasures of the shrine of Iso no 

One version is: — ** Whilst the Imperial Prince Inishiki 
dwelt at Kahakami of Udo in Chinu, he sent for a smith 
by name Kahakami, and made a thousand swords. At 
this time, the shield-makers' Be, the Japanese-figured-cloth- 
workers' Be, the sacred-bow-shavers' Be, the sacred- 
arrow-makers' Be,' the Oho-anashi Be, the Hatsu-kashi * 

* For irrigation. * So called because worn without a sheath. 

* See above, p. 178. 

* These are the names of villages. The ** Shukai " editor suggests that they 
were allotted to the Prince for his support. 

184 NiHONGI. 

Be, the jewel- workers' Be, the Kami-osaka Be,* the Hi-oki * 
Be, and the sword-wearers' Be — the Be of ten articles 
altogether — were granted to the Imperial Prince Inishiki. 

These thousand swords were deposited in the village of 
Osaka. They were afterwards removed from Osaka and 
deposited in the shrine of Iso no kami. At this time the 
God made a request, saying : — * Let the person named 
Ichikaha, of the family of the Omi of Kasuga, be made to 
attend to them.' Therefore by the Emperor's command, 
VI. 2<, Ichikaha was caused to attend to them. He was the first 

ancestor of the Mononobe ' no Obito.'' 
A.i). 58. 87th year. Spring, 2nd month, 5th day. Inishiki no Mikoto 
spake to his younger sister, Oho-naka-tsu-hime no Mikoto, 
saying: — ** I am old, and unable to have charge of the divine 
treasures. Henceforward thou must have charge of them." 
Oho-naka-tsu-hime refused, saying : — ** I am a feeble woman. 
How can I ascend to the divine storehouse of Heaven ? " 

Inishiki no Mikoto said : — ** Although the divine storehouse* 
is high, I can make for the divine storehouse a ladder. How, 
then, should it be hard to ascend to the storehouse ? " Hence 
the proverbial saying, ** You can ascend even to the divine 
storehouse of Heaven, if you only plant a ladder." This was 
its origin. Ultimately Oho-naka-tsu-hime no Mikoto gave 
them to Mononobe no Tochine no Oho-muraji, and made 
-him to have charge of them. Therefore the Mononobe no 
Muraji retain charge of the divine treasures of Iso no kami 
up to the present time. The above was the origin of this 

Formerly in the Land of Tamba, in the village of Kuwada, 
there was a man whose name was Mikaso. Now, in Mikaso's 
house there was a dog, by name Ayuki. This dog bit a wild 
animal called the mujina^ and killed it. In the animal's belly 
there was found a magatama of Yasaka gem. This gem was 

* Osaka was the place where the swords were stored. 

* Hi-oki means "daily offerings." 

' The Mononobe were Imperial life guards. 

* One of these storehouses, dating from the 8th century, may still be 
seen at Todaiji, Nara. It is raised on pillars some ten feet above the 

* A kind of badger. 

SuiNIN. 185 

accordingly offered to the Emperor, and is now in the shrine of 
Iso no kami. VI. 25. 

88th year, Autumn, 7th month, loth day. The Emperor a.d. 59. 
commanded the Ministers, saying : — ** We hear that the 
divine treasures which the Silla Prince Ama no hihoko brought 
with him when he first came here are now in Tajima. They 
were originally made divine treasures because the people of that 
province saw that they were admirable. We desire to see 
these treasures." That same day messengers were despatched 
with the Imj)erial commands to Kiyo-hiko, great-grandson of 
Ama no hihoko, directing him to present them to the Emperor. 
Thereupon, Kiyo-hiko, when he received the Imperial orders, 
brought the divine treasures himself, and laid them before His 
Majesty. There was one Ha-buto gem, one Ashi-daka gem, 
one Uka no Akashi (red-stone) gem, one sun-mirror, and one 
Kuma-himorogi.* But there was one short sword called Idzushi,^ 
which it suddenly occurred to Kiyo-hiko not to offer to the 
Emperor ; so he concealed it in his clothing, and wore it him- 
self. The Emperor, unaware of the circumstance of the con- 
cealment of the short sword, and wishing to be gracious to 
Kiyo-hiko, sent for him and gave him sake in the palace. 
Then the short sword appeared from among his garments and 
became visible. The Emperor saw it, and himself asked 
Kiyo-hiko, saying: — ** What short sword is that in thy cloth- 
ing ? '* Then Kiyo-hiko, seeing that he was unable to conceal 
the short sword, explained that it belonged to the divine 
treasures which he was laying before the Emperor. So the 
Emperor said to Kiyo-hiko : — '* How is it possible for this 
divine treasure to be separated from its kind ? " So he took it 
out and presented it to the Emperor, and all were deposited in 
the Sacred Treasury. Afterwards, when the Sacred Treasury 
was opened and inspected, the short sword had spontaneously 
disappeared. Accordingly, a messenger was sent to Kiyo-hiko, 
who inquired of him, saying: — *'The short sword which thou 
hast presented to the Emperor has suddenly disappeared. 
Has it perchance come to thy place ? '* Kiyo-hiko answered, VI. 26. 
and said: — ** Last night the short sword came of its own 
accord to thy servant's house ; but this morning it has dis- 

* Cf. above, p. 168. - Sacred-stor.c. 

l86 NiHONGI. 

appeared." The Emperor was struck with awe, and made no 
further endeavour to find it. Afterwards the Idzushi short 
sword went of its own accord to the Island of Ahaji, where 
the people of the island considered it a God, ,and erected for 
the short sword a shrine, in which it is worshipped until this 

Formerly there was a man, who riding in a ship, cast anchor 
in the land of Tajima. He was therefore asked, saying : — 
** Of what country art thou ? " He answered and said : — ** I 
am a son of the king of Silla, and my name is Ama no 
hihoko. So he dwelt in Tajima, and took to wife Mata no 
wo, daughter of Mahetsu mimi [One version has Mahetsu 
mi and another Futo-mimi] of that province, who bore to 
him Tajima Morosuke, the grandfather of Kiyo-hiko. 

A.D. 6i. goth year, Spring, 2nd month, ist day. The Emperor 
commanded Tajima Mori to go to the Eternal Land' and 
get the fragrant fruit that grows out of season, now called 
the Tachibana.' 

A.D. 70. ggth year. Autumn, 7th month, 14th day. The Emperor 
died in the Palace of Maki-muku at the age of 140,^ and in 
Winter, the 12th month, the loth day, was buried in the 
misasagi of Fushimi, in Suga-hara. 

VI. 27. The next year, Spring, the 3rd month, the 12th day, Tajima 
Mori arrived from the Eternal Land, bringing of the fragrant 
fruit that grows out of season eight sticks and eight bundles.* 
Thereupon Tajima Mori wept and lamented, saying : — 

" Receiving the Celestial Court's command, 
Afar I went to a remote region : 

* Tajima Mori was apparently selected for this mission on account of 
his descent from a king of Silla. But the Tokoyo no Kuni, or Eternal 
Land, can hardly have been Corea, where the Orange is little, if at all, 
grown in the present day. It was more likely China. 

^ The Orange, vide Ch. K., p. 198. 

' The chronology, as usual, will not bear investigation. 

* The meaning of the characters which I have thus rendered is doubtful. 
The corresponding passage in the ** Kojiki" is corrupt and equally obscure. 
I do not feel sure that Motoori has cleared it up quite satisfactorily, in 
spile of the amount of recondite learning he has brought to bear on it. 

Cf. Ch. K., p. 199. 

SUININ. 187 

Ten thousand ri I crossed the waves, 

Distantly I passed over the weak water.* 

This Eternal Land 

Is no other than the mysterious realm of Gods and Genii 

To which ordinary mortals cannot attain ; 

Therefore in going thither and returning 

Ten years have naturally passed. 

Beyond my expectation, I braved alone the towering billows, 

Turning my way again towards my own land. 

Thus, trusting in the spirits of the Emperors, 

I hardly accomplished my return. 

But now the Emperor is dead, 

I am unable to report my mission. 

Though I should remain alive, 

What more would it avail me ? " • 

Then turning his face towards the misasagi of the Emperor, 
he wept aloud, and so of himself he died. When the ministers 
heard of it they all shed tears. 

Tajima Mori was the first ancestor of the Miyake* no 

' Said by the Chinese to be north of P'uyu (in Manchooria). It does not 
support ships. 

* The sentiment and diction of this speech are thoroughly Chinese. It 
is not exactly poetry, but nearly so. 

' Miyake, written with characters which mean "three storehouses." 
Mi, however, is more probably the honorific prefix. 




The Emperor Oho-tarashi-hiko-oshiro-wake was the third 
child of the Emperor Iku-me-iri-hiko-isachi.^ The Empress 
his mother was named Hibasu-hime no Mikoto. She was the 
daughter of Prince Michi no ushi of Tamba. The. Emperor 
Iku-me-iri-hiko-isachi, in the 37th year of his reign, raised him 
to the rank of Prince Imperial. He was then twenty-one 
years of age. In the ggth year of his reign, Spring, the second 
month, the Emperor Iku-me-iri-hiko-isachi died. 
AD. 71. 1st year. Autumn, 7th month, nth day. The Prince Imperial 
assumed the Imperial Dignity. The chronological epoch was 
altered accordingly. This year was the year Kanoto Hitsuji 
(8th) of the Cycle. 
A.D. 72. 2nd year, Spring, 3rd month, 3rd day. The elder lady 'of 
Inabi in Harima was appointed Empress. 

Another version has: — ** The younger lady of Inabi in 
vir. 2. She had two sons, the first of whom was named the Imperial 
Prince Oho-usu, and the second Wo-usu no Mikoto. 

In one writing it is said : — ** The Empress bore three 

sons. The third was named the Imperial Prince Waka- 


The Imperial Prince Oho-usu and Wo-usu no Mikoto were 

born as twins * on the same day with the same placenta. The 

* Great road or great conduct. ' Oho-iratsume. 

' There seems to have been a question which of twins was to be con- 
sidered the elder. One idea was that the last born should be senior, because 
he occupied the higher place in the womb. 



Emperor, wondering at this, informed the mortar.' Therefore 
he gave these two Princes the names of Great Mortar (Oho- 
usu) and Little Mortar (Wo-usu). Now this Wo-usu no 
Mikoto was also called Yamato Woguna and again Yamato- 
dake no Mikoto." Whilst a child he had a manly spiritT^when 
he aiTived at manhood his beauty was extraordinary. He was 
a rod in height, and his strength was such that he could lift a 

3rd year, Spring, 2nd month, ist day. Divination was made a.d. 73. 
as to whether the Emperor should make a progress to the 
Land of Kii to perform sacrifices to all the Gods of Heaven and 
Earth. It was found to be unlucky, and the Imperial car was 
accordingly countermanded. Ya-nushi-oshiho-dake-wo-goro 

* The Chinese character used here is jrfl, which properly means a pestle, 
and is more particularly applied to that arrangement of a mortar and pestle 
in which the latter is set on a pivot and worked 
by the foot. This is called the Kara-usu in 
Japan. Here, however, is one of those cases 
where wc must put aside the Chinese character 
and be guided by the Japanese word, which is 
unquestionably usu, a term applied to any 
arrangement for hulling or grinding grain. 
The usu is properly the mortar rather than the 
pestle (kine\ but it is used for the combination 
of both, and for querns or hand-mills, which 
are also in use in Japan. 

The usu here referred to is probably of the 
kind shown in the annexed illustration. Stone 
pestles resembling in shape that in the right 
hand upper corner are among the stone im- 
plements figured in Kanda's work on this 

Hardy, in his " Manual of Buddhism," p. 158, 
says: — "The eastern pestle is found in every 
house, and is connected with as many super- 
stitions and ceremonies as the besom among 
the old wives of Europe." 

The " Shukai " editor suggests that by Great Mqrtar and Little Mortar the 
lower and upper stones of the hand-mill were me^nt. But there is no 
reason to doubt the statement below (a.d. 610) that hand-mills were first 
introduced in Suiko's reign. 

- Woguna means boy, Yamato-dake means hero ot Yamato- It is by the 
last of these names that he is best known to posterity. 

■ A Chinese phrase. 

Pestle and Mortar. 


no Mikoto [one version has Take-wi-goro] was sent and caused 
VII. 3. to do sacrifice. Hereupon Ya-nushi-oshiho-da:ke-wo-goro no 
Mikoto went thither, and stayed at Kashihara in Abi, where he 
sacrificed to the Gods of Heaven and Earth. He lived here 
for nine years, and took to wife Kage-hime, the daughter of 
Uji-hiko, who was the ancestor of the Ki no Atahe.^ She was 
the mother of Takechi no Sukune. 
A.D. 74. 4th year, Spring, 2nd month, nth day. The Emperor made 
a progress to Mino. His courtiers represented to him, saying : — 
" In this province there is a handsome woman named Oto-hime, 
of perfect beauty. She is the daughter of the Imperial Prince 
Yasaka Irihiko." The Emperor wished to obtain her to be 
his consort, and went to the house of Oto-hime.^ Oto-hime, 
hearing that the Emperor was coming in his carriage, straight- 
way concealed herself in a bamboo-grove. Hereupon the 
Emperor provisionally caused Oto-hime to go and reside in 
the Kuguri Palace, and letting loose carp in a pond, amused 
himself by looking at them morning and evening. Now 
Oto-hime wished to see the carp sporting, so she came 
secretly and stood over the pond. The Emperor forthwith 
detained her, and had intercourse with her. Hereupon Oto- 
hime thought ; — ** The way of a husband and wife is the 
prevailing rule both now and of old time. But for me it is not 
convenient." So she besought the Emperor, saying : — " Thy 
handmaiden's disposition is averse to the way of conjugal 
VII. 4. intercourse. Unable to withstand the awe of the Imperial 
commands, she has been placed for a while within the curtain. 
But it gives her no pleasure. Her face too is hideous, and she is 
unworthy of being added to the side courts. Thy handmaiden, 
1 however, has an elder sister, by name Yasaka Iri-hime, of a 
beautiful countenance, and also of a virtuous disposition. Let 
her be placed in the hinder palace." The Emperor assented, 
and having summoned Yasaka Iri-hime, made her his consort. 
She bore to him seven sons and six daughters. The name of 

* In this passage the province now known as Kii is called indiflferently 
Ki or A7t. 

' Oto-hime means simply " younger lady." There are frequent cases in the 
"Nihongi" where a woman seems to have no other name than "elder 
lady" or ** younger lady." 

Keiko. 191 

the first was the Emperor Waka-tarashi-hiko, of the second 
the Imperial Prince Iho-ki Iri-hiko, of the third the Imperial 
Prince Oshi-wake, of the fourth the Imperial Prince Waka- 
Yamato-neko, of the fifth the Imperial Prince Oho-su-wake, of 
the sixth the Imperial Princess Nunoshi, of the seventh the 
Imperial Princess Nunaki, of the eighth the Imperial Princess 
Ihoki no Iri-hime, of the ninth the Imperial Princess Kako- 
yori-hime, of the tenth the Imperial Prince Isaki no Iri-hiko, 
of the eleventh the Imperial Prince Kibi no Ye-hiko, of the 
twelfth the Imperial Princess Takaki no Iri-hime, and of the 
thirteenth the Imperial Princess Oto-hime. 

Again he took as consort the Lady * Midzuha, younger sister 
of Ihaki-wake, of the Miho House, who bore to him the Imperial 
Princess Ihono. His next consort, named Ikaha-hime, bore to 
him the Imperial Prince Kami-kushi ^ and the Imperial Prince 
Inase no Iri-hiko. The elder of these two, the Imperial Prince vii 
Kami-kushi, was the first ancestor of the Miyakko of Sanuki. 
The younger, the Imperial Prince Inase no Iri-hiko, was the 
first ancestor of the Harima no Wake/ His next consort was 
named Takada-hime, daughter of Kogoto of the Abe House, 
who bore to him the Imperial Prince Take-kuni Kori-wake. 
He was the first ancestor of the Wake of Mimura, in the 
Province of lyo. His next consort, named Oho-tane-hime, of 
Kami-naga in Hiuga, bore the Imperial Prince Hiuga no Sotsu- 
hiko. He was the first ancestor of the Kimi of Amu.* His 
next consort, named Sotake-bime, bore the Imperial Prince 
Kuni-chi-wake, the Imperial Prince Kuni-se-wake [one version 
has the Imperial Prince Miya-chi-wake] and the Imperial 
Prince Toyoto-wake. The elder of these, the Imperial Prince 
Kuni-chi-wake, was the first ancestor of the Wake of Minuma. 
The youngest brother, the Imperial Prince Toyo-to-wake, was 
the first ancestor of the Wake of the Province of Hi.* 

Now the children of the Emperor, male and female, from VII. 
first to last, numbered eighty in all. With the exception, 
however, of Yamato-dake no Mikoto, the Emperor Waka- 

* Iratsume. ' Divine-comb. 

* Wake, separation, branch, was a title which implied descent from the 
Imperial line. 

* In Nagato. * Now Hizen and Higo in Kiushiu. 

192 NnioNGi. 

tarashi-hiko and the Imperial Prince Ihoki no Iri-hiko, the 
other seventy and odd children were all granted fiefs* of 
provinces and districts, and each proceeded to his own province. 
Therefore, those who at the present time are called Wake of 
the various provinces are the descendants of these separated 
(wakare) Princes.' 

In this month, the Emperor, hearing that the daughters of 
Kambone, Mino no Miyakko, the elder's name being Ane-toho- 
ko, and the younger's being Oto-toho-ko, were both of distin- 
guished beauty, sent Oho-usu no Mikoto with orders to 
examine the countenance of these women. Now Oho-usu no 
Mikoto had secret intercourse with them, and did not report 
his mission. For this reason the Emperor was wrath with 
Oho-usu no Mikoto. 

Winter, the nth month, ist day. The Emperor returned 
from Mino and removed the capital to Maki-muku. This was 
called the palace of Hi-shiro. 
A.D. 82. J2th year, Autumn, 7th month. The Kumaso' rebelled, and 

did not bring tribute. 
VII. 7. 8th month, 15th day. The Emperor made a progress to 

gth month, 5th day. On arriving at Saha in Suwo, the 
Emperor, standing with his face to the south,* addressed his 
Ministers, saying : — ** To the southwards, smoke rises abun- 
dantly. There must certainly be brigands there." So he 
halted, and sending in advance Take-moro-gi, ancestor of the 
Omi of Oho, Unade, ancestor of the Omi of Kusaki, and 
Natsu-bana, ancestor of the Kimi of the Mononobe, made them 
to reconnoitre. Now there was here a woman, by name 

* This points to something like a feudal system. But the analogy to 
European feudalism must not be too closely pressed. Cf. Ch. K., p. 203. 

^ This omits to notice that IVa^e is a much older term. 

3 The country of the Kuinaso was the southern part of the island of Kiu- 
shiu corresponding to the present provinces of Hiuga, Ohosumi, and Sat- 
suma. Kuma and So are the names of two tribes. 

** Tsukushi is used in two senses. It sometimes stands for the whole 
island of Kiushiu, sometimes for only the northern part of it, viz. the two 
provinces of Chikugo and Chikuzen. 

^ The Emperor of China stands with his face to the south on state occa- 
sions. But here it seems only to mean that the Emperor looked southwards. 

Keiko. i93 

Kamu-nashi-hime, whose followers were exceedingly numerous. 
She was the chieftain of that whole country. When she heard 
that the Emperor's messengers had arrived, she broke off 
branches of the hard wood of Mount Shitsu. On the upper 
branch * she hung an eight-span sword, on the middle branch 
she hung an eight-hand mirror, and on the lower branch a 
Yasaka jewel. She also hoisted a white flag on the bow of her 
ship, and having come to meet them, addressed them, saying : — 
** I beseech you, do not have recourse to arms. None of my 
people, I assure you, are rebellious. They will presently 
submit themselves to virtue.^ But there are mischievous 
brigands. The name of one is Hanatari.' He has assumed 
an unauthorized title. In the mountains and valleys he has 
called men together, and is encamped at Kahakami in Usa. 
Another is called Mimi-tari.* He is a mischievous brigand, 
rapacious, frequently plundering the people. He dwells at 
Kahakami in Mike. The third is called Asa-hagi. He has vii. 8, 
secretly assembled a following, and dwells at Kahakami in 
Takaha. The name of the fourth is Tsuchi-wori-wi-wori.* He 
lives concealed at Kahakami * in Midori no, and relying solely 
on the difficulties of the mountains and rivers, plunders the 
people greatly. All the places to which these four have betaken 
themselves are strong places. Each of them therefore makes 
his relations chiefs of one place, and they all say they will not 
obey the Imperial command. I pray you attack them suddenly, 
and fail not. " 

Hereupon Take-moro-gi and the others first enticed the 
followers of Asa-hagi, and gave them presents of trowsers of 
red material and all manner of curious objects. Then having 
made them beckon to the four unsubmissive men, who came 
accompanied by their followers, they seized them and put them 
all to death. 

The Emperor ultimately pursued his journey to Tsukushi, 
and arrived at the district of Nagawo in the province of Buzen, 

' It was the ancient custom in Japan to deliver letters or presents fastened 
to branches of trees. 

To the Emperor's virtuous influence. * Nose-depend. 

* Ear-depend. * Earth-break-well-break. 

* Kaha-kami means the upper course of a river. 


194 NiHONGI. 

where he erected a travelling palace and dwelt there. There^ 
fore the name of that place was called Miyako.* 

Winter, loth month. He arrived in the Land of Ohokida. 
The form of this region is wide and beautiful. Therefore it 
was called Ohokida.^ 

When he came to the village of Hayami, there was there a 
woman named Haya-tsu-hime. She was chieftain ^ of one 
place. When she heard that the Imperial car was coming, 
she went out in person to meet the Emperor, and reported to 
him, saying: — " In this mountain there is a great cavern called 
the Rat's Cave. There are two Tsuchi-gumo* who dwell in 
this cave. One is called Awo,* and the other Shira.* Again 
VII. 9. at Negino, in the district of Nawori, there are three Tsuchi- 
gumo. The name of the first is Uchi-zaru,' of the second 
Yata,* and of the third Kunimaro.' These five men are alike 
mighty of frame, and moreover have numerous followers. They 
all say that they will not obey the Imperial command. If their 
coming is insisted on, they will raise an army and offer resist- 
ance." The Emperor, provoked by this, could not advance on 
his journey. So he halted at the village of Kutami, where he 
erected a temporary palace muro, and dwelt therein. Then he 
consulted with his Ministers, saying: — "Let us now put in 
motion a numerous army and slay the Tsuchi-gumo. If, fearing 
the might of our arms, they should conceal themselves in the 
mountains and moors, they will assuredly do future mischief.'* 
Accordingly he gathered camellia trees, and made of them 
mallets for weapons. Then selecting his bravest soldiers, he 
gave them the mallet-weapons. Therewith they pierced through 
the mountains, cleared away the grass, and attacking the 
Tsuchi-gumo of the cave,*® defeated them at Kahakami in 
Inaba. The whole band were killed, and their blood flowing 
reached to the ancle. Therefore the men of that day called 

' Capital. 2 Great field. 

^ The reader will observe that there are numerous cases of the "monstrous 
regiment of women " in these old legends. 

"• See above, p. 129. * Green or blue. * White. 

^ Strike-monkey. ^ Eight-fields, 

' Country-fellow. Note again that the Tsuchi-gumo havei Japanese 
names, and inhabit old-settled parts of Japan. 

*" The interlinear gloss has iha-muro, rock-muro. 

Keiko. 195 

the place where the camellia mallets were made Tsubaki-no- 
ichi,' and the place where the blood flowed they called Chida.' 
Then, in order to attack Uchi-zaru, he crossed straight over 
Mount Negi. At this time the arrows of the enemy, shot cross- VII. 
wise from the mountain, fell like rain in front of the Imperial 
army. The Emperor retreated to Shiro-hara, where he made 
divination on the river-bank, and accordingly arraying his 
troops, he first attacked Yata on the moor of Negi, and defeated 
him. Upon this Uchi-zaru felt that he could not gain the 
victory, and prayed that his submission should be accepted. 
This, however, was refused, and they all flung themselves into a 
ravine and were killed. In the beginning, when the Emperor 
was about to attack the enemy, he made a station on the great 
moor of K^Jiwhawo. On this moor there was a stone six feet 
in length, tnree feet in breadth, and one foot five inches in 
thickness. The Emperor praydd, saying : — ** If we are to 
succeed in destroying the Tsuchi-gumo, when we kick this 
stone, may we make it mount up like a Kashiha leaf." Accord- 
ingly he kicked it, upon which, like a Kashiha leaf, it arose to 
the Great Void. Therefore that stone was called Homishi.? 
The Gods whom he prayed to at this time were the God of 
Shiga, the God of the Mononobe of Nawori, and the God of 
the Nakatomi of Nawori — these three Gods. 

nth month. He arrived at the Land of Hiuga, and erected 
a travelling palace, wherein he took up his residence. This 
was called the palace of Takaya. 

I2th month, 5th day. Counsel was held how they should 
attack the Kumaso. Hereupon the Emperor addressed his 
Ministers, saying : — " We have heard that in the Land of the 
Kumaso there are two men named Atsukaya and Sakaya, who 
are the leaders of the Kumaso. Their followers are exceedingly vii. 
numerous, and are called the eighty Kumaso braves. It will be 
better not to touch their spear-points. For if we raise a small 
force, it will be insufficient to exterminate the brigands, while if 
a large army is put in motion, the people will suffier harm. Is 
there no means of subduing this country without active 
measures, and without resorting to the might of arms ? '* Then 

* Camellia market. * Blood-field. 

* For fumi-ishi, i.e. kicking-stone. 

O 2 

196 NiHONGI. 

one of the ministers stood forward and said : — " A Kumaso 
brave has two daughters, the elder named Ichi-fukaya, and 
the younger Ichi-kaya. Their beauty is perfect, and their hearts 
are brave. Offer valuable presents, and under the pretence of 
bestowing them beneath thy standard, take advantage of this 
to gain intelligence of the enemy, and attack them unawares. 
So without ever a sword-edge being stained with blood, the 
enemy will surely yield themselves up." The Emperor gave 
command, saying : — ** Let it be so.'* Thereupon the presents 
were offered, and the two women, deceived by thein, were 
bestowed beneath the tent. The Emperor straightway had 
intercourse with Ichi-fukaya, and made a show of affection for 
her. Then Ichi-fukaya told the Emperor, saying : — " Be not 
anxious lest the Kumaso should not submit. Thy handmaiden 
has an excellent plan. Let me have one or two soldiers to 
follow me." She then returned to her home, and prepared 
much strong sake, which she made her father drink. He be- 
came drunk and lay down to sleep. Ichi-fukaya then secretly 
cut her father's bowstring. Thereupon one of the soldiers who 
had escorted her came up and killed the Kumaso brave. The 

^ Emperor was provoked by such excessively unfilial conduct 

and put Ichi-fukaya to death. But Ichi-kaya he gave to the 

VII. 12. Miyakko of the Land of Ki. 

A.D. 83. 13th year, Summer, 5th month. The Kumaso country having 
been all subdued, the Emperor accordingly dwelt in the palace 
of Takaya. When he had lived there six years, there was a 
beautiful woman in that country named Mihakashi-hime.' So 
he took her and made her his concubine. She bore to him the 
Imperial Prince Toyo-kuni-wake. He was the first ancestor 
of the Miyakko of the Land of Hiuga. 

A.D. S7. 17th year. Spring, 3rd month, 12th day. The Emperor 

made a progress to the district of Koyu," where he visited the 

little moor of Nimo. Then looking down towards the east, he 

said to his courtiers : — ** This country faces directly the quarter 

of the Rising Sun." Therefore he named that country Hiuga.' 

On t:his day he mounted upon a great stone in the middle of the 

/noc^r, and feeling a longing for the capital, made this poetry : — 

* The lady of the august sword. ^ In Hiuga. 

* For Hi-muka, i.e sun-fronting. 

Keiko. 197 

Oh ! how sweet ! 

From the quarter of my home, VII. 13. 

Clouds arising come hither ! 


Is the most secluded of lands. 


Retired behind Mount Awo-gaki, 

Which encompasses it in its folds, 

Is beautiful. 

Let those whose lives are sound 

Stick (in their hair) by way of headdress 

Branches of the white evergreen oak 

Of Mount Heguri — 

(Fold within fold). 

This child 1 » 

This is called a song of longing for one's country. 

i8th year. Spring, 3rd month. The Emperor, when about to a.d. 88. 
turn his way towards the capital, made a tour of inspection to 
the Land of Tsukushi." He first arrived at Hina-mori.' There 
was at this time on the bank of the River I base a crowd of 
men assembled. The Emperor, looking down on them from 
afar, addressed his courtiers, saying : — ** Who are these men 
who are assembled ? Are they an enemy ? " So he sent two 
men, Hinamori the Elder and Hinamori the Younger, to 
see. Now Hinamori the Younger returned and reported, 
saying: — ** Idzumi-hime, the Kimi of Muro-kata, is about to Vli. 14 
offer your Majesty a banquet, and therefore have people 
gathered together." 

Summer, 4th month, 3rd day. The Emperor arrived at the 
district of Kuma. In this place there were two brothers called 
Kuma-tsu-hiko.' The Emperor first sent to summon Kuma 
the Elder to him. Accordingly he came along with the 
messenger. Then he summoned Kuma the Younger, but he 
would not come. Therefore he sent soldiers and put him to 

* The text and interpretation of this poem present considerable difficulty, 
and the above rendering is in parts only tentative. The " Kojiki " makes three 
distinct poems of it, and attributes them to Yamato-dake no Mikoto. Cf. 
Ch. K., p. 219. Awo-gaki means green-fence. ** Fold within fold " is a mere 
epithet, or makura-kotoba, of Mount Heguri. 

* Tsukushi is here evidently the northern part of the island. 

* Prince of Kuma. 

iqS Nihongi. 

nth day. Proceeding by the sea route, he anchored at 
a small island in Ashikita, where he partook of food. Then he 
told Wo-hidari, ancestor of the Yama no Ahiko,* to give him 
some cold water. Just at this time there was no water in the 
island, and he did not know what to do. So looking up, he 
prayed to the Gods of Heaven and the Gods of Earth, when 
suddenly a cool spring bubbled forth from the side of a cliff. 
This he drew and put before the Emperor. Therefore that 
island was called Midzushima.' That spring still exists in the 
cliff of Midzushima. 

5th month, ist day. Setting sail from Ashikita, he proceeded 
to the Land of Hi.'* Here the sun went down, and the night 
being dark, they did not know how to reach the shore. A fire 
was seen shining afar off, and the Emperor commanded the 
helmsman, saying : — ** Make straight for the place where the fire 
VII. 15- is.*' So he proceeded towards the fire, and thus was enabled 
to reach the shore. The Emperor made inquiry respecting the 
place where the fire was, saying: — ** What is the name of this 
village ? *' The people of the land answered and said : — 
"Toyomura, in the district of Yatsushiro." Again he made 
inquiry respecting the fire : — ** Whose fire is this ? " But no 
owner could be found, and thereupon it was known that it was 
not a fire made by man. Therefore that country was called 
Hi no Kuni.* 

6th month, 3rd day. He crossed over from the district of 
Takaku to the village of Tamakina. At this time he killed a 
Tsuchi-gumo of that place called Tsudzura. 

i6th day. He arrived at the Land of Aso.' The level tracts 
of that Land were wide and far-reaching, but no dwellings of 
men were to be seen. The Emperor said : — " Are there any 
people in this country ? " Now there were two Deities, one 
called Aso-tsu-hiko, and the other Aso-tsu-hime, who suddenly 
assuming human form, sauntered forward and said : — " We 

* Ahiko appears to be a title similar to Atahe, Sukune, etc. It is derived 
by the Japanese commentators from a, I, my, and hiko, prince. 

- Water-island. ' Now Hizen and Higo. 

* The Land of Fire. 

* The name Aso is preserved in Mount Aso, a very curious volcanic 
mountain in the province of Higo. 

Keiko. 199 

two are here. How can it be said that there are no men ? " 
Therefore that place was called Aso.' 

Autumn, 7th month, 4th day. He arrived at Mike' in the 
further Land of Tsukushi,' where he dwelt in the temporary 
Palace of Takata. Now there was here a fallen tree 970 rods 
in length. The hundred functionaries passed backwards and vii. 
forwards stepping on this tree. The people of that day made 
a song, saying : — 

Tiie morning hoar-frost * 
August tree pole-bridge I 
The Lords of the Presence 
Pass over it— 
The august tree pole-bridge '. 

The Emperor inquired, saying: — "What tree is this?" 
There was there an old man who said: — "This tree is a 
Kunugi tree.' Before it fell down, when the rays of the 
morning sun fell on it, it overshadowed the Hill of Kishima; 
when the rays of the evening sun fell on it, it covered Mount 
Aso." The Emperor said : — "This tree is a divine tree. 
Therefore let this country be called the Land of Mike." ' 

7th day. He reached the district of Yame, where, crossing ^'t'- 
Mount Mahe, he looked down to the south upon Aha no Saki, 
and spake, saying:— "The peaks and glens of this mountain 
follow each other fold upon fold. They are exceedingly 
beautiful. May it be that a God dwells in this mountain ? " 
Then Saru-ohomi,' the Agata-nushi of Minuma, represented to 
the Emperor, saying : — " There is a female Deity named Yame- 
tsu hime, who dwells always among these mountains," This is 
therefore the reason why this country is called the Land of 

8th month. He arrived at the village of Ikuha," where he 

■ ' Aso is a dialectical variation for nanio or nazo, how or why. 

■ * August tree. ' Now Chikugo. 

' Morning hoar-frost is a makura-koloba. The only connection between 
it and the rest of the poem is that hoar-frost niells, and that ke (for ki} tree 
is also the first syllable of kesu, to melt. The Presence is of course the 
Imperial Presence. 

" Quercus Serraia, Hepburn. ' August tree. 

'■ MoBkey.grcat-sea- " 1" Chikugo. 


partook of food. On this day the stewards left behind the 
drinking cup. Wherefore the men of that day called the place 
where the drinking cup had been forgotten Ukuha. The 
present name Ikuha is a corruption of this. In old times the 
common people of Tsukushi called a drinking-cup Ukuha. 

A.D. 89. igth year, Autumn, gth month, 20th day. The Emperor 
arrived from Hiuga. 

A.D. 90. 20th year, Spring, 2nd month, 4th day. The Princess 
Ihono was made to sacrifice to Ama-terasu no Oho-kami. 

A.D. 95. 25th year, Autum.n, 7th month, 3rd day. Takechi no 
Sukune was commissioned to inquire into the geography of the 
various provinces of the Northern ^ and Eastern ' circuits and 
the condition of the people. 

A.D. 97. 27th year, Spring, 2nd month, 12th day. Takechi no 
Sukune returned from the East Country and informed the 
Emperor, saying : — ** In the Eastern wilds there is a country 

VII. 18. called Hitakami.' The people of this country, both men and 
women, tie up their hair in the form of a mallet, and tattoo 
their bodies. They are of fierce temper, and their general 
name is Yemishi. Moreover, their land is wide and fertile. 
We should attack them and take it." 

Autumn, 8th month. The Kumaso again rebelled, and 
made unceasing inroads on the frontier districts. 

Winter, loth month, 13th day. Yamato-dake no Mikoto 
was sent to attack the Kumaso. He was at this time 
sixteen years of age. Thereupon Yamato-dake no Mikoto 
said : — " I desire to take with me some good archers. Where 
are there any good archers ? " Some one told him, saying: — 
" In the province of Mino there is a good archer named Oto- 
hiko-gimi." Thereupon Yamato-dake no Mikoto sent Miyado- 
hiko, a man of Katsuraki, and summoned to him Oto-hiko- 
gimi. Therefore Oto-hiko-gimi came and brought with him 
Ishiura no Yokotachi, Tako no Inaki,* and Chichika no Inaki 
of the province of Ohari, and followed Yamato-dake no MikotO 
on his expedition. 

^ Including Mutsu and Dewa. 
' Or Adzuma, the region round what is now Tokio. 

' Sun-height. So called from its eastern position. Hi-tachi, sun-rise, is 
a name of similar purport. 
■* One of the lower ranks of the local nobility. 

Keiko. 20 1 

I2th month. Having arrived at the Land of Kumaso, he 
inquired into the state of things, and the character of the 
country in respect of facilities of access. Now the Kumaso 
had a leader named Torishi-kaya, also called the Brave of 
Kahakami, who assembled all his relations in order to give VII. 19. 
them a banquet. Hereupon Yamato-dake no Mikoto let down 
his hair, and disguising himself as a young girl, secretly waited 
until the banquet should be~"gTVen by the Brave of Kahakami. 
Then with a sword girded on him underneath his inner 
garment, he entered the banqueting muro of the Brave of 
Kahakami and remained among the women. The Brave of 
Kahakami, enchanted with the beauty of the young girl, forth- 
with took her by the hand, and made her sit beside him. He 
also offered her the cup, and made her drink, and thus amused 
himself with her. By and by the night grew late, and the com- 
pany fewer. Also the Brave of Kahakami became intoxicated. 
Hereupon Yamato-dake no Mikoto drew the sword which he 
had in his inner garments, and stabbed the Brave of Kahakami 
in the breast, but did not kill him outright. The Brave of 
Kahakami, bowing down his head to the ground, said : — " Wait 
a little. I have something to say." Then Yamato-dake no 
Mikoto stayed his sword and waited. The Brave of Kahakami 
addressed him, saying: — "Who is thine Augustness?" He 
answered and said : — '' I am the child of the Emperor Oho- 
tarashi-hiko, and my name is Yamato Woguna.*' The Brave 
of Kahakami again spake to him, saying : — " I am the strongest 
man in all this land, and therefore none of the men of this time 
can excel me in might, and none refuses to be my follower. 
I have met with many valiant men, but none as yet could match 
the Prince. Therefore this despicable robber, from his filthy 
mouth, offers thine Augustness a title. Wilt thou accept it ? " 
He said : — " I will accept it." So he spake to him, say- 
ing: — ** Henceforward in speaking of the Imperial Prince, let 
him be styled the Imperial Prince Yamato-dake." ^ When 
he had done speaking Yamato-dake pierced his breast 
through and killed him. Therefore up to the present day 
he is styled Yamato-dake no Mikoto. This was the origin 
of it. 

* The chimpion of Japan. 

202 ^ NiHONGI. 

Afterwards he despatched Oto-hiko and the others, who slew 
all that band, leaving not a chewer,^ and when this was 
VII. 20. done, he returned by sea to Yamato. Arriving at Kibi, he 
crossed the Ana Sea. In this place there was a malignant 
Deity, whom he forthwith slew. Again, turning northw^ards, 
he arrived at Naniha,''^ where he killed the malignant Deity of 
the Kashiha ferry. 
A.D. 98. 28th year. Spring, 2nd month, ist day. Yamato-dake no 
Mikoto reported to the Emperor how he had subdued the 
Kumaso, saying : — ** Thy servant, trusting in the Emperor's 
Divine Spirit,' by force of arms, at one blow, suddenly slew the 
Kumaso chieftain and reduced that whole country to peace. 
In this way the Western Land is now quiet, and the people 
are tindisturbed. Only the God of the Ferry of Ana in Kibi 
and the God of the Ferry of Kashiha at Naniha, both, with 
mischievous intent, sent forth a poisonous vapour, by which 
travellers were plagued. Both of them formed centres of 
I calamity. Therefore I killed all those evil Deities, and have 

. thrown open the roads by land and water alike.'* The 

! Emperor upon this commended the good service done by 

\ Yamato-dake no Mikoto, and bestowed extraordinary affection 
on him. 
A.iv-i-io. 40th year. Summer, 6th month. There was wide rebellion 
of the Eastern wilds, and the frontier was in a state of tumult. 
Autumn, 7th month, i6th day. The Emperor addressed his 
Ministers, saying : — ** The Eastern country is now in an un- 
quiet state, and turbulent Deities have sprung up in numbers. 
Moreover the Yemishi have rebelled to a man and frequently 
carry off the people. Whom shall I send to still this disturb- 
ance ? '* But none of the Ministers knew whom to send. 
, Then Yamato-dake no Mikoto addressed the Emperor, say- 
ing : — " Thy servant it was who formerly performed the labour 
of the expedition to the West. This campaign must be the 
business of the Imperial Prince Oho-usu.'' But the Imperial 
Prince Oho-usu was afraid, and ran to conceal himself among 
the grass. Accordingly a messenger was sent to fetch him. 
Hereupon the Emperor chid him, saying : — *' If thou dost not 

J i.e. a living soul. - The modern Ohosaka. 

' Very nearly the Latin numen. 

Keiko. 203 

wish it, shall We insist on sending thee ? Why all this alarm, VI 
whilst thou hast not yet confronted the enemy?** Accordingly 
he eventually granted him Mino as a fief, and so he went to 
his government. He was the first ancestor of the two houses 
of the Kimi of Muketsu and the Kimi of Mori. Upon this 
Yamato-dake no Mikoto, striking a martial attitude, said : — 
" Not many years have passed since I subdued the Kumaso. 
Now the Yemishi of the East have made a fresh rebellion. 
When shall we arrive at a universal peace ? Thy servant, 
notwithstanding that it is a labour to him, will speedily quell 
this disturbance.** So the Emperor took a battle-axe,* and 
giving it to Yamato-dake no Mikoto, said: — *'We hear that 
the Eastern savages are of a violent disposition, and are much 
given to oppression : their hamlets have no chiefs, their villages 
no leaders, each is greedy of territory, and they plunder one 
another. Moreover, there are in the mountains malignant 
Deities, on the moors there are malicious demons, who beset 
the highways and bar the roads, causing men much annoyance. 
Amongst these Eastern savages the Yemishi are the most 
powerful, their men and women live together promiscuously, 
there is no distinction of father and child. In winter they 
dwell in holes, in summer they live in nests. Their clothing 
consists of furs, and they drink blood.' Brothers are sus- 
picious of one another. In ascending mountains they are like 
flying birds; in going through the grass they are like fleet 
quadrupeds. When they receive a favour, they forget it, but 
if an injur\' is done them they never fail to revenge it. There- 
fore they keep arrows in their top-knots and carry swords VI] 
within their clothing. Sometimes they draw together their 
fellows and make inroads on the frontier. At other times they 
take the opportunity of the harvest to plunder the people. If 
attacked, they conceal themselves in the herbage ; if pursued, 
they flee into the mountains. Therefore ever since antiquity 
they have not been steeped in the kingly civilizing influences. 

' Motoori points out this as an instance where the desire to imitate his 
Chinese models has caused the author of the "Nihongi" to introduce 
Chinese things which have no business in a Japanese narrative. The 
*' Kojiki" says it was a spear of holly eight fathoms long. 

* The "Liki " speaks of the ancient Chinese living on fruits and the flesh of 
wild beasts and drinking their blood. 

204 NiHONGI. 

Now We mark that thou art mighty of stature and thy coun- 
tenance is of perfect beauty, thou hast strength sufficient to raise 
tripods, thy fierceness is like thunder and lightning, wherever 
thou dost turn thy face, there is none to stand before thee ; 
whenever thou dost attack thou dost surely conquer. This we 
know, that whereas in outward form thou art Our child, in reality 
thou art a God. Truly Heaven, commiserating Our want of 
intelligence and the disturbed condition of the country, has 
ordained that thou shouldst order the Heavenly institution, 
and save the monarchy from extinction. Moreover, this 
Empire is thy Empire, and this Dignity is thy Dignity. I 
adjure thee to exercise profound policy and far-reaching fore- 
sight in searching out iniquity and watching against crises. 
Admonish with majesty ; comfort with kindness. Avoid 
haying recourse to arms, and thou wilt naturally inspire loyal 
obedience. So by cunning words thou mayst moderate the 
violent Deities, and by a display of armed force sweep away 
malignant demons." * 

Then Yamato-dake no Mikoto received the battle-axe, and, 
bowing twice, addressed the Emperor, saying : — " But few 
years have elapsed since my former expedition to the West, 
when, trusting in the might of the Imperial spirit, I, with a 
sword three feet in length, conquered the land of Kumaso, and 
VII. 23. the rebel chiefs yielded themselves to punishment. Now again, 
• trusting in the spirits ^ of the Gods of Heaven and Earth, and 
in reliance on the Imperial might, I am proceeding to the 
frontier. I will admonish them by gentle teaching, and if 
any remain unsubmissive, I will smite them with arms." So 
he again bowed twice. Then the Emperor commanded Kibi 
no Take-hiko and Ohotomo no Take-hi no Muraji to follow 
Yamato-dake no Mikoto. He also appointed Nana-tsuka-hagi 
Jjhis steward. 

' This speech cannot be received as a document of Japanese history. It 
is a cento of reminiscences of Chinese literature. 

' Numina. 

* Hirata says that Japanese surnames were taken from offices or avoca- 
tions, names of places, parents' names, circumstances, or objects. I suppose 
he would have included under circumstances such personal peculiarities as 
that which suggested the name Nana-tsuka-hagi, literally ** Seven-span- 

Keiko. 205; 

♦ \* 

Winter, loth month, 2nd day. Yamato-dake no Mikoto set 
out on his journey. 

7th day. He turned aside from his way to worship at 
the shrine of Ise. Here he took leave of Yamato-hime* no 
Mikoto, saying : — " By order of the Emperor, I am now pro- 
ceeding on an expedition against the East to put to death 
the rebels, therefore I am taking leave of thee.'' Hereupon 
Yamato-hime no Mikoto took the sword Kusa-nagi and gave it 
to Yamato-dake no Mikoto, saying : — '* Be cautious, and yet 
not remiss." 

This year Yamato-dake no Mikoto first reached Suruga. 
The brigands of this place made a show of obedience, and said, 
deceivingly : — " On this moor there are large deer in very great 
plenty. Their breath is like the morning mist, their legs are 
like a dense wood. Do thou go and hunt them."- Yamato- 
dake no Mikoto believed these words, and, going into the 
middlp of the moor, sought for game. The brigands, desiring 
to kill the Prince, set fire to the moor. But the Prince, seeing vii. 
that he had been deceived, produced fire by means of a fire- 
drill,' and, kindling a counter-fire, succeeded in making his 

One version says : — " The sword Mura-kumo,' which 
the Prince wore, wielded itself, and mowed away the 
herbage near the Prince, thus enabling him to escape. 
Therefore that sword was called Kusa-nagi." * 

The Prince said : — ** I was almost betrayed." So he burnt 
all that robber-band and exterminated them. Therefore that 
place was called Yaketsu.*^ 

Next he marched on to Sagami, whence he desired to pro- 
ceed to Kadzusa. Looking over the sea, he spake with a loud 
voice, and said : — '* This is but a little sea : ^ one might even 

' She was appointed priestess B.C. 5, and we are now at a.d. iio, by the 
common chronology. 

* The interlinear gloss and the " Kojiki " (Ch. K., p. 211) have hi-uchi, or 
fire-striker, by which a flint and steel is doubtless meant. A fire-drill was 
known to the ancient Japanese, as appears from the " Kojiki " (Ch. K., p. 104) 
and other authorities, and it is actually in use at present to produce fire for 
sacred purposes. See a paper by Satow, in " J.A.S.T./' VI. 223. 

' Assembled-clouds. ^ The herbage mower. 

* Port or ferry of burning. * The bay of Yedo. 

206 NiHONGI. 

jump over it." But when he came to the middle of the sea a 
storm suddenly arose, and the Prince's ship was tossed about, 
so that he could not cross over. At this time there was a con- 
cubine in the Prince's suite, named Oto-tachibana-hime. She 
was the daughter of Oshiyama no Sukune of the Hodzumi 
House. She addressed the Prince, saying : — ** This present 
uprising of the winds and rushing of the waves, so that the 
Prince's ship is like to sink, must be due to the wishes of the 
God of the Sea. I pray thee let me go into the sea, and so let 
the person of thy mean handmaiden be given to redeem the life 
of the Prince's Augustness." Having finished speaking, she 
plunged into the billows. The storm forthwith ceased, and 
the ship was enabled to reach the shore. Therefore the people 
of that time called that sea Hashiri-midzu.' 
VI r. 25. Hereupon Yamato-dake no Mikota, going by way of Kad- 
zusa, changed his route, and entered the Land of Michi no 

At this time a great mirror was hung upon the Prince's ship. 
Proceeding by the sea route, he went round to Ashi no ura 
and crossed aslant to Tama no ura.* When he arrived at the 
Yemishi frontier, the chiefs of the Yemishi, Shima-tsu-kami 
and Kuni-tsu-kami,* encamped at the harbour of Take, 
with the intention of making resistance. But when they 
saw the Prince's ship from afar, they feared his majesty and 
power, and knew in their hearts that they could not gain the 
victory over him. They all flung away their bows and arrows, 
bowed down towards him, and said : — " When we look upon 
thy face, we see that it is more than human. Art thou per- 
chance a Deity ? We desire to know thy name." The Prince 
answered and said : — " I am the son of a Deity of visible 
men." Hereupon the Yemishi were all filled with awe. They 
gathered up their skirts and, plunging into the waves, of their 
own accord assisted the Prince's ship to reach the shore. 
Then, with their hands bound behind them, they submitted 
themselves for punishment. He therefore pardoned their 
offence, and having made prisoners their chieftains, caused 
them to be his personal attendants. The Yemishi having been 

* Running- water. * In Shimosa. 

' Literally, Gods of the Islands and Gods of the Continent. 

Keiko. 2C7 

subdued, he returned from the country of Hitakami, and pro- 
ceeding to the south-west, passed through Hitachi, and arrived 
at the Land of Kahi, where he dwelt in the palace of Sakawori. VII. 
At this time a light was kindled and he partook of food. On 
this night he made a song, in which he inquired of those in 
attendance on him, saying : — 

Since I passed Tsukuba, 

And Nihibari, 

How many nights have I slept ? 

None of his attendants was able to answer him. Now there 
was a man who had charge of the lights, who made a song, in 
continuation of the Prince's, saying : — 

Counting the days — 

Of nights there are nine nights, 

Of days there are ten days. 

Therefore the Prince commended his intelligence and liberally 
rewarded him.* 

Now while he was residing in this palace, he granted to 
Take-hi, the ancestor of the Ohotomo no Muraji, the Yuki' Be. 
Thereupon Vamato-dake no Mikoto said: — **A11 the wicked 
chiefs of the Yemishi have submitted to the punishment of their 
crimes. Only in the Land of Shinano and the Land of Koshi 
there are a considerable number who are not yet obedient to 
the civilizing influence." So from Kahi he turned towards the 
north, and passing through Musashi and Kodzuke, he went 
westward as far as the Usuhi-saka.' Now Yamato-dake no VII. 
Mikoto always thought with regret of Oto-tachibana-hime. 
Therefore, when he ascended to the summit of Usuhi and 
looked down towards the south-east, he sighed three times, and 
said, ** Alas I my wife ! '* Therefore the provinces east of the 
mountains were given the name of Adzuma.* 

Here he sent Kibi no Takehiko by a different road to the 
Land of Koshi, and caused him to examine the character of the 
country as regards means of access, and also whether the people 
were tractable or not. So Yamato-dake no Mikoto advanced 

* Cf. Ch. K,, p. 214. * Quiver. 

* Now known as the Usuhi Toge (pass) on the Nakasendo road. 

* Aga tsuma means my wife. 

208 NiHONGI. 

into the province of Shinano. This is a Land of high moun- 
tains and profound valleys. Verdant summits are piled up ten 
thousand fold, so that for men with staff in hand they are hard 
to ascend. The cliffs are precipitous, and are girt with flying 
bridges.* Many thousand are the hill-ranges, where even with 
slackened reins the horse makes no progress. Yet Yamato-dake 
no Mikoto, bursting through the smoke, and braving the mists, 
distantly crossed Mount Oho-yama. He had already reached 
the summit when he became hungry and had food on the moun- 
tain. The God of the mountain plagued the Prince. He 
assumed the form of a white deer and stood before him. The 
Prince, wondering at this, took a stick of garlic, and jerked it 
VII. 28. at the white deer, striking it in the eye and killing it.* Here 
the Prince suddenly lost his way and could find no issue. 
Then a white dog came of its own accord, and made a show of 
guiding the Prince. Following the dog, he proceeded on his 
way, and succeeded in coming out into Mino. Kibi no Take- 
hiko, coming out from Koshi, met him. Before this when any 
one crossed the Shinano pass, he inhaled so much of the breath 
of the Deity that he became ill and lay down. But after the 
white deer was killed, the travellers who crossed' that moun- 
tain chewed garlic,* and smearing with it men, kine, and 
horses, preserved them from being affected by the Deity's 

Yamato-dake no Mikoto, having returned back again to 

' Ohari, straightway took to wife a daughter of the Ohari 

, House, by name Miyazu-hime", and tarried there until the next 

I month. Here he heard that on Mount Ibuki in Afumi there 

' was a savage Deity. So he took off his sword, and leaving it in 

the house of Miyazu-hime, went on afoot. When he arrived at 

Mount Ibuki, the God of the mountain took the shape of a 

VII. 29. great serpent, and posted himself on the road. Hereupon 

' Kake-hashi, a bridge supported on poles driven into the side of a cliff. 
Common in some mountainous parts of Japan. 

2 QY^ K., 213. 

3 " Another popular device (in Scotland) for frightening away witches and 
fairies was to hang bunches of garlic about the farms." " Auld Licht Idylls," 
by J. M. Barrie. 

Dennys, in his ** Folk-lore of China,'* mentions several cases of the use 
of garlic or onions to keep away evil spirits. 

Keiko. * 209 

Yamato-dake no Mikoto, not knowing that it was the master 
God who had become a serpent, said to himself : — " This 
serpent must be the Savage Deity's messenger. Having already 
slain a master God, is a messenger worth hunting after?" 
Accordingly he strode over the serpent and passed on. Then 
the God of the mountain raised up the clouds, and made an 
icy rain to fall. The tops of the hills became covered with mist, 
and the valleys involved in gloom. There was no path which 
he could follow. He was checked and knew not whither to 
turn his steps. However, braving the mist, he forced his way 
onwards, and barely succeeded in finding an issue. He was still 
beside himself like a drunken man. He therefore sat down 
beside a spring at the foot of the mountain, and, having drunk 
of the water, recovered his senses. Therefore that spring was 
called the Wi-same * spring. 

It was at this time that Yamato-dake no Mikoto first became 
iU. The disease gradually increased and he returned to Ohari. 
Here he did not enter the house of Miyazu-hime, but passed 
on to Ise and reached Otsu." Formerly, in the year when 
Yamato-date no Mikoto was proceeding eastwards, he halted on 
the shore at Otsu and partook of food. At that time he took 
off a sword which he laid down at the foot of a fir-tree. 
Eventually he went away forgetting it. When he now came to - 
this place, the sword was still there. Therefore he made a 
song, saying : — 

Oh ! thou single pine-tree ! 

That art right opposite 

To Ohari — 

Ah me — thou single pine-tree ! 

If thou wert a man, 

Garments I would clothe thee with, 

A sword I would gird on thee. 

When he came to the moor of Nobo, his sufferings became vii. 
very severe. So he made an offering of the Yemishi whom he 
had captured to the Shrine of the God.^ He therefore sent 
Kibi no Take-hiko to report to the Emperor, saying : — ** Thy 
servant having received the command of the Celestial Court, 
undertook a distant expedition to the wilds of the East, where 

* Sit-sober. 

- Not Otsu on the southern shore of Lake Biwa, but a place in Ise. 

' As slaves. 



by the favour of the Gods, and trusting in the mighty power 
of the Emperor, I made the rebellious to submit themselves for 
punishment, and the violent deities to become moderate. 
Therefore I rolled up my armour, laid aside my weapons, and 
was returning peacefully. It was my hope on such a day at such 
an hour to report my mission to the Celestial Court.* But the 
life allotted me by Heaven has unexpectedly approached an 
end. Passing swiftly as a four-horse carriage passes a crack in 
the road, it may not be stayed. Alone I lay me down on the 
waste moor with none to say a word to me. But why should 
I regret the loss of this body ? My only grief is that I cannot 
meet thee.*' ' 

Having said so, he died on the moor of Nobo. He was then 
thirty years of age. When the Emperor heard it, he could not 
sleep peacefully on his couch, nor was the taste of food sweet 
I to him. Night and day his voice was choked with grief: with 
tears and lamentations he beat his breast. Therefore he ex- 
claimed aloud, saying : — " Oh ! Our son, Prince Wo-usu ! 
VII. 31. Formerly when the Kumaso revolted he was still a boy. But 
for a long time he bore the labour of campaigning. After- 
wards he was constantly at Our side, supplying Our deficiencies. 
Then when the troubles with the Eastern savages arose, there 
was no one else whom We could send to smite them, so in 
spite of Our affection for him. We sent him into the country of 
the enemy. No day passed that we did not think of him. 
Therefore morning and evening We longingly awaited the day 
of his return. Oh ! what a calamity ! Oh ! what a crime ! While 
We least expected it, we suddenly lost Our child. Henceforth 
with whom to help us shall we manage the vast institution ? " 

So he commanded his ministers and through them 
instructed the functionaries ' to bury him in the misasagi of 
Nobo Moor in the Land of Ise. 

Now Yamato-dake no Mikoto, taking the shape of a white 
bird, came forth from the misasagi, and flew towards the Land 
of Yamato. The Ministers accordingly opened the coffin, and 
looking in, saw that only the empty clothing remained, and 

* This sentence is in the ** Shukai " edition introduced at the end of this 
. * Lit. the hundred bureaus. 

KeIKO. 211 

that there was no corpse. Thereupon messengers were sent to 
follow in search of the white bird. It stopped on the plain of 
Kotobiki in Yamato. Accordingly in that place a misasagi 
was erected. The white bird flew on again until it reached 
Kahachiy where it rested in the village of Furuchi, and in this 
place also a misasagi * was erected. Therefore the men of vii. 32. 
that day called these three misasagi " the white bird misasagi." * 
At last it soared aloft to Heaven, and there was nothing buried 
but his clothing and official cap. The Emperor, wishing to 
perpetuate the fame of his services, established the Takeru * 
Be. This was in the 43rd year of the Emperor's reign. 

51st year. Spring, ist month; 7th day. The Emperor a.d. 121. 
summoned his Ministers, and feasted them for several days. 
Now the Imperial Prince Waka-tarashi-hiko no Mikoto and 
Takechi no Sukune did not come to the Banqueting Court. 
The Emperor sent for them and asked the reason. Therefore 
they represented to the Emperor, saying : — ** On a day of 
festival, the Ministers and functionaries must have their minds 
bent on jollity, and they do not think of the State. In view of 
the possibility of there being madmen, who might watch for 
an unprotected space in the ramparts, we remain on guard 
beneath the Gate* and provide against emergencies.'' Then 
the Emperor spake and said : — ** Splendid ! " So he showed 
them an extraordinary affection. 

Autumn, 8th month, 4th day. Waka-tarashi-hiko no 
Mikoto was appointed Prince Imperial. On this day Takechi 
no Sukune was appointed Prime Minister. 

The cross-sword Kusanagi, which was at first worn by vii. 33. 
Yamato-dake no Mikoto, is now in the shrine of Atsuta in the 
district of Ayuchi, in the province of Ohari. Now the Yemishi 
who had been presented to the shrine brawled day and night, 
and were disrespectful in their goings out and comings in. 
Then Yamato-hime no Mikoto said : — " These Yemishi should 
not be allowed near the shrine." Accordingly she sent them up 

* I have seen this tumulus. It is a very large double mound surrounded 
by a moat. 

* Shira-torino Misasagi. Many of the tumuli are favourite resorts of the 
white egret, whence doubtless the name. 

* Or Take, brave. ** M ikado means " august gate.'* 

P 2 

212 NiHONGI. 

to the Court, where they were made to settle beside Mount 
Mimoro. Ere long they cut down all the trees of the sacred 
mountain. They shouted and bawled in the neighbouring 
villages and threatened the people. The Emperor, hearing 
this, summoned his Ministers, and said : — ** The Yemishi who 
were placed beside the sacred mountain have by nature the 
hearts of beasts. They cannot be allowed to dwell in the inner 
country." So he caused them to be stationed without the home 
provinces, in any places which they pleased. They were the 
ancestors of the present Saheki * Be of the five provinces of 
Harima, Sanuki, lyo, Aki, and Aha. 

VII. 34. In the beginning Yamato-dake no Mikoto took the Imperial 
Princess Futachi-iri-hime, and made her his consort.* She 
bore Prince Ineyori-wake, next the Emperor Tarashi-naka-tsu- 
hiko,*^ next Nuno oshi-iri-hime no Mikoto, and next Prince 
Waka-take. The eldest of these. Prince Ineyori-wake, was the 
first ancestor of the two families of the Kimi of Inu-gami and 
of the Kimi of Takebe. Another consort, named Kibi no 
Anato no Take-hime, daughter of Kibi no Take»hiko, bore to 
him Prince Take-miko and Prince Towoki-wake. The elder of 
these, Prince Take-miko, was the first ancestor of the Kimi of 
Aya in Sanuki. Prince Towoki-wake was the first ancestor of 
the Kimi of Wake in lyo. His next consort, Oto-tachibana 
hime, daughter of Oshiyama no Sukune, of the Hodzumi 
House, bore to him Prince Waka-take-hiko. 

VII. 35. 52nd year, Summer, 5th month, 4th day. The Empress 

A.D. 122. fjarima no Oho-iratsume died. 

Autumn, 7th month, 7th day. Ya-saka-iri-hime no Mikoto 
was appointed Empress. 

A.D. 123. 53rd year. Autumn, 8th month, ist day. The Emperor 
commanded his Ministers, saying : — '* When will Our longing 
for Our son cease ? We desire to make a tour of inspection 
to the region subdued by Prince Wo-usu." In this month he 

* The Chinese characters for Saheki mean "Assistant-Chief." It is 
apparently a Chinese word and not Japanese, and therefore it seems out of 
place in the history of a period long previous to the introduction of Chinese 
learning. But, however unhistorical this narrative may be, it goes to prove 
that there is an Aino element in the Japanese nation. 

' She was his aunt. ' Chiuai Tenno. 

KeIKO. 21 


mounted into his carriage and made a progress to Ise ; where, 
turning aside, he entered the East Sea provinces. 

Winter, loth month. He arrived at the province of 
Kadzusa, whence by the sea-route .he crossed over to the 
harbour of Aha. 

At this time the Emperor, hearing the cry of a fish-hawk, 
wished to see the bird's form. So he went out upon the sea in 
search of it, and caught clams. Hereupon the ancestor, of the 
Kashihade no Omi,* by name Ihaka Mutsukari, made shoulder- 
straps of bulrushes, and preparing a hash of the clams, put it 
before the Emperor. Therefore he commended the service 
rendered by the Omi Ihaka Mutsukari, and granted him the 
Stewards* Ohotomo Be. 

I2th month. The Emperor returned ifrom the Eastern 
country and dwelt in Ise. This was called the Kambata 

54th year. Autumn, 9th month, 19th day. From Ise the vil. 36. 
Emperor returned to Yamato, arid dwelt in the Palace of '^*^' ^^ 

55th year. Spring, 2nd month, 5th day. Prince Hiko-sa- a.d. 125 
jima was appointed Governor-general of the fifteen provinces 
of the T6-san-d6.* He was a grandson of Toyoki no Mikoto. 
But when he arrived at the village of Anashi in Kasuga 
he fell ill and died. 

At this time the people of the Eastern Land, grieved that the 
Prince did not arrive, secretly purloined his body, and buried 
it in the land of Kodzuke.' 

56th year, Autumn, 8th month. The Emperor commanded ad. 126. 
Prince Mimoro-wake, saying : — " Thy father. Prince Hiko- 
sajima, was unable to proceed to his governorship and died 
prematurely. Therefore do thou undertake the absolute rule 
of the Eastern Land.'* So Mimoro-wake no Mikoto, having 
received the Emperor's commands, and being also desirous of 
accomplishing his father's work, straightway proceeded thither, 
and undertook the government. He had already attained to a 

* Stewards. ' East-mountain-road. 

• Several ancient tumuli near the village of Ohomuro in this province are 
perhaps the tombs of ihis dynasty of governors. They are described in a 
pm^r by Satow, m " TA.S J.," Vol. VI II., p. 327. 

214 NiHONGI. 

good administration when the Yemishi made a disturbance. 
So he raised an army and attacked them. Then tlie Yemishi 
chieftains, Ashi-furi-he, Oho-ha-furi-he, and Tohotsu Kura-ho- 
he bowed their heads to the ground and came; they made 
deep obeisance and accepted punishment, offering him all their 
territory without exception. Therefore he pardoned those who 
surrendered, and put to death those who would not submit. 
On this account the Eastern Land was for a long time free 
from trouble. Therefore his descendants are to this day in 
the Eastern Land. 

A.D. 127. 57th year. Autumn, 9th month. The Pool of Sakate was 

vir. 37.. constructed, and the embankment planted with bamboos. 

Winter, loth month. It was commanded that every pro- 
vince should erect granaries of the labourers' Be.* 

AD. 128. 58th year. Spring, 2nd month, nth day. The Emperor 
made a progress to the Land of Ohomi, and dwelt in Shiga for 
three years. This was called the Palace of Taka-Anaho. 

A.D. 130. 60th year. Winter, nth month, 7th day. The Emperor 
died in the Palace of Taka-Anaho at the age of 106. 



The Emperor Waka-tarashi-hiko was the fourth child of the 
Emperor Oho-tarashi-hiko-oshiro-wake. The name of the 
Empress his mother was Ya-saka-iri-hime no Mikoto, daughter 
of the Imperial Prince Ya-saka-iri-hiko. He was appointed 
Prince Imperial in the 46th year of the Emperor Oho-tarashi- 
hiko, being then aged twenty-four years. In the 60th year of 
his reign, Winter, the nth month, the Emperor Oho-tarashi- 
hiko died. 

A.D. 131. 1st year, Spring, ist month, 5th day. The Prince Imperial 
assumed the Imperial Dignity. This year was the year Kanoto 
Hitsuji(8th) of the Cycle. 

A.D. 132. 2nd year, Winter, nth month, loth day. The Emperor 

* Cf. Ch. K., p. 205. Accomplish-functions, 

Seimu. 215 

Oho-tarashi-hiko was buried in the misasagi over the road at 
Yamanobe in the province of Yamato. 

The Empress was honoured with the title of Grand Empress, vii. 38. 

3rd year, Spring, ist month, 7th day. Takechi no Sukune a.d. 133. 
was made Prime Minister. In the beginning the Emperor was 
born on the same day with Takechi no Sukune, and he there- 
fore had an extraordinary affection for him. 

4th year. Spring, 2nd month, ist day. The Emperor com- a.d. 134. 
manded, saying: — ** Our predecessor on the throne, the 
Emperor Oho-tarashi-hiko, was clear-sighted and of divine 
valour. When he became subject to the scheme ^ and received 
over the plan he ruled Heaven and was in accordance with 
Man. He swept away the banditti, and restored right. His 
virtue was like a canopy, his path harmonized with develop- 
ment. Therefore in all the land under Universal Heaven 
there was none who did not recognize him as Sovereign, vii. 39. 
Of all things endowed with life and possessed of soul were there 
any which did not find their place ? 

We have now succeeded him in the occupation of the 
precious felicity. Morning and night we tremble and fear. 
But the people are like wriggling worms, and will not reform 
the savagery of their hearts. In the provinces and districts 
there are no Lords, in the villages there are no Chiefs.' Hence- 
forward let there be established Lords in the provinces, and 
let there be Chiefs placed in the villages. Accordingly let men 
of ability of the provinces be taken and appointed Chiefs over 
provinces and districts, so as to form a defence for the Inner 
Country.'' '' 

5th year. Autumn, 9th month. A decree was issued to all a.d. 135. 
the provinces establishing Miyakko (governors) in the provinces 
and districts, and Inaki ^ in the villages. All were granted 

' The scheme of the permutations of the five elements. " Thus water is 
said to overcome fire and so forth. Each dynasty is believed to be subject 
to the influence of the element which overcomes that prevailing with the 
previous dynasty, and all human affairs arc referable to the same occult 
influence.'' Mayers' Manual, p. 317. This whole speech is intensely Chinese. 

- This cannot be correct. •* i.e. the Ciokinai. 

* Inaki is literally rice-castle, i.e. granary. The office seems to be some- 
thing like mayor. It subsequently became a mere title, and eventually a 

2l6 NlIIONGI. 

shields and spears as emblems of authority. So the mountains 
and rivers were made boundaries for the separation of one 
province and district from another, whilst the bounds of town- 
ships and villages were established by means of lanes. In this 
way East and West were reckoned as in a line with the sun, 

VII. 40. while North and South were reckoned as athwart the sun.* 
The sunny side of the mountains was called the light-face 
and the shady side of the mountains the back-face.* 

In this way the people had tranquil possession of their 
dwellings, and the Empire was at peace. 

A.D. 178. 48th year, Spring, 3rd month, ist day. The Emperor 
appointed his nephew Tarashi-naka-tsu-hiko no Mikoto Prince 

A.D. 190. 60th year. Summer, 6th month, nth day. The Emperor 
died, aged 107. 

* Meaning lanes running N. and S. and lanes running E. and W. 

* The modem division of the provinces between Kioto and Shimonoseki, 
the Sanyodo and Sanindo, rests on this distinction. 

'His own son had perhaps died. 




The Emperor Tarashi-nakatsu-hiko was the second child of 
Yamato-dake no Mikoto. The Empress ' his mother was 
called Futachi-iri-hime no Mikoto. She was the daughter of the 
Emperor Ikume-iri-hiko isachi. The Emperor's countenance 
was of perfect beauty, and his stature was ten feet. He was 
appointed Prince Imperial in the forty-eighth year of the 
Emperor Waka-tarashi-hiko, being at this time thirty-one 
years of age. The Emperor Waka-tarashi-hiko having no male 
offspring, appointed him as his successor. In the sixtieth year 
of his reign the Emperor died, and in the following year. 
Autumn, the 9th month, 6th day, was buried in the Tatanami 
misasagi in Saki, in the province of Yamato. 

1st year. Spring, ist month, nth day. The Prince Imperial a 
assumed the Imperial Dignity. 

Autumn, gth month, ist day. The Empress-mother was 
granted the honorary title of Grand Empress. 

Winter, nth month, ist day. The Emperor commanded his 
Ministers, saying : — ** The Prince, Our father, died before We 
reached the status of a youth. His divine spirit became changed 
into a white bird and ascended to Heaven. Our longing re- ^' 
gard for him knows not a day's intermission. Therefore it is 
Our wish to procure white birds and to keep them in the pond ^ 
within the precincts of the misasagi, so that, looking on these 
birds, we may comfort our feelings of longing." Orders were 

* Qiiix means the middle one of three sons ; ai, to be sad, to grieve. 

' She was not Empress. 

' TJa jYiigasBS^ ^^^ surrounded with a moat. 

2l8 NiHONGI. 

therefore sent to the various provinces to send tribute of white 

Intercalary nth month, 4th day. The province of Koshi 
sent tribute of four white birds. Now the messengers who were 
sent with the birds stayed for the night on the bank of the 
rivqr Uji. Then Prince Gama-mi-wake, of Ashigami, seeing 
the white birds, made inquiry, saying : — " Whither are you 
taking these white birds ? " The men of Koshi answered and 
said : — ** The Emperor, out of his longing for the Prince, his 
Yather, intends to keep them as pets. Therefore do we bring them 
as tribute.*' Prince Gama-mi-wake spake to the men of Koshi, 
saying : — " These may be white birds, but when they are 
roasted they will become black birds." So he forcibly seized 
the white birds and carried them away. Hereupon the men of 
Koshi came and reported to the Emperor, who was indignant 
at the affront offered by Prince Gama-mi-wake to the late 
Prince, and sending troops, put him to death. 

Prince Gama-mi-Wake was the younger brother of the 
Emperor by a different mother. The people of that time said : 
— ** A father is Heaven, an elder brother is a Lord ; how can he 
escape execution who is Wanting in respect to Heaven, and who 
thwarts his Lord ? " * 

This year was the year Midzunoye Saru (9th) of the Cycle. 
A.D. 193. 2nd year. Spring, ist month, nth day. Oki-naga-tarashi- 
hime was appointed Empress. Before this the Emperor had 
taken to him as consort Oho-nakatsu-hime, daughter of his 
uncle Hiko-bito Ohine. She bore to him the Imperial Prince 
VIII. 3. Kakosaka and the Imperial Prince Oshikuma. Next he took 
to him as consort Oto-hime, daughter of Oho-saka-nushi,"^ the 
ancestor of the Miyakko of Kukumada. She bore to him the 
Imperial Prince Homuya wake. 

2nd month, 6th day. The Emperor made a progress 
to Tsunoga,^ where he erected a temporary palace and dwelt 
in it. This was called the Palace of Kehi. In the same month 
the granary of Ahaji was established. 

3rd month, 15th day. The Emperor made a tour of inspec- 

^ These phrases are Chinese, and therefore an anachronism in a history of 
this period. 

Great-sake-mastcr. ^ Tsuruga. 

Chiuai. 219 

tion to the Southern provinces. Hereupon he left behind the 
Empress and the functionaries, and with two or three High 
officials * and several hundred officers in attendance, he pro- 
ceeded, thus lightly equipped, as far as the lan(J of Kii, where 
he dwelt in the Palace of Tokorotsu. At this time the Kumaso 
rebelled and did jiot bring tribute. The Emperor thereupon 
prepared to smite the Land of Kumaso, and starting from 
Tokorotsu, borne over the sea, he made a progress to Anato. On 
the same day he sent messengers to Tsunoga and commanded 
the Empress, saying : — ** Set out straightway from that harbour 
and meet me at Anato." 

Summer, 6th month, loth day. The Emperor anchored 
in the harbour of Toyora, while the Empress, who had 
set out from Tsunoga on her way there, arrived at the 
Strait of Nuta, and partook of food on board her ship. A 
great many tahi assembled beside the ship. The Empress 
sprinkled sake upon the tahi, which forthwith became drunk vil! 
and floated to the surface. Then the fishermen, having 
caught numbers of these tahi, were delighted, and said : — 
** They are the fish given us by our wise sovereign." There- 
fore the fish of that place, when the sixth month comes, are in 
the habit of floating belly upwards as if they were drunk. This 
was the origin of it. 

'Autumn, 7th month, 5th day. The Empress anchored in the 
harbour of Toyora. On this day the Empress found in the 
sea a Nyoi ' pearl. 

9th month. The Emperor erected a Palace in Anato, and 
dwelt in it. It was called the Palace of Toyora in Anato. 

8th year, Spring, ist month, 4th day. The Emperor pro- 
ceeded to Tsukushi. At this time Kuma-wani,^ the ancestor 
of the Agata-nushi of Oka, hearing of the Emperor's arrival, 
pulled up beforehand a 500-branched Sakaki tree, which he set 

» Daibu. 

- The Nyoi (JD S) is a sort of sceptre seen in the hands of Buddhist 
idols. It contains the Mani, one of the Sapta ratna, a fabulous pearl which 
is ever bright and luminous, and therefore a symbol of Buddha and of his 

A Buddhist term is of course an anachronism in this narrative. 

* Bear (/ g^ enormous), sea-monster, a fit name for a personage of a 
legendan- jj^^rrative. See p. 61, note 3. 

2 20 NiHONGI. 

up on the bows of a nine-fathom ship. On the upper branches 
he hung a white-copper mirror, on the middle branches he hung 
a ten-span sword, and on the lower branches he hung Yasaka 
jewels. With these he went out to meet him at the Bay of 

VIII. 5. Saha in Suwo, and presented to him a fish-salt-place.^ In doing 
so, he addressed the Emperor, saying :— " L^t the Great Ferry 
from Anato to Mukatsuno be its Eastern Gate and the Great 
Ferry of Nagoya ' be its Western Gate. Let the Islands of 
Motori and Abe and none else be the august baskets : let the 
Island of Shiba be divided and made the august pans : let the Sea 
of Sakami be the salt-place." He then acted as the Emperor's 
pilot. Going round Cape Yamaga, he entered the Bay of Oka. 
But in entering the harbour, the ship was unable to go 
forward. So he inquired of Kuma-wani, saying : — " We have 
heard that thou, Kuma-wani, hast come to us with an honest 
heart. Why does the ship not proceed ? " Kuma-wani addressed 
the Emperor, saying : — ** It is not the fault of thy servant that 
the august ship is unable to advance. At the entrance to this 
bay there are two Deities, one male and the other female. 
The male Deity is called Oho-kura-nushi,' the female Deity is 
called Tsubura-hime. It must be owing to the wish of these 
Deities." The Emperor accordingly prayed to them, and 
caused them to be sacrificed to, appointing his steersman 
Iga-hiko, a man of Uda in the province of Yamato, as priest.* 
So the ship was enabled to proceed. The Empress entered in 
a different ship by the Sea of Kuki. As the tide was out, she 

VIII. 6. was unable to go on. Then Kuma-wani went back and met 
the Empress by way of Kuki. Thereupon he saw that the 
august ship made no progress, and he was afraid. He hastily 
made a fish-pond and a bird-pond, into which he collected all 
the fishes and birds. When the Empress saw these fishes and 
birds sporting, her anger was gradually appeased, and with the 
flowing tide she straightway anchored in the harbour of Oka. 

* A salt-pan. 

' Near Karatsu. It was from Nagoya that Hideyoshi's expedition sailed 
for Corea. By the salt-place is evidently meant the whole northern coast of 
Kiushiu. Salt is still made here, though the chief seat of this manufacture 
is now the shores of the Inland Sea. See Wileman in "T.A S.J." XVII. i. 

' Great-magazine-lord. * Hafuri. 


ChIUAI, 221 

Moreover, Itote, the ancestor of the Agata-nushi of Ito' in 
Tsukushi, he^iring of the Emperor's coming, pulled up sakaki 
trees of 500 branches, which he set up in the bow and stern of 
his ship. On the upper branches he hung Yasaka jewels, on 
the middle branches white-copper mirrors, and on the lower 
branches ten-span swords, and coming to meet the Emperor at 
Hikejima in Anato, presented them to him. In doing so, he 
addressed the Emperpr, saying : — ** As to these things which 
thy servant dares to offer, mayst thou govern the universe with 
subtlety tortuous as the curvings of the Yasaka jewels ; * may 
thy glance survey mountain, stream and sea-plain bright as 
the mirror of white copper ; mayst thou, wielding this ten-span 
sword, maintain peace in the Empire." Thereupon the 
Emperor commended Itote, and called him Isoshi. Where- 
fore the men of that time called the native place of Itote the 
Land of Iso. The present name Ito is a corruption of this. 

22nd day. The Emperor arrived in the district of Naka. yiii. 7 
Here he dwelt in the palace of Kashihi. 

Autumn, 9th month, 5th day. The Emperor addressed his 
Ministers, and consulted with them as to attacking the Kumaso. 
At this time a certain God inspired the Empress and instructed 
her, saying : — " Why should the Emperor be troubled because 
the Kumaso do not yield submission ? It is a land wanting in 
backbone. Is it worth while raising an army to attack it ? 
There is a better land than this, a land of treasure, which may 
be compared to the aspect of a beautiful woman — the land of 
Mukatsu,'* dazzling to the eyes. In that land there are gold 
and silver and bright colours in plenty. It is called the Land 
of Silla of the coverlets of paper-mulberry.^ If thou worship- 
pest me aright, that land will assuredly yield submission freely, 
and the edge of thy sword shall not at all be stained with blood. 

* This place is mentioned by ;i Chinese traveller to Japan in the third 
centur>' of our era. "There are " (he says) *' hereditary kings in Ito, who 
all owe allegiance to the Queen country*." 

* No doubt Maga-tama are meant. ^ Opposite. 

* Taku-fusuma in Japanese. This is a pillow-word, prefixed to Silla, not 
in the least because coverlets of cloth woven from the inner bark of the 
paper-mulberry were in use in that country, but because Silla (in Japanese 
Shirakij suggests Shira, white, and textiles of paper- mulberry were white. 
By "brigl^ colours ' is probably meant dyed textile goods. 

222 NiHONGI. 

Afterwards the Kumaso will surrender. In worshipping me, 
let these things be given as offerings, namely, the Emperor's 
august ship and the water-fields * called Ohota,' presented to 
him by Homutachi, the Atahe of Anato." When the Emperor 
heard the words of the God, his mind was filled with doubt, 
and straightway ascending a high hill, he looked away into the 
distance. But far and wide there was the ocean, and he saw 
no land. Hereupon the Emperor answered the God, and 
said : — ** We have looked^ all around, and there is sea, and no 
land. Can there be a country in the Great Void ? ' Who is 
the God wha cheats Us witK vain illusions? Moreover, all 
the Emperors Our ancestors have worshipped the Gods of 
Heaven and Earth without exception, and none has been 
omitted." Then the God again spake by the mouth of the 
Empress, saying : — " I see this country lie outstretched like a 
reflection from Heaven in the water. Why sayest thou that 
VIII. 8. there is no country, and dost disparage my words ? But as 
thou, O King ! hast spoken thus, and hast utterly refused to 
believe me, thou shalt not possess this land. The child with 
which the Empress has just become pregnant, he shall 
; obtain it." 

The Emperor, however, was still incredulous, and persisted 
in attacking the Kumaso. But he retreated without having 
gained a victory. 
A.D. 2CC. gth year. Spring, 2nd month, 5th day. The Emperor took 
suddenly ill, and died on the following day, at the age of 52. 

One version says : — ** The Emperor having gone in 
person to smite the Kumaso, was hit by an enemy's arrow, 
and slain." 

Thereupon the Empress and the Prime Minister Takechi no 
Sukune suppressed the mourning for the Emperor, and did not 
allow it to be known to the Empire. 

Accordingly the Empress commanded the Prime Minister, 
the Nakatomi * Ikatsu no Muraji, Oho-miwa no Ohotomo- 

^ i.e., rice lands. * Great fields. . 

' The sky. Corea is visible from the Japanese i'sland of Tsushima, and 
must have been well known to the Japanese at this time. There has already 
been frequent mention of it in the " Nihongi " itself. 

** Probably here used in its original signification of Middle Minister. 

Chiuai. 223 

nushi no Kimi, Mononobe no Ikuhi no Muraji, and Ohotomo 
no Takemotsu no Muraji, saying : — ** The Empire is still vill. 9. 
ignorant of the Emperor's decease. If the people were to 
know of it, there would be negligence." So she instructed the 
four high officials to cause the functionaries to keep watch 
within the Palace while the body of the Emperor was secretly 
taken up and entrusted to Takechi no Sukune. He removed 
it by sea to Anato, and buried it temporarily in the Palace 
of Toyora, giving it a fireless temporary burial.^ 

22nd day. The Prime Minister, Takechi no Sukune, re- 
turned from Anato, and made his report to the Empress. This 
year, owing to the expedition against Silla, it was impossible 
to bury the Emperor." 

' The commentators say that for the sake of secrecy there were no lights 

- An army of labourers was needed to build one of the enormous tumuli 
which were the fashion at this time. 




Okinaga-tarashi-hime no Mikoto was the great-grandchild 
of the Emperor Waka-Yamato-neko-hiko Ohohihi ' and the 
daughter of Prince Okinaga ' no Sukune. Her mother's name 
was Katsuraki no Taka-nuka-hime. She was made Empress 
in the second year of the Emperor Nalca-tsu-hiko. Whilst 
still young, she was intelligent and shrewd, and her counte- 
nance was of such blooming beauty that the Prince her father 
wondered at it. 

In his gth year, Spring, the 2nd month, the Emperor 
Naka-tsu-hiko died in the palace of Kashihi in Tsukushi. At 
this time the Empress was grieved that the Emperor would 
not follow the Divine instructions, and had consequently died 
IX. 2. a premature death. She thought she would find out what God 
had sent the curse, so that she might possess herself of the 
land of treasures. She therefore commanded her Ministers 
and functionaries to purge offences * and to rectify transgres- 

' Divine merit or success. ' Kaikwa Tenno. 

^ Name of a place in Ohomi. This is hardly consistent with the state- 
ment at the end of this reign that Oki-naga (long life) was a posthumous 
name given her, apparently owing to the great age to which she attained. 

^ The ceremony of purification (harahi) is referred to. 

Molowori observes on the parallel pass<ige of the " Kojiki " that tsumi, 
offence, includes kegare, pollutions, ashiki waza, ill-deeds, and wazawahi, 
calamities. The offences for which the ceremony of purification was required 
are enumerated in the " Kojiki " as flaying alive, flaying backwards, breaking 
down the divisions between rice-fields, filling up irrigating channels, com- 
mitting nuisances, incest, and bestiality. The Oho-harahi, or Great Purifica- 
tion Ritual, gives a similar but more detailed description. See Ch. K., 
p. 230. 

Jingo. 225 

5ions, also to construct a Palace of worship * in the village of 

3rd month, ist day. The Empress, having selected a lucky 

day,* entered the Palace of worship, and discharged in person the 

office of priest' She commanded Takechi no Sukune to play 

on the lute,* and the Nakatomi, Igatsu no Omi, was designated 

as Saniha.' Then placing one thousand pieces of cloth, high 

pieces of cloth, on the top and bottom of the lute, she prayed 

saying : — " Who is the God who on a former day instructed the 

Emperor ? I pray that I may know his name." After seven 

days and seven nights there came an answer, saying : — " I am 

the Deity who dwells in the Shrine of split-bell Isuzu in the 

district of hundred-transmit Watarahi in the province of divine- 

vnnd Ise,* and my name is Tsuki-sakaki idzu no mi-tama ama- 

zakaru Muka-tsu hime ^ no Mikoto. 

Again she inquired : — " Other than this Deity, are there any l^ 
Deities present ? " The answer was ; — " I am the Deity who 
comes forth on the ears of the flag-like Eulalia,* and my dwell- 
ing is in the district of Aha in Ada-fushi in Oda." She 
inquired: — "Are there others?" There was an answer, 
saying : — " There is the Deity who rules in Heaven, who rules 
in the Void, the gem-casket-entering-prince, the awful Koto- 
shiro-nushi." ® 

' Lit. religious abstinence. See above, p. 1 76. 

- " Lucky day " is probably a Chinese trait. ' Kannushi. 

* The Japanese or Adzuma koto, described as an instrument five or six 
feet long, with six strings. 

* Saniha is explained as the official who examines the utterances prompted 
by the Deity. The literal meaning is "pure court," from the place in which 
he stood during the ceremony. See Ch. K., p. 229. 

* The epithets split-bell, hundred-transmit and divine-wind are makura- 
kotoba or pillow-words, which have no meaning to us. Split-bell is put 
before Isuzu because suzu means bell (Fr. grelot). Wataru, " to cross over,'' 
suggests the phrase momo-tsutahe (hundred-transmit). See Ch. K., p. 247. 

' The awful spirit of the planted Cleyera, the lady of sky-distant Mukatsu. 
Mukatsu, as appears from p. 221, is Corea. The Deity who dwells at Ise 
is the Sun-Goddess. But she chooses (apparently) to represent herself as a 
Corean Deity. Sakaki (Cleyera Japonica) is the sacred tree of Shinto. 

' A tall grass, like pampas grass, hence the epithet flag-like. 

* Koto-shiro-nushi, thing-know-master. Thing-know is a Chinese idiom for 
" to rule,'' and it is the same word which is rendered rule just above. 


226 NiHONGI. 

She inquired : — " Are there others ? " There was an 
answer, saying : — " It is not known whether there are others or 
not." Hereupon the Saniha^ said: — "There is no answer 
now, but they will speak again afterwards." So there was an 
answer, saying : — " There are the Gods who have settled to the 
bottom of the water of the Little Strait of Tachibana ' in the 
Land of Hiuga, and who are produced and dwell there like 
fresh water plants. Their names are Uha-tsutsu no wo, Naka- 
tsutsu no wo, and Soko-tsutsu no wo.^ 

She inquired : — " Are there others ? " There was an answer, 
saying : — " Whether there are or not is unknown." And 
nothing more was ever said as to the existence of other Gods. 

Now that the Divine words* had been obtained, the Gods 
were worshipped in accordance with their instructions. There- 
after, Kamo no Wake, the ancestor of the Kibi no Omi, was 
sent to attack the Kumaso. Before many days had elapsed 
they freely submitted. 
IX 4. Moreover, there was in the village of Notorita a man 
named Hashiro Kuma-washi.* He was a fellow of powerful 
frame, and had wings on his body, so that he could fly, and 
with them soar aloft. Therefore he would not obey the 
Imperial commands, but habitually plundered the people. 

17th day. The Empress desired to attack Kuma-washi. So 
from the Palace of Kashihi she returned to the Palace of 
Matsunowo. At this time a whirlwind suddenly arose, and 
her august hat was blown off by the wind. Therefore the men 
of the time called that place Mikasa.* 

20th day. She arrived at the Moor of Sosoki, where she 
took up arms and smote Hashiro Kuma-washi, and destroyed 
him. Then she addressed her courtiers, saying : — " My mind 
is at peace now that we have taken Kuma-washi." Therefore 
the name of that place was called Yasu.' 

25th day. Going on from thence, she arrived at the district 
of Yamato,* where she put to death a Tsuchi-gumo named 

* See above, p. 225. 

* Little Strait is in the original Wodo : the Bungo Channel. 
•'* See Ch. K., p. 41, also above, p. 27. 

* The term "divine words" probably means the proper names and titles 
of the Deities. 

* Feather- white bear- eagle. • August hat. " Peaceful. 

* In Chikugo. 

Jingo. 227 

Tabura-tsu-hime. Now Tabura-tsu-hime's elder brother 
Natsuha had raised an army and advanced against the Empress, 
but on hearing that his younger sister had been already put to 
death, he took to flight. 

Summer, 4th month, 3rd day. Proceeding northwards, 
she arrived at the district of Matsura in the Land of Hizen, and 
partook of food on the bank of the river Wogawa,* in the 
village of Tamashima. Here the Empress bent a needle and 
made of it a hook. She took grains of rice and used them as 
bait. Pulling out the threads of her garment, she made of 
them a line. Then mounting upon a stone in the middle of the 
river, and casting the hook, she prayed, saying : — " We are ix. 5. 
proceeding westward, where we desire to gain possession of the 
Land of Treasure. If we are to succeed, let the fish of the 
river bite the hook." Accordingly, raising up her fishing-rod, 
she caught a trout. Then the Empress said : — " It is a strange 
thing." Wherefore the men of theday called that place the Land 
of Medzura. The present name Matsura ' is a corruption of this. 
For this reason, whenever the ist decade of the 4th month 
comes round, the women of that land take hooks, which they 
cast into the river and catch trout — a custom which has not 
ceased unto this day. The men may angle for fish, but they 
cannot catch any. 

This having been done, the Empress knew that there was 
virtue in the teaching of the Gods, and she made sacrifice anew 
to the Gods of Heaven and Earth. As it was her purpose in 
person to chastise the West, she set apart a sacred rice-field, 
and tilled it. Then, in order to divert water from the Naka- 
gaha with which to irrigate it, she dug a channel as far as the 
Hill of Todoroki. But a great rock stood in the way, and she 
was unable to pierce a channel through it. Then the Empress 
sent for Takechi no Sukune, and offering a sword and a mirror 
made him pray to the Gods of Heaven and Earth, and ask them 
to allow the channel to be completed. Straightway there came 
thunder and lightning, and stamped that rock asunder, so that 
the water passed through. Therefore the men of the time 
called that channel the Channel of Sakuta."^ 

* Little river. 

' Medzurashiki means "strange." Matsura is really Matsu-ura, fir-bay. 

» Sundered field. 

Q 2 

22 8 NiHONGI. 

The Empress returned to the Bay of Kashihi, and loosing 
her hair, looked over the sea, saying : — " I, having received the 
instructions of the Gods of Heaven and Earth, and trusting in 
the Spirits of the Imperial ancestors, floating across the deep 
blue sea, intend in person to chastise the West. Therefore do 
ixj. 6. I now lave my head in the water of the sea. If I am to be 
successful, let my hair part spontaneously into two." Accord- 
j ingly she entered the sea and bathed, and her hair parted of its 
own accord. The Empress bound it up parted into bunches.' 

Then she addressed her ministers, saying : — '* To make war 
and move troops is a matter of the greatest concern to a country. 
I Peace and danger, success and failure must depend on it. If I 
^ now entrusted to you, my ministers, the duties of the expedition 
we are about to undertake, the blame, in case of ill-success, 
would rest with you. This would be very grievous to me. 
Therefore, although I am a woman, and a feeble woman too, 
I will for awhile borrow the outward appearance of a man, and 
force myself to adopt manly counsels. Above, I shall receive 
support from the Spirits of the Gods of Heaven and Earth, 
while below I shall avail myself of the assistance of you, my 
ministers. Brandishing our weapons, we shall cross the towering 
billows : preparing an array of ships, we shall take possession of 
the Land of Treasure. If the enterprise succeeds, all of you, 
my ministers, will have the credit, while if it is unsuccessful, I 
alone shall be to blame. Such have been my intentions, do ye 
deliberate together regarding them." The ministers all said : — 
** The object of the measure which the Empress has devised for 
the Empire is to tranquillize the ancestral shrines and the Gods 
of the Earth and Grain, and also to protect her servants from 
blame. With heads bowed to the ground we receive thy 
commands." * 

Autumn, gth month, loth day. The various provinces were 
ordered to collect ships and to practise the use of weapons. 
But an army could not be assembled. The Empress said : — 
" This i? surely the will of a God." So she erected the Shrine 
of Oho-miwa, and offered there a sword and a spear. Then the 
troops assembled freely. Hereupon a fisherman of Ahe, by 

* In manly fashion. 

^ This speech is copied from a Chinese book. 

. Jingo. ^229 

name Womaro, was sent out into the Western Sea, to spy if ix. 7. 
there was any land there. He came back and said : — " There 
is no land to be seen/' Again a fisherman of Shika, named 
Nagusa, was sent to look. After several days he returned, and 
said : — " To the north-west, there is a mountain girt with 
clouds and extending crosswise. This is perhaps a country." 
Hereupon a lucky day was fixed upon by divination. There 
was yet an interval before they should set out. Then the 
Empress in person, grasping her battle-axe, commanded the 
three divisions of her army, saying : — " If the drums are 
beaten out of time, and the signal-flags are waved confusedly, 
order cannot be preserved among the troops : if greedy of 
wealth, and eager for much, you cherish self and have regard 
for your own interests, you will surely be taken prisoners 
by the enemy. Despise not the enemy, though his numbers 
may be few ; shrink not from him, though his numbers may be 
many. Spare not the violent, slay not the submissive. There 
will surely be rewards for those who ultimately conquer in 
battle, and of course punishments for those who turn their 
backs and flee." 

After this a God gave instructions, saying : — " A gentle spirit 
will attach itself to the Empress's person, and keep watch 
over her life : a rough spirit will form the vanguard, and be. a 
guide to the squadron." So when she had received the divine IX. 8. 
instructions she did worship, and for this purpose appointed 
Otarimi,* Yosami no Ahiko to be the Director of the ceremonies 
in honour of the God. 

The time had now come for the Empress's delivery. So she 
took a stone which she inserted in her loins, and prayed, say- 
ing: — "Let my delivery be in this land on the day that I 
return after our enterprise is at an end." That stone is now 
on the road-side in the district of Ito.* 

After this the rough spirit was told to act as vanguard of the 
forces, and the gentle spirit requested to act as guardian of the 
Royal vessel. 

* Otarimi is the na, or personal name ; Yosami the uji, or name of the 
House ; Ahiko is the Kabane, or title. 

' Tradition pointed out two white egg-shaped stones a little over a foot 
long as those used on this occasion. They were afterwards stolen. 


230 NjHONGI. 

Winter, loth month, 3rd day. Sail was set from the har- 
bour of Wani.^ Then the Wind-God made a breeze to spring 
up, and the Sea-God ' uplifted the billows. The great fishes of 
the ocean, every one, came to the surface and encompassed the 
IX. 9. ships. Presently a great wind blew from a favourable quarter 
on the ships under sail, and following the waves, without the 
labour of the oar or helm, they arrived at Silla. The tide-wave 
following the ships reached far up into the interior of the 
country. Hereupon the King of Silla feared and trembled, 
and knew not what to do, so he assembled all his people and 
said to them : — *' Since the State of Silla was founded, it has 
) never yet been heard that the water of the sea has encroached 
upon the land. Is it possible that the term of existence granted 
to it by Heaven has expired, and that our country is to become 
' a part of the ocean ? " Scarce had he spoken when a warlike 
fleet overspread the sea. Their banners were resplendent in 
the sunlight. The drums and fifes raised up their voices, and the 
mountains and rivers all thrilled to the sound. The King of 
Silla beholding this from afar felt that his country was about 
to be destroyed by this extraordinary force, and was terrified 
out of his senses. But presently coming to himself, he said : — 
" I have heard that in the East there is a divine country named 
y Nippon, and also that there is there a wise sovereign called the 
I Tenno. This divine force must belong to that country. How 
IX. 10.'] could we resist them by force of arms ? '* So he took a white 
I flag, and of his own accord rendered submission, tying his 
^ hands behind his back with a white rope. He sealed up the 
maps and registers, and going down before the Royal vessel 
bowed his head to the ground, and said : — " Henceforward, as 
long as Heaven and Earth endure, we will obediently act as 
thy forage-providers. Not allowing the helms of our ships to 
become dry, every spring and every autumn we will send 
tribute of horse-combs and whips. And, without thinking the 
sea-distance a trpuble, we will pay annual dues of male and 
female slaves." He confirmed this by repeated oaths, saying : — 
** When the sun no longer rises in the East, but comes forth 

^ In Tsushima. 

^ The words used here for Wind-God and Sea-God are purely Chinese. 
"iEolus" and " Neptune" would be just as appropriate in a Saga, 

Jingo, 231 

in the West ; when the River Arinare * turns its course back- 
ward, and when the river pebbles ascend and become stars — 
if before this we fail to pay homage every spring and every 
autumn, or neglect to send tribute of combs and whips, may 
the Gods of Heaven and Earth both together punish us." 

Then someone said: — "Let us put to death the King of 
Silla." Hereupon the Empress said : — " When I first received 
the Divine instructions, promising to bestow on me the Land 
of Gold and Silver, I gave orders to the three divisions of the 
army, saying : — * Slay not the submissive.* Now that we have 
taken the Land of Treasure, and its people have freely offered 
submission, it would be unlucky to slay them." So she loosed 
the cords with which he was bound, and made him her forage- 

Ultimately she proceeded to the interior of that country, 
placed seals on the magazines of precious treasure, and took 
possession of the books of maps and registers." The spear on 
which the Empress leant ^ was planted at the gate of the King 
of Silla as a memorial to after ages. Therefore that spear 
even now remains planted at the King of Silla's gate. 

Now Phasa Mikeun,* King of Silla, gave as a hostage Mi- 
cheul-kwi-chi Pha-chin Kan-ki,* and with gold and silver, 
bright colours, figured gauzes and silks, he loaded eighty vessels, 
which he made to follow after the Imperial forces. This was 
the origin of the King of Silla always sending eighty ships of 

Hereupon the kings of the two countries of Koryo and Pekch^ * 

' Supposed to be the Am-nok-kang. 

* The Cadastral records. ' As a staff. 

* The traditional kana rendering is Hasa Mukin. Phasa was the 6th King 
of Silla. He reigned from a.d. 80 to A.D. 112. Mikeun or Mukin is not 
clear. The last syllable corresponds with the last syllable of nisft-keun 
(& Cffi ^)i an old Silla word for king, mentioned in the Introduction to 
the " Tongkam." 

* The traditional kana has Mi-shi-ko-chi Ha-tori Kamu-ki. Pha-chin 
was the fourth official rank in Silla (see *' Tongkam," 1. 31), and Kanki is said 
by the Shiki to be a title. A Silla Prince named Misaheun (in Japanese 
Mishikin) was sent as hostage to Japan a.d. 402. It is clear from what 
follows (a.d. 205) that this is the same person. 

* The original name of this country is Kokuryo. It did not become 
officially known as Koryo until A.D. 936, but the contracted form was in use 

232 NiHONGI. 

IX. 12. hearing that Silla had rendered up its maps and registers/ and 
made submission, secretly caused the warlike power (of the 
? Empress) to be spied out. Finding then that they could not 
\ be victorious, they came of themselves without the camp, and 
bowing their heads to the ground, and sighing, said : — " Hence- 
forth for ever, these lands shall be styled thy western frontier 
provinces, and will not cease to offer tribute." Accordingly 
interior Governments were instituted. This is what is termed 
the three Han.* 

The Empress returned from Silla. 

I2th month, 14th day. She gave birth to the Emperor 
Homuda in Tsukushi. Therefore the men of that time called 
the place where he was born Umi.' 

long before, and there are examples of it in Chinese literature as early as 
A.D. 500 (Parker, " Race Struggles in Corea," **T.A.S.J.," XVIII., Pt. II.). 
The capital was Phyongyahg, at least at one time. 

The Japanese name for this kingdom was Koma, a word of doubtful 
derivation. I think it possible that it means bear (in Corean kom), and that 
the Koma of Corea and the Kuma of Japan were the same race — like the 
Saxons of Germany and the Saxons of England. Parker, in the article just 
referred to (p. 216), suggests that Koma was really a part of P6kche, and 
not Koryo. The town of Koma or Kuma was certainly in P^kche territory, 
and was for a while the capital. But I cannot think that the Japanese could 
have been mistaken on this point. They were far too well acquainted with 
Corean matters, and with them Koryo and Koma are the same thing. It is 
probable nevertheless that Koma or Kumanari was at some time the seat of 
the race of that name, as Kumamoto in Japan was of the Japanese Kuma. 
It is now Ung-chhon (bear- river), near the mouth of the R. Nak-tong, and 
a convenient port for crossing over to Japan. 

Pekch^, known to the Japanese as Kudara, was the S.-W. kingdom of 

* i.e. the territory described in them. 

* Corea at one time was divided into three kingdoms, called Ma-han, Sin- 
han, and Pyon-han, corresponding respectively to P^kche, Silla, and Koryci. 
But there is some doubt on the subject. 

The three Han are rendered in the kana gloss mitsu no Kara-kuni. But 
although Kara is sometimes used loosely for all Corea, and even to include 
China, I doubt much whether there ever was such a phrase as the three 
Karas. It looks like a mere literal translation of Samhan. 

For an estimate of the historical value of this narrative of the conquest of 
Corea, I would refer the reader to my paper on Early Japanese History in 
the"T.A.S.J.,"XVI. Pt. I. 

» Birth. 

Jingo. 233 

One version says : — " When the Emperor Tarashi- ix. 
nakatsu-hiko dwelt in the palace of Kashihi in Tsukushi, 
there were Deities who spake by the mouth of Uchi-saru- 
taka, Kuni-saru-taka, and Matsu-ya-tane, ancestors of the 
Agata-nushi of Saha, and admonished the Emperor, 
saying : — ' If the august descendant wishes to gain the 
Land of Treasure, we will presently bestow it on him/ So 
on a later day, a lute was brought and given to the 
Empress. And the Empress played upon the lute, in 
accordance with the word of the Gods. Hereupon the 
Gods spake by the mouth of the Empress, and admonished 
the Emperor, saying : — ' The land which the august 
descendant wishes for is, as it were, a stag's horn, and 
not a real country. But if the august descendant now 
makes due offering to us of the ship in which he sails, and 
of the water-field ^ called Ohota given him as tribute by 
Homutate, the Atahe of Anato, we will bestow on the 
august descendant a dazzling land, a land of plenteous 
treasures, fair to look upon as a beautiful woman.' Then 
the Emperor answered the Gods, saying : — * Gods though 
ye may be, why these deceiving words ? Where is there 
any country ? Moreover, when the ship in which We sail 
has been offered to you Deities, in what ship shall We 
sail ? Nor do I know what Gods ye are. I pray you, let 
me know your names.' Then the Gods gave their names, 
saying: — * Uha-tsutsu no wo, Naka-tsutsu no wo, Soko- 
tsutsu no wo.' Such were the names of the three Gods 
given by them. And again one said : — ' I am Mukahitsu 
no wo, Kiki-so-ofu-itsuno mitama, Hayasa-nobori no 
Mikoto.' Then the Emperor spake to the Empress, and 
said : — * What ill-sounding things they say ! Is it a 
woman ? What is meant by Hayasa-nobori ? ' * Then the 
Gods addressed the Emperor, saying : — ' O King, since ix. 
thou art thus unbelieving, thou shalt not possess that 
country. But the child which is now in the Empress's 
womb, he will doubtless take possession of it.' On that 
night the Emperor took suddenly ill, and died. Afterwards 
the Empress performed worship in accordance with the 

* Rice-field. Speed-ascend. 

234 Njhongi, 

directions of the Gods.^ Then the Empress, clad in male 
attire, went on the expedition against Silla, and the Gods 
guided her. Accordingly the wave which followed the 
ship reached far into the interior of the Land of Silla. 
Hereupon the Silla Prince Urusohorichiu ^ came to meet 
the Empress, and kneeling down, took hold of the Royal 
vessel. Bowing his head to the ground, he said : — ' Hence- 
forward thy servant will act as an interior Government for 
the child of the Gods who dwells in Japan, and will not 
cease to furnish tribute.' " 

• One version says : — " She took prisoner the Prince of 
Silla, and going to the sea-side, plucked out his knee-caps,' 
and causing him to crawl on the rocks, suddenly slew him, 
and buried him in the sand. Accordingly she stationed 
there one man as Governor of Silla, and departed. After- 
wards, the wife of the Prince of Silla, not knowing where 
the body of her husband was buried, all by herself con- 
ceived the thought of deluding the Governor. So, 
enticing him, she said : — * If thou wilt let me know the 
place where the Prince's body is buried, I will surely 
reward thee liberally, and will become thy wife.' Here- 
upon the Governor believed these deluding words, and 
secretly made known to her the place where the body was 
buried. Then the Prince's wife and the people of the 
country, having consulted together, slew the Governor, 
and having disinterred the Prince's body, buried it in 
another place. Then they took the Governor's body, and 
buried it in the earth under the Prince's tomb, and taking 
up the coffin, deposited it on the top of the Governor's 
body, saying: — *This is as it ought necessarily to be, 
according to the order of things exalted and things base.^ 
Hereupon the Empress,* when she heard of this, • was 

* i.e. offering- the ship and lands. 

2 This transliteration follows the traditional Japanese pronunciation. The 
Corean would be U-ryu-cho-pu-ri-chi-u. It may be suspected that the final 
u "J* is a mistake for "P kan, a frequent element of Corean titles, perhaps 
= khan, kami ? See Parker's " Race Struggles in Corea," p. 220. 

' A Chinese punishment. 

* The original has Tenno, a word which, strictly speaking, is either 
masculine or feminine, but which is not usually applied to this Empress. 

Jingo. 235 

mightily incensed, and raised a large army, with which it 

was her intent utterly to destroy Silla. So, with war- IX. 15. 

ships filling the sea, she proceeded thither. At this time 

the people of Silla were all afraid, and knew not what to 

do. Having assembled, they consulted together, and slew 

the Prince's wife by way of apology for their crime." ^ 

Hereupon the three Gods who accompanied the expedition, 

viz. Uha-tsutsu no wo, Naka-tsutsu no wo, and Soko-tsutsu no 

wo, admonished the Empress, saying : — " Let our rough spirits 

be worshipped at the village of Yamada in Anato." Now 

* The "Tongkam," Vol. III. p. 21, has the following under the date 
A.D. 249, Summer, 4th month : — " The Was invaded Silla, and killed Uro. 
Before this the Was had sent Kalyako as Ambassador to Silla. The King 
made Uro entertain him. Uro said, jesting : — ** Sooner or later we shall 
make your King our salt-slave, and your Queen our cook-wench." When 
the King of Wa heard this, he sent his General Uto-chiu to invade Silla. 
The King went out and dwelt at Yuchhon. Uro said : — " To-day's attack is 
owing to the words of thy servant. I pray thee let me deal with it." So 
he went eventually to the Wa army, and said : — " My words on a former 
day were a jest, and nothing more. Who would have thought that war 
should be waged, and that things should come to this extremity?" The 
men of Wa took him, and made a pile of firewood, on which they burnt him 
to death, and then went away. Afterwards an Ambassador came from Wa. . 
Uro's wife begged leave from the King to entertain him on her own score. 
Accordingly she made the Ambassador drunk, seized him, and burnt him. 
TheWas, enraged at this, besieged Keumsyong,*buthad to retire unsuccessful." 

Notwithstanding the difference of date — A.D. 200 and a.d. 249 — and other 
discrepancies, I believe these two narratives relate to the same events. The 
Prince Urusohorichiu of the Japanese account is the Uro of the Corean 
history. The word which I have translated Prince is S, which might also 
be rendered King. But there is no King of this name in Corean history, 
and, as appears from a Corean authority quoted in the " Ishonihonden,'» 
XIV. II, Syok Uro was the son of King Nah^ of Silla. The " Tongkam '^ 
relates several other events of his life, among others his appointment as 
So-pul-han (or So-pul-ya), whence probably the sohori of the name given 
him in the Japanese narrative. 

Kalyako is no doubt the same person as the Katsuraki no Sotsu-hiko 
mentioned below as having been sent on a mission to Silla. Kal is written 
41, which is katsura in Japanese. 

In " Early Japanese History" I have given reasons for thinking that, for 
this period, Corean history is much more in accordance with facts than 
that of Japan. 

* The Silla capital. 

236 NiHONGI. 

Homutate, the ancestor of the Atahe of Anato, and Tamomi no 
Sukune, ancestor of the Muraji of Tsumori, represented to the 
Empress, saying : — '* Surely thou wilt set apart unto the Gods 
the lands where they desire to dwell." So Homutate was 
appointed master of the worship of the rough spirits, and a 
shrine was erected in the village of Yamada in Anato. 

Now in Spring, the second month of the year following the 
expedition against Silla, the Empress removed with her 
ministers and functionaries to the palace of Toyora in Anato, 
where she took up the Emperor's remains, and proceeded 
towards the capital by the sea-route. Now Prince Kakosaka 
and Prince Oshikuma, hearing of the Emperor's decease, as 
well as of the Empress's expedition to the West, and of the 
recent birth of an Imperial Prince, plotted secretly, saying : — 
" The Empress has now a child, and all the ministers obey 
her. They will certainly consult together and establish an 
infant sovereign. But shall we, the elders, obey our younger 
brother ? " So, pretending that it was in order to build a 
misasagi for the Emperor, they went to Harima, and raised a 
misasagi at Akashi.^ Accordingly they joined boats together 
in a string across to the island of Ahaji, and so transported the 
IX. 16. stones of that island to build it. Now they made every man 
take a weapon, and so they awaited the Empress. Hereupon 
Kurami-wake, the ancestor of the Kimi of Inugami, and 
Isachi no Sukune, ancestor of the Kishi,^ together joined them- 

* Two or three miles to the east of Maiko, on the bluff above the village 
of West Tarumi, there is a very large double mound, which local tradition 
has associated with the name of Chiuai Tenno. It is surrounded by the 
usual circles of clay cyhnders, known in the neighbourhood as ** Chiuai no 
sen-tsubo," i.e. ** the thousand jars of Chiuai." 

There is a smaller mound of circular shape close to the other, also sur- 
rounded by a circle of clay cylinders. This is no doubt the tomb of a wife, 
son, or minister of the personage buried in the main tumulus. The 
" Nihongi " tradition does not account for it. 

The stones were to build the megalithic chamber. 

* Kishi ("§ Bit) is obviously the same as the Silla fourteenth official grade 
kilsS ("S "it). See " Tongkam," 1. 31. Ason, so frequently met with in later 
times, is also a Corean official grade. Has sukune anything to do with the 
Silla word for king, isSkeun ? 

The " Kojiki" has ** Kishi of Naniha" in this passage, no doubt r ghtly. 
Ch. K.,p. 235. 

Jingo. 237 

selves unto Prince Kakosaka, who made them his generals, and 
directed them to raise troops from the Eastern Land. Then 
Prince Kakosaka and Prince Oshikuma went forth together to 
the moor of Toga, and made a "hunt-prayer,"^ saying: — "If 
our project is to be successful, then surely let us take some 
good game." The two Princes sat each in his shelter, when a 
wild-boar ' sprang out suddenly, and climbing on to the shelter, 
bit Prince Kakosaka and killed him. The soldiers every one 
shuddered with fear. Then Prince Oshikuma addressed 
Kurami-wake, saying : — *•* This is a very ominous thing. We 
ought not to await the enemy here." So he withdrew his 
troops, and retreating again, encamped at Sumiyoshi.'* At this 
time, the Empress heard that Prince Oshikuma had raised an 
army, and was awaiting her. She commanded Takechi no 
Sukune to take in his bosom the Imperial Prince, and going out 
across by way of the south-sea provinces,* to anchor in the har- 
bour of Kii, while the Empress's ship made straight for Naniha. 
At this time the Empress's ship swerved towards the midst of 
the sea, and was unable to proceed. She returned again to 
the harbour of Muko,* where she made divination as to this. 

Hereupon Ama-terasu no Oho-kami admonished her, saying : ix. 17. 
— " My rough spirit may not approach the Imperial residence. 
Let him dwell in the land of Hirota in Mikokoro." So Ha- 
yama-hime, daughter of Yamashiro-neko, was appointed to 
worship him. Moreover, Waka-hiru-me no Mikoto admonished 
the Empress, saying : — " I wish to dwell in the land of Nagawo 
in Ikuta."^ So Una-gami no Isachi was appointed to worship 
her. Again, Koto-shiro-nushi no Mikoto admonished her, 
saying : — " Worship me in the land of Nakata in Mi-kokoro." ^ 
So Naga-hime, younger sister of Ha-yama-hime, was appointed 
to worship him. Again the three Gods, Uha-tsutsu no wo, 
Naka-tsutsu no wo, and Soko-tsutsu no wo, admonished her, 
saying : — " Let our gentle spirits dwell at Nagawo ® in Nuna- 

' Ukehi-gari, a kind of divination. 

* Lit. a red pig, so called from its flesh being red. The domestic pig is 
the white pig. 

' Near Kobe. *♦ Now called Shikoku. * Now Hiogc. 

■* Just behind the foreign settlement of Kobe. 
' Mikokoro here and above may mean "after my august heart." 
' Sutoiyoshi, near Kobe. 

238 NiHONGI. 

kura in Ohotsu, so that they may look upon the ships passing 
back and forward." Hereupon these Gods were enshrined in 

IX. 18. accordance with their instructions, and the Empress was 
enabled to cross the sea in peace. 

Prince Oshikuma, again withdrawing his troops, retreated as 
far as Uji, where he encamped. The Empress proceeded 
southwards to the land of Kii, and met the Prince Imperial at 
Hitaka. Having consulted with her Ministers, she at length 
desired to attack Prince Oshikuma, and removed to the Palace of 
Shinu. It so happened that at this time the day was dark like 
night. Many days passed in this manner, and the men of that 
time said : — " This is the Eternal Night." The Empress 
inquired of Toyomimi, the ancestor of the Atahe of Ki, saying : 
— " Wherefore is this omen ? " Then there was an old man who 
said: — ** I have heard by tradition that this kind of omen is called 
Atsunahi no tsumi." * She inquired : — " What does it mean ? " 
He answered and said : — '* The priests * of the two shrines have 
been buried together." Therefore she made strict investigation 
in the village. There was a man who said : — " The priest of 
Shinu and the priest of Amano were good friends. The priest 
of Shinu fell ill, and died. The priest of Amano wept and 
wailed, saying : — ' We have been friends together since our 
birth. Why in our death should there not be the same grave for 
both ? ' So he lay down beside the corpse and died of himself, 
so that they were buried together. This is perhaps the 
reason." So they opened the tomb, and on examination 
fdund that it was true. Therefore they again changed their 
coffins and interred them separately, upon which the sunlight 
shone forth, and there was a difference between day and 

3rd month, 5th day. The Empress commanded Takechi no 
Sukune and Take-furu-kuma, ancestor of the Omi of Wani, to 
lead an army of several tens of thousands of men to attack 

IX. 19. Prince Oshikuma. Hereupon, Takechi no Sukune and his 
colleague, having taken picked men, went out by way of 
Yamashiro as far as Uji, where they encamped north of the 
river. Prince Oshikuma came out from his camp, and offered 

* The calamity of there being no sun. * Hafuri. 

Jingo. 239 

battle. Now there was a man called Kuma ^ no Kori, who 
formed the vanguard of Prince Oshikuma's army. 

One version says :— " Ancestor of the Obito of Katsurano 
no ki." Another says : — " The remote ancestor of the Kishi 
Accordingly, in order to encourage his men, he sang with a 
loud voice, saying : — 

Beyond the river 

Is the rough pine-clad plain — 

To that pine-clad plain 

Let us cross over, 

With bows oitsukt\ 

And store of sounding arrows. 

My dear fellow ! 

My dear fellows ! 

My cousin too ! 

My cousins 1 

Come ! let us join battle 


(Within a tile 

Is there any sand ?) ' 

Come ! let us join battle ! 

Then Takechi no Sukune, giving command to the three 
divisions of the army, made them all bind up their hair mallet- 
wise. Accordingly he made an order, saying : — " Let ever}' 
one of you have spare bow-strings concealed in your top-knots, 
and gird on wooden swords." Having done so, in accordance 
with the commands of the Empress, he deluded Prince Oshi- 
kuma, saying ; — " I am not greedy to possess the Empire. 
Only, while cherishing the infant Prince, we will obey my 
Lord the Prince. Why should I contend with thee in battle ? 

* The reader will have noticed how frequently Kuma, bear, occurs in 
proper names. It is, I think, the race Kuma (in Corean, Koma) to which 
they should be referred. 

- Aso is the same as Ason or 'Asomi, probably derived from Ason 
(H ^> the 6th Silla ofificial rank. This is the first mention of this 
title. The reference is to Takechi (Take-uchi) no Sukune. Uchi has a 
pillow-word (tamaki haru) prefixed, which is quite untranslatable. Cf. 
Ch. K., p. 283. 

' These two lines are, of course, utterly irrelevant. They are brought in 
for the sake of a play of words, ^^^^^ which it is not worth while troublin 
the reader. 


240 NiHONGI. 


I pray thee let us both cut our bow-strings, fling away our 
weapons, and be in harmony together. Then mayest thou, 
my Lord the Prince, mount to tne Heavenly office, and sit a 
peace, making high thy pillow, and wielding at thy will the ten 
thousand appliances." * 

So he openly gave orders to his army that they should all 
cut their bow-strings, and ungirding their swords, fling them 
into the river-water. Prince Oshikuma believed these deluding 
words, and ordered all his troops to ungird their weapons and 
fling them into the water of the river, and also to cut their 
bow-strings. Upon this, Takechi no Sukune commanded the 
three divisions of his army to produce their spare bow-strings, 
and to string their bows again, and, girt with their real swords, 
to advance across the river. Prince Oshikuma, seeing that he 
had been deceived, spake to Kurami-wake and Isachi no 
Sukune, saying : — " We have been deceived, and have now no 
spare weapons. How shall we be able to fight ? " So he 
withdrew his forces and gradually retreated. Then Takechi no 
Sukune sent forth his choice troops and pursued him, and 
having come up to him just at Afusaka, put him to the rout. 
Therefore that place was called Afusaka.^ The army took to 
flight, and ran as far as Kurusu in Sasanami. Many were slain. 
IX. 21. Hereupon the blood overflowed into Kurusu. Therefore in 
horror of this, until this day, the fruit of Kurusu * is not offered 
to the Imperial Palace. Prince Oshikuma, not knowing 
whither to betake himself in his flight, called to him Isachi no 
Sukune and made a song, saying : — 

Come ! my child, 

Isachi Sukune ! 

Rather than receive a severe wound 

From the mallet * 

OfUchi no Aso, 

Like unto the grebe 

Let us make a plunge ! 

* i.e. all the machinery of Government. 

2 Pronounced Osaka, i.e. the hill of meeting. The pass on the road from 
Kioto to Otsu. A railway tunnel now goes under it. 

3 Kurusu means chestnut-village. 

* Kabu-tsuchi. Seep. 123. 

Jingo. 241 

So they sank together in the crossing-place of Seta, and 
died. Then Takechi no Sukune made a son^, saying : — 

The birds that dived, 

At the ferry of Seta, 

By the sea of Afumi.^ 

Since with my eyes I cannot see them, 

Can they be still alive ? 

Hereupon they searched for their dead bodies, and were un- 
able to find them. But several days after, they came out on 
the river-bank at Uji.' Then Takechi no Sukune again made a 
song, saying : — 

In the sea of Afumi, 
At the ferry of Seta, 
The birds that dived — 
Passing Tanakami,' 
Have been caught at Uji. 

Winter, loth month, 3rd day. The ministers honoured the 
Empress with the title of Grand Empress. This year was the 
year Midzunoto I (60th) of the Cycle. It was reckoned the 
first year of her administration of the Government. 

2nd year. Winter, nth month, 8th day. The Emperor was IX. 22. 
buried in the misasagi of Nagano, in the province of Kahachi. 

3rd year. Spring, ist month, 3rd day. The Imperial Prince a.d. 203. 
Homuda-wake was appointed Prince Imperial. Accordingly, 
the capital was made at Ihare. It was called the Palace of 

5th year. Spring, 3rd month, 7th day. The King of Silla ^'^' ^°5- 
sent O-nye-sa-pol, Mo-ma-ri Cheul-chi and Pu-ra-mo-chi with 
tribute. It was their desire to get back Mi-cheul Ho-chi pol- 
han, who had formerly come as a hostage. With this object 
they tampered with Ho-chi pol-han and caused him to use 
deceit, telling him to make petition and say : — " The envoys 
0-ny6-sa-pol, Mo-ma-ri Cheul-chi, and the other have in- 
formed me that my king, on account of my long failure to 
return, has wholly confiscated my wife and family and made 


* Now called Lake Biwa, in the province of Afumi or Omi. 

' Uji is some miles further down the river issuing from Lake Biwa than 
Seta. Seta is just where it leaves the lake. 

* The name of the upper part of the Uji River. 


242 NlHONGI. 

them slaves. 1 pray thee, let me return for a while to my 
own country and learn whether this be true or false." The 
Emperor forthwith gave him leave to go, and accordingly sent 
him away, accompanied by Katsuraki no Sotsuhiko. They 

IX. 23. reached Tsushima together, and stayed for the night at the 
harbour of Sabi no umi. Then the Silla envoys Mo-ma-ri 
Cheul-chi and the others secretly provided a separate ship and 
sailors, on board of which they put Mi-cheul Han-ki and made 
him escape to Silla. They also made a straw figure which 
they put in Mi-cheul Ho-chi's berth, and making it appear like a 
sick man, they informed Sotsuhiko, saying : — " Mi-cheul Ho-chi 
has taken suddenly ill, and is on the point of death." Sotsu- 
hiko sent men to nurse him, and so discovered the deception. 
Having seized the three Silla envoys, he placed them in a cage 
which he burnt with fire and so killed them. Then he pro- 
ceeded to Silla, where he touched at the harbour of Tatara. 
He took the Castle of Chhora, and returned. The captives 
taken on this occasion were the first ancestors of the Han * 

IX. 24. people of the four villages of Kuhabara, Sabi, Takamiya, and 

* The Chinese character is ^, i.e. the Chinese Han dynasty. The 
interlinear kana has ^yabito, which also means Chinese. Possibly they 
were descendants of Chinese emigrants to Corea. 

- Under the date A.D. 418, Autumn, the **Tongkam" (Vol. IV. 18) has 
the following :^- 

" Pak Ch^-syang of Silla went to Wa and died there. The king's younger 
brother MisSheun came from Wa. Before this Pok-ho (another brother of 
the King, who had been sent as hostage to Kokuryo) had returned. The 
King addressed Ch^-syang, saying :— * My love for my two younger brothers 
is like my left and right arms. Now I have got only one arm. What does 
it avail V Ch^-syangsaid : — * Though my abilities are those of a broken down 
horse, I have devoted myself to my country's service. What reason could I 
have for declining ? Kokuryo, however, is a great country, and the king 
also is wise. Thy servant was able to make him understand with one word. 
But in dealing with the Was it will be meet to use stratagem to deceive 
them, and not by mouth and tongue to reason with them. I will pretend 
that I have committed a crime and absconded. After I have gone I pray 
thee arrest thy servant's family.' So he swore upon his life not to see again 
his wife and children, and went to Nyul-pho. The cable was already 
loosed when his wife came after him, lamenting loudly. Ch^-syang said : — 
* I have already taken my life in my hands, and am leaving for a certain 

At length he went to the Wa country, where he gave out that he was a 

Jingo. 243 

13th year, Spring, 2nd month, 8th day. Takechi no Sukune a.d. 2 

rebel. The Lord of Wa doubted this. Before this time men of P^kch^ had 
gone to the Wa country, and made a false report, saying ; — * Silla and 
Kokury6 are about to plot together to attack Wa.' The Lord at length sent 
troops to guard the frontier. And when Kokuryo, having invaded Silla, 
slew those guards also, the Lord of Wa believed that the story told by the 
P^kch^ men was true. But when he heard that the King of Silla had im- 
prisoned the family of Mis^heun and Ch^-syang, he thought that Ch^- 
syang was really a rebel. Hereupon he sent forth an army in order to 
attack Silla, and made Ch^-syang and Mis^heun guides. Coming to an 
island in the sea, all the generals consulted secretly how they should 
destroy Silla and return with Ch^-syang and Misihcun's wives and children. 
Che-syang, knowing this, sailed with Mis^heun every day in a boat, under 
the pretence of making pleasure excursions. The Was had no suspicion. 
Ch^-syang advised MisSheun to return secretly to his country. Misiheun 
said : — * How could I have the heart to abandon thee, my lord, and return 
alone ? ' Chd-syang said : — * Supposing that I succeed in saving my Prince's 
life, and thus gratify the feelings of the Great King, it will be enough. 
Why should I be so fond of living ? ' Mis&heun wept, and taking his leave, 
made his escape back to his country. Ch^syang alone slept in the boat. 
He got up towards evening and waited until Mis^heun was far on his 
way. The Was, when they found that Mis^heun had disappeared, bound 
Ch^-syang, and pursued MisSheun, but mist and darkness coming on, 
they could not overtake him. The Lord of Wa was enraged. He flung 
Ch^-syang into prison, ■ and questioned him, saying : — * Why didst thou 
secretly send away Mis^heun?' Ch^-syang said : — *As a subject of K6\\n 
(Silla), I simply wished to carry out the desires of my Lord.' The Lord of 
Wa was wroth, and said : — * As thou hast now become a vassal of mine, if 
thou callest thyself a vassal of K^lin, thou shalt surely be subjected to the 
five punishments. But if thou callest thyself a vassal of the Wa country, I 
will certainly reward thee liberally.' Ch^-syang said : — * I had rather be a 
puppy-dog of K^lin, than a vassal of the Wa country. I had rather be 
flogged in K^lin than have dignities and revenues in the Wa country.' The 
Lord of Wa was wroth. He flayed Ch^-syang's feet, cut sedge, and made 
him walk on it (perhaps on the stubble left after the sedge was cut). Then 
he asked him, saying : — * Of what country art thou the vassal ? ' He said : — 
* The vassal of K^lin.' He also made him stand on hot iron, and asked 
him : — * Of what country art thou the vassal ? ' He said : — * The vassal of 
K^Iin.' The Lord of Wa, seeing that he could not bend him, put him to 
death by burning. 

The King, hearing of this at the island of Mokto. was much grieved, and 
conferred on Ch6-syang the posthumous title of Great Ason. He also 
bestowed rewards on his family, and made Misiheun marry his second 
daughter; and afterwards Che-syang's wife, taking with her her three 
daughters, went up to a mountain whence she had a view of the Wa country, 

K 2 

244 NiHONGI. 

was commanded to go with the Prince Imperial and worship 
the Great God of Kebi in Tsunoga/ 

17th day. The Prince Imperial returned from Tsunoga. 
On this day the Grand Empress gave a banquet to the Prince 
Imperial in the Great Hall. The Grand Empress raising her 
cup wished long life to the Prince Imperial. Accordingly she 
made a song, saying : — 

This august liquor 
Is not my august liquor : 
This prince of liquors * 
He that dwells in the Eternal land 
Firm as a rock — 
The august God Sukuna, 
With words of plenteous blessing, 
Blessing all around — 
With words of divine blessing 
^X' 25. Blessing again and again — 

Hath sent as an offering to thee. 

Drink of it deeply. 

Sa ! Sa ! » 

and having wailed bitterly, she died. She was made the Goddess-mother 
of this mountain, and there is now a shrine there." 

This, no doubt, relates to the same events as the above passage in 
the " Nihongi." Ch^-syang is Mo-ma-ri and Misi-heun is Mi-cheuUHo-chi. 

The Corean names present much difficulty. I have given the Corean 
pronunciation of the Chinese characters with which they are written, but 
there is much room for doubt whether the Japanese pronunciation would 
not sometimes be better. The text cannot be relied on. 

The interlinear kana gives as the names of the three envoys, Ureshi- 
hotsu, Momari Shichi, and Furamochi, and of the hostage, Mishi Kochi 
hotsu-kan. Here shichi is probably for ^ §31 (sya-chi), the 13th official 
rank in Silla. 

A Chinese authority quoted by Parker, in ** Race Struggles in Corea,'* 
gives one or two examples of Kilin (K^lin or Silla), words which show that 
1000 years ago the language was the same as modem Corean. But I 
cannot recognize anything of the modern language in the Corean names of 
the ** Nihongi." Later, all proper names in Corea are of Chinese derivation. 
Many of the Corean words in the "Nihongi" are names of offices, all of 
which are replaced in modern Corean by words of Chinese derivation. 

* Now Tsuruga in Echizen. See Ch. K., p. 237. 

'In the original " Kushi no Kami." The interpretation given above is 
Motowori's. This line might also mean " the wondrous deity " or the " God 
of liquor or sake." 

' An interjection of encouragement or incitement. 

Jingo. 245 

Takechi no Sukune, on behalf of the Prince Imperial, made 
an answering song, saying : — 

The man who brewed ^ 
This august liquor, 
Setting up on the mortar 
His drum, 

Singing all the while. 
He must have brewed it. 
This august liquor 

Is exquisitely more and more delightful. 
Sa ! Sa ! 

39th year. This year was the year Tsuchinoto Hitsuji a.d. : 
(S6th) of the Cycle. 

The History of Wei says : — ** In the reign of the Emperor 
Ming Ti, in the third year of the period King-ch*u (a.d. 
239) the Queen of Wa sent the high officer. Nan-teu-mi 
and others to the province, where they begged permission 
to proceed to the Emperor and offer tribute. The T*ai- 
sheu,' Tang-hia, sent an officer to escort them to the 
40th year. a.d. j 

The History of Wei says : — ** In the first year of Chfeng- 
Shih, Kien Chung-kiao, Wei T'i-hi and others proceeded 
to the Wa country charged with an Imperial rescript and 
a seal and ribbon.'' ^ 

* The Japanese word for brew is kamu, which also means to chew. Was 
chewing ever a part of the process of making strong drink in Japan as it is 
in some of the South Sea islands at the present time ? The last line of this 
poem is of very doubtful interpretation. 

' T'ai-sheu means governor. Th^-pang (in Chinese Tai-fang) was at one 
time a district of the Chinese province of Lolang in Corea. A map of China 
under the Tsin dynasty, however, makes Th^-pang a separate district further 
to the north. But the Governor of Th^pang mentioned in the Wei history 
under the name of 2) 5 and the Governor of Lolang called by the " Tong- 
kam '' ^] 3| are probably the same person. 

Another authority makes Th^-pang identical with Namwiin in Chiillato. 

^ These officials, as we learn from other sources, were sent by the Chinese 
authorities of Sakpang in Corea, not far from the present Treaty Port of 
Wonsan. See ** Early Japanese History/' p. 58; " Ishonihonden," 1. ii; 
"Tongkam,"IlI. i?- 

246 NiHONGI. 

A.D. 243. ^3rd year. 

The Ruler * of Wa again sent high officers as envoys 
with tribute, named I Shing-ch^, Yih-Ye-yoh,^ and others 
— eight persons in all. 

A.D. 246. 46th year, Spring, 3rd month, ist day. Shima no Sukune 
was sent to the Land of Thak-syun.' Hereupon Malkeum 
Kanki,* King of Thak-syun, informed Shima no Sukune, 
saying: — "In the course of the year Kinoye Ne,* three men 
of Pfekch^ named Kutyo, Mi-chyu-nyu, and Moko * came to my 
country and said : — * The King of Pekch^, hearing that in the 
Eastern quarter there is an honourable country, has sent thy 
servants to this honourable country's court. Therefore we beg 
of thee a passage so that we may go to that Land. If thou 
wilt be good enough to instruct thy servants and cause us to 
pass along the roads, our King will certainly show profound 
kindness to my Lord the King.'/ I then said to Kutyo and his 
IX. 26. fellows : — ' I have always heard that there is an honourable 
country in the East, but I have had no communication with it, 
and. do not know the way. There is nothing but far seas and 
towering billows, so that in a large ship, one can hardly com- 
municate. Even if there were a regular crossing-place, how 
could you arrive there ? ' Hereupon Kutyo and the others 
said : — * Well, then, for the present we cannot communicate. 
Our best plan will be to go back again, and prepare a ship with 
which to communicate later.' They also said : — ' If envoys 
should come from the honourable country, thou oughtest surely 
to inform our country.' Thus they went back. Hereupon 

2 It is doubtful whether these six syllables represent the names of one, 
two, or three men. I cannot g^ess what Japanese names are meant. The 
" Ish5nihonden " gives some of the characters differently. 

The " Shukai " edition rejects these extracts from Chinese History. They 
were doubtless added at a later date. 

' The Chinese characters are ^L f^, of which the traditional kana render- 
ing is Toku-shiu. The " Shukai " editor says it was part of Imna (or Mimana). 
Its destruction by Silla is recorded below — 5th year of Kimmei Tenno. 

* The Japanese traditional rendering is Makin K^nki. 

^ A.D. 244. 

* The Japanese kana gloss has Kutei, Mitsuru, and Mako. 

^ This is quite inconsistent with the story of Pekch^ offering homage to 
the Empress in the early part of her reign. 

Jingo. 247 

Shima no Sukune sent one of his followers named Nihaya, and 
a Thak-syun man named Kwa-ko to the Land of Pekch6 to 
make friendly inquiries of the King's health. 
• King Syo-ko ^ of P^kch^ was profoundly pleased, and received 
them cordially. He presented to Nihaya a roll each of five 
kinds of dyed silk, a horn-bow * and arrows, together with 
forty bars of iron.*^ Thereafter he opened his treasure-house, 
and pointing to his various rare objects, said :— " In my country 
there is great store of these rare treasures. I have wished 
to pay tribute of them to the honourable country, but not 
knowing the way I was unable to carry out my intention. I 
shall now entrust them to envoys, who will visit your country ix. 27. 
in order to offer them." Nihaya took charge of this message, 
and on his return informed Shima no Sukune, who thereupon 
came back firom Thak-syun. 

47th year. Summer, 4th month. The King of P^kch6 sent ^^' ^7- 
Kutyo, Mi-chu-nyu and Ma-ko with tribute. Now a tribute 
envoy from Silla came along with Kutyo. Hereupon the Grand 
Empress and the Prince Imperial Homuda wake no Mikoto 
were greatly delighted and said : — " People from the countries 
wished for* by our late Sovereign have now come to Court. 
Alas ! that they cannot meet the Emperor ! " There was not 
one of all the ministers who did not shed tears. But when the 
articles of tribute of the two countries were examined, the 
Silla tribute was of rare objects in very great number, while 
the Pekch6 tribute articles were few and mean, and of no value. 
So inquiry was made of Kutyo and the others, saying : — ** How 
is it that the Pekch6 tribute is inferior to that of Silla ? " They 
answered, and said ; — ** We lost our way and arrived at Sabi.* 

' There are two kings of this name in Corean history. The first died 
A.D. 214. This is the second, who reigned from a.d. 346 to A.D. 375. The 
Japanese chronology is, as usual, at fault. 

• The Corean bow is to this day the Tatar bow described in Tylor's 
Anthropology as " formed of several pieces of wood or horn united with 
glue or sinews. Shorter than the long-bow, it gets its spring by being bent 
outside to string it." The Japanese bow is a variety of the ordinary long-bow. 

' Iron is plentiful in Corea at the present day, and its quality is much 

■* On the contrar)', Chiuai Tenn5 would have nothing to do with them. 

* A Sabi in Tsushima is mentioned above. But this may be a place in 
Corea, in which case it should be read Sapi. 

248 NiHONGI. 

Here thy servants were captured by men of Silla and confined 
in a gaol. After three months had passed, they wished to kill 
us. Then Kutyo and the rest looked up towards Heaven, and 
pronounced a curse. The men of Silla, fearing this curse, 
refrained from killing us, but robbed us of our tribute. Then 
they gave us the tribute of Silla in exchange for our tribute, 
and made it the tribute of thy servants' country, and they 
spake to thy servants, saying : — * Be careful what ye say, or 
else, as soon as we return, we will kill you.' Therefore we, 
Kutyo and the rest, were afraid, and made no objection. For 
this reason we have hardly been able to reach the Heavenly 
Court." Then the Grand Empress and Homuda wake no 
Mikoto charged the Silla envoys with this deed, and accord- 
ingly prayed to the Gods of Heaven, saying: — "Whom is it 
meet that we send to Pekch6 to examine this matter whether 
it be true or false ; whom is it meet that we send to Silla to 
investigate this charge ? " Therewith the Gods of Heaven 
admonished them, saying : — ** Let Takechi no Sukune prepare 
a plan, and let Chikuma Nagahiko be the envoy. Then it will 
be as you desire." 
IX. 28. Chikuma Nagahiko*s title (^) is unknown. One account 

says: — "Chikuma Nagahiko was a man of the province 

of Musashi, the first ancestor of the present Obito of 

Tsukimoto of the Nukada Be." 
The Pekch6 record ' says : — " Shimananaga hiko was 

perhaps this man." 
Hereupon Chikuma Nagahiko was sent to Silla to call that 
country to an account for meddling with the Pekch6 tribute. 
A.D. 249. 49th year. Spring, 3rd month. Areda wake and Kaga wake 
were made generals. Along with Kutyo and the others they 
prepared a force with which they crossed over and came to 
Thak-syun. They were accordingly about to invade Silla, 
when some one said : — " Your troops are too few. You cannot 
defeat Silla." They respectfully sent back a^ain Sya-pek Ke-ro 

* This P^kch^ record is frequently quoted from. From the circumstance 
that the character ;ft» honourable, is used by the author or authors before the 
word country in speaking of Japan, it may be inferred that it was compiled by 
Pekch^ Coreans from their own records for the information of the Japanese. 
I have not much doubt that it was the work of some of the Corean scholars 
who visited Japan in numbers during the seventh century. 

Jingo. 249 

to ask for reinforcements. Mong-na Keun-cha and Sya-sya 
Nokw6 * 

These two men's surname is unknown. But Mongna 
Keuncha was a P^kch6 general. 
were forthwith ordered to take command of choice troops 
which were sent along with Sya-pek K^-ro. They all assembled 
at Thak-syun, invaded Silla, and conquered it. Seven provinces 
were accordingly subdued, viz. Pi-cha-pun, South Kara, Tok- 
kuk, Ara, Tara, Thak-syun, and Kara.* Then they moved 
their forces, and turning westward, arrived at Ko-hy6-chin, 
where they slaughtered the southern savages of Chim-mi-ta-ny6 
and granted their country to Pekch6. Hereupon their King, 
Syoko,' together with Prince Kusyu, came to meet them with l^- 29. 
more troops. Then four villages, viz. Pi-ri, Phi-chung, Pho- 
mi-ki, and Pan-ko, spontaneously surrendered. Thereupon 
the Kings of P^kch6, father and son, met Areda wake, Mong-na 
Keuncha, and the rest at the village of Wi-niu [uow called' 
Tsurusugi] * and at an interview offered their congratulations 
and dismissed them with cordial courtesy. But Chikuma 
Nagahiko remained in the Land of Pekch6 with the King of 
Pekch6, where they ascended Mount Phi-ki and made a solemn 
declaration. Afterwards they ascended Mount* Ko-sya, where 
they sat together upon a rock, and the King of P^kch6 made a 
solemn declaration, saying: — ** If I spread grass for us to sit 
upon, it might be burnt with fire ; and if I took wood for a 
seat, it might be washed away by water. Therefore, sitting on 
a rock, I make this solemn declaration of alliance to show that 
it will remain undecayed to distant ages. From this time 

* In Japanese Mokura Konshi and Sasa Toki. 

* These places, in so far as they can be identified, did not belong to Silla, 
but to Imna. The identification of Corean names of places presents great 
difficulties, owing to the Corean mania for giving new names. The " Ch6sen 
Zenzu furoku," a little book published by the Japanese War Office, gives as 
many as eight aliases for some towns. Nearly all have several. 

' Reigned 346 to 375, when he was succeeded by Kusyu. The " Nihongi " 
names are nearly correct. 

* Japanese pronunciation. 

' Mountain is in the interlinear kana mure, no doubt the modem Corean 
moi. SimiiarJy, nare, river, which occurs in Kuma-nare, is in modem Corean 
nai, pronounced no. 

250 NiHONGI. 

forward, therefore, for a thousand autumns and for ten thou- 
sand years, without pause and without limit, we shall bear the 
regular title of * The Western Frontier Province,' and every 
spring and every autumn will attend your Court with tribute." 
So he took with him Chikuma Nagahiko to his capital, where 
he treated him with the most cordial courtesy. He also made 
Kutyo and the others escort him home. 

A.D. 250. 50th year, Spring, 2nd month. Areda wake and his com- 
panions returned. 

Summer, 5th month. Chikuma Nagahiko, Kutyo and the 
rest arrived from Pfekch6. Thereupon the Grand Empress was 
delighted, and inquired of Kutyo, saying : — " The various Han * 
countries west of the sea have been already granted to thy 
country. Wherefore dost thou com^ again repeatedly ? " 
Kutyo and the others said to the Empress : — *' The vast 
IX. 30. blessings of the Celestial Court reached afar to our mean 
* village, and our king capered with delight. Out of the fulness 
of his heart he has sent a return mission in token of his great 
sincerity. Though it come to the ten thousandth year, in what 
year shall we fail to attend thy Court ? " The Grand Empress 
gave command, saying: — '* Good are thy words. These are 
Our intentions. We grant in addition the Castle of Tasya to 
serve as a station in going and returning.'* 

A.D. 251. 51st year. Spring, 3rd month. The King of Pekch6 again 
sent Kutyo to the Court with tribute. Hereupon the Grand 
Empress addressed the Prince Imperial and Takechi no Su- 
kune, saying : — ** We owe it to Heaven and not to man that we 
have a friendly country like Corea. Therefore it brings con- 
stantly, without missing a year, tribute of trinkets and rarities 
such as there have never been before. We, seeing this true 
affection, are always rejoiced at it, and so long as we live will 
heartily bestow on it Our favour." 

That same year she despatched Chikuma Nagahiko to the 
Land of Pekch6 in company with Kutyo and the others. 
Accordingly, in the most gracious manner, she said : — ** We, 
in accordance with the divine testimony, having for the first 
time laid open a road, subdued the lands west of the sea and 
granted them to Pekche, would now again draw closer the 
bonds of friendship and make lasting our loving bounty." 

* Corean. 

Jingo. 251 

At this time the Kings of Pekch6, father and son, both together 
knocked their foreheads on the ground and made representa- 
tion, saying:— " The immense bounty of the honourable 
country is more weighty than Heaven and Earth. What day, 
what hour shall we presume to forget it ? The sage sovereign IX. 3 
dwells above, illustrious as the sun and moon ; thy servants 
now dwell below, solid as a mountain or hill, and will always 
be thy western frontier land, never to the last showing double 

52nd year. Autumn, 9th month, lOth day. Kutyo and the a.d. : 
others came along with Chikuma Nagahiko and presented a 
seven-branched ^ sword and a seven-little-one '-mirror, with 
various other objects of great value. They addressed the 
Empress, saying : — "West of thy servants' country there is a 
river-source which issues -from Mount Cholsan* in Kong-na\ 
It is distant seven days' journey. It need not be approached, 
but one should drink of this water, and so having gotten the 
iron of this mountain, wait upon the sage Court for all ages." 
Moreover, he* addressed his grandson, Prince Chhim-nyu,* 
saying : — " The honourable country east of the sea with which 
we are now in communication has been opened to us by 
Heaven. Therefore does it bestow on us Celestial bounty, 
and dividing off the land west of the sea, has granted it to us. 
Consequently the foundation of our land is confirmed for ever. 
Thou shouldst cultivate well its friendship, and having col- 
lected our national products, wait on it with tribute without 
ceasing. Henceforth, grudging not even our lives, let us 
continue to send yearly tribute." 

55th year. Syoko, King of Pekch6, died.* j^^* | 

56th year. Kusyu, son of the King of Pekch6, was set up as a.d. 5 

* The traditional kana rendering is nana-saya, i.e. a " seven-sheathed 
sword," which is nonsense. Seven-branched is not much better. 

' It is not clear what is meant by nanatsuko (-t •?), perhaps with seven 
projections round the rim. See above, p. 44. 
' Iron mountain. All this about iron is merely symbolical of constancy. 

* The King of Pfekch^. * Came to the throne A.D. 384. 

* The "Tongkam" places his death in a.d. 375. 

'^ The traditional kana rendering of i is Kokishi, a word I do not recog- 
nize as Corean. But nearly all Corean words relating to official matters 
have become obsolete, being replaced by Chinese terms. 

252 NiHONGI. 

A.D. 262. 62nd year. Silla did not attend the Court. The same year 
Sotsuhiko was sent to chastise Silla. 

The Pekch6 record says: — "The year Midzunoye Miima.* 
Silla did not wait upon the honourable country. The 
honourable country sent Sachihiko to attack it. The men 
of Silla dressed up two beautiful women whom they sent 
to meet Sachihiko at the port and inveigle him. Sachihiko 
accepted them, and turning aside, attacked the land of 
Kara. Kwi-pon ' Kanki, King of Kara, and his sons, Pek- 
ku-chi, A-syu-chi, Ik-sya-ri, I-ra-ma-chyu, and I-mun-chi, 
fled to Pekch6, taking with them their subjects. Pekche 
received them cordially, and Kwi-chon-chi, younger sister 
of the King of Kara, went to Great Wa and addressed the 
Empress, saying : — * Your majesty sent Sachihiko to attack 
Silla. But he has accepted beautiful women of Silla, and 
abandoned the invasion. On the contrary he has destroyed 
our country. My brothers and our people have all been 
driven into exile. Unable to bear my grief, I have come 
hither to make this representation.' The Empress was 
greatly enraged, and forthwith sent Mongna Keuncha in 
command of an army to bring them together in Kara and 
to restore the temples of the Earth and of Grain." 

One account says : — " Sachihiko, when he learnt that 
the Empress was wroth with him, did not dare to return 
openly, but hid himself. He had a younger sister who 
was in the service of the Imperial Palace. Hiko secretly 
sent a messenger to inquire of her whether or no the 
Empress's wrath had abated. She, pretending a dream, 
said to the Empress : — ' To-night, in a dream, I saw 
Sachihiko.' The Empress was greatly enraged, and 
IX. SS' said : — * How should Hiko dare to come ? ' The Em- 

press's * words were reported to Sachihiko, who seeing 
that he would not be pardoned, went into a cave of 
a rock and died." 

* 19th year of the Cycle, corresponding to A.D. 382. 

^ I Si-Pheum was the name of the King of Kara at this time, according to 

^ The word for Empress is Tenno, which may also mean Emperor, and 
indeed this suits the narrative better. 

Jingo. 253 

64th year.* Kusyu, King of Pekch6, died, and his son a.d. 264. 
Chhim-nyu was set up as king. 

65 th year. King Chhim-nyu of Pekch6 died.'^ His son a.d. 265. 
Ahwa was a child, and his father's younger brother, Sinsa, by 
usurpation was set up and made king.* 

66th year. a.u. 266. 

This year was the second year of the period T*ai She of 
the Emperor Wu Ti of the Tsin Dynasty. K*i Kii-chu of 
Tsin says : — ** In the loth month of the 2nd year of the 
period T*ai-she of Wu Ti, the Queen of Wa sent inter- 
preters with tribute." 
69th year. Summer, 4th month, 17th day. The Grand a.d. 269. 
Empress died in the Palace of Waka-zakura at the age of 100. 
Winter, loth month, 15th day. She was buried in the 
misasagi ^of Tatanami in Saki. On this day, by way of 
posthumous honour to the Grand Empress, she was called 
Okinaga Tarashi-hime no Mikoto. 

This year was the year Tsuchinoto Ushi (26th) of the Cycle. 

* The " Tongkam " has a.d. 384. 

- This is mentioned almost in the same words by the " Tongkam " under 
date A.D. 385 — just two cycles later. 

' The narrative from p. 246 down to this point contains a solid 
nucleus of fact. There can be no doubt that Japan at an early period 
formed an alliance with Pekch^ and laid the foundation of a controlling 
power over the territory known as Imna or Mimana which lasted for 
several centuries. But the Japanese chronology cannot be right. See 
"Early Japanese History," p. 62. 




The Emperor Homuda' was the 4th child of the Emperor 
Tarashi Nakatsu-hiko. His mother's name was Okinaga 
Tarashi-hime no Mikoto. The Emperor was born at Kata in 
Tsukushi in the 12th month, Winter, of the year Kanoye Tatsu,' 
being the year in which the Empress smote Silla. From a 
child he was intelligent, penetrating, and far-sighted. In his 
bearing and conduct there were amazing indications of sageness. 
In the third year of the Grand Empress's administration of the 
Government, he was raised to the rank of Prince Imperial. 
Before this time, when the Emperor was in the womb, the 
Gods of Heaven and Earth granted to him the three Han.* 
When he was born there was flesh growing on his arm in shape 
like an elbow-pad.' As to this resemblance, the Empress 
judged that it was the elbow-pad worn as a manly accoutre- 
ment. Therefore he was styled by this name, and called the 
Emperor Homuda. 

In the earliest antiquity, the tomo was commonly called 


One account says : — ** In the beginning, when the 

Emperor was made Heir to the Throne, he went to the 

^ Responding to the Gods. 

2 The " Kojiki " calls him Homuda wake. Homuda or Honda is the 
name of a place. 

' 17th of the Cycle. "* Corea. 

* The tomo or leather shield worn on the fore-arm by archers as a pro- 
tection against the recoil of the bow-string. 

OjIN. 25s 

Land of Koshi, and did worship to the Great God of Tsu- 
tsuhi in Tsunoga. At this time the Great God and the 
Heir to the Throne exchanged names. Accordingly the 
Great God was called the God Isasa-wake and the Heir to 
the Throne Homuda wake no Mikoto/ 
In the 69th year of her administration of the Government, 
Summer, the 4th month, the Grand Empress died. ^ 

ist year. Spring, ist month, ist day. The Prince Imperial a.*d. 270 
assumed the Dignity. This year was the year Kanoye Tora 
(27th) of the Cycle. 

2nd year. Spring, 3rd month, 3rd day. Nakatsuhime was a.d. 271. 
appointed Empress. She gave birth to the Imperial Princess 
Arata, to the Emperor Oho-sazaki, and to the Imperial Prince 
Netori. Before this the Emperor had taken to him as concu- 
bine the Empress's younger sister, Takaki Iribime, who bore to 
him the Imperial Prince Nukada no Oho-naka-hiko, the Im- 
perial Prince Oho-yama-mori, the Imperial Prince Iza no 
mawaka, the Imperial Princess Oho-hara, and the Imperial 
Princess Komida. Another concubine, a younger sister of the 
Empress, named Otohime, bore to him the Imperial Princess 
Ahe, the Imperial Princess Ahaji no Mihara, and the Imperial 
Princess Ki no Uno. The next concubine, daughter of Hifure 
no Omi, the ancestor of the Wani no Omi, by name Miya- 
nushi-yaka-hime, bore the Imperial Prince Uji no Waka- 
iratsuko, the Imperial Princess Yata, and the Imperial Princess 
Medori. The next concubine, named Oname-hime, the 
younger sister of Yaka-bime, bore the Imperial Prince Uji no 
waka-iratsu-me. The next concubine, named Oto-hime, 
daughter of Kaha-mata Nakatsu hiko, bore the Imperial 
Prince Wakanoke Futa-mata. The next concubine, named X. 3. 
Mago-hime, younger sister of Osabi, Muraji of the Sakurawi- 
da Be, bore the Imperial Prince Hayabusa wake. The next 
concubine, named Naga-hime, of Idzumi in Hiuga, bore the 
Imperial Princes Oho-haye and Wo-haye. 

In all the sons and daughters of this Emperor were together 
twenty Princes and Princesses.* The Imperial Prince Netori 
was the first ancestor of the Kimi of Ohota. The Imperial Prince 

' There is a Semitic practice of men adopting Gods* names. 

' Cf. Ch. K., p. 243, which makes 26 children, and differs in some details. 

256 NiHONGI. 

Oho-yama-mori was the first ancestor of the two families of the 
Kimi of Hiji-kata and the Kimi of Haibara. The Imperial 
Prince Iza no mawaka was the first ancestor of the Wake of 
A.D. 272. 3rd year, loth month, 3rd day. The Eastern Yemishi all 
attended the Court with tribute. They were employed to 
make the Muma-zaka road. 

nth month. The fishermen of several places clamoured 
noisily, and would not obey the Imperial command. So Oho- 
hama no Sukune, ancestor of the Muraji of Adzumi, was sent 
to subdue this clamour. He was accordingly made controller 
of the fishermen. This was the origin of the proverbial saying 
of the people of that time, viz. Sawa-ama or ** clamorous 

This year King Sinsa of Pekch6 was disrespectful to the 
Celestial Court. Therefore Ki no Tsuno no Sukune, Hata no 
X. 4. Yashiro no Sukune, Ishikaha no Sukune and Tsuku no Sukune 
were sent to call him to an account for his rudeness. Here- 
upon the people of Pikch6 slew Sinsa by way of apology. Ki 
no Tsuno no Sukune and the others accordingly established 
Ahwk as king, and returned (to Japan).* 
A.D. 274. 5th year, Autumn, 8th month, 13th day. The various pro- 
vinces were directed to establish Be of fishermen and Be of 
mountain wardens." 

Winter, loth month. The province of Idzu was charged 
with the duty of constructing a ship 10 rods' in length. As 
soon as it was completed, it was launched on the sea for a 
trial. It floated lightly, and was as swift as a racer. There- 
fore that ship was called Karano, 

[It is a mistake to make the ship called Karano because it was 

* The " Tongkam," under date a.d. 392, has the following : — " loth month. 
The king of Pekch^ went to hunt on Ku-w6n (dog-moor). Ten days elapsed 
without his returning, nth month. King SinsS of P^kch^ died in his 
travelling palace on Dog-moor. Ahwa, son of King Chhim-nyu, came to 
the throne." Note that the Corean and Japanese chronologies differ by 
exactly 120 years, or two cycles. But the two stories are apparently 
irreconcilable. See below, XI. 26. 

* Gamekeepers or huntsmen, whose business it was to supply the 
Imperial table. 

» Of ten feet. 

OjIN. 257 

light and swift. Perhaps this is a corruption by men of later 
times of Karunoy\ 

6th year, Spring, 2nd month. The Emperor made a progress a.d. 275 
to the province of Afiimi. When he arrived near the Moor X. 5. 
of Uji, he made a song, saying : — 

When I look upon the moor of Kadzu 

In Chiba, 

Both the hundred thousand fold abundant 

House-places are visible, 

And the land's acme is visible.* 

7th year, Autumn, 9th month. Men of Koryo, men of a.d. 276. 
Pfekch6, men of Imna, and men of Silla ' all together attended 
the Court. Orders were then given to Takechi no Sukune to 
take these various men of Han and make them dig a pond. 
Therefore the pond was given a name, and was called the pond 
of the men of Han.* 

8th year, Spring, 3rd month. Men of P^kch6 attended a.d. 277. 

The Pekch6 record says : — " King Ahwa came to the 
throne and was disrespectful ' to the honourable country. 
Therefore we were despoiled of Chhim-mi-ta-ryo, Hyon- 
nam, Chi-chhim, Kong-na, and Eastern Han. Herewith 
Prince Chik-chi • was sent to the Celestial Court in order 
to restore the friendship of former kings. 
9th year, Summer, 4th month. Takechi no Sukune was a.d. 278. 
sent to Tsukushi to inspect the people. Now Umashi no 
Sukune, Takechi no Sukune's younger brother, setting aside 
his elder brother, slandered him to the Emperor, (saying that) 
Takechi no Sukune had always designs upon the Empire. ** I 
now hear," said he, ** that while he is in Tsukushi, he is secretly 

• Kara means withered, and no^ moor, or the latter may be put phonetically 
for no the genitive particle. Karu means light. The " Shukai " editor rejects 
this note. 

' From Ch. K., p. 245, q.v. 

' The traditional kana rendering has Koma, Kudara, Mimana and 

* Or " men of Kara." Compare Ch. K., p. 252. 

* See above, p. 256, where it is said that it was King Sins^ who was dis- 

• The " Tongkam " calls him Tyonchi, and places this event in 397. 


258 NiHONGI. 

plotting to that end, saying (to himself) , ' Alone I will cut off 
Tsukushi, and will invite the three Han to come and do 
homage to me, so that finally I may possess the Empire.' " 

Hereupon the Emperor straightway sent messengers to slay 

Takechi no Sukune. Now Takechi no Sukune cried out, 

X. 6. saying : — ** I have not two hearts, but serve my prince with 

loyalty. What a calamity is this that I should die without a 

crime ! " 

Now there was a man named Maneko, ancestor of the Atahe 
of Iki, who in appearance strongly resembled Takechi no 
Sukune. All by himself he grudged that Takechi no Sukune's 
innocent life should be vainly thrown away. So he spoke to 
Takechi no Sukune and said : — " Now the Great Minister ' 
serves his Prince with loyalty, and has not had a black heart. 
All the Empire knows this. I pray thee leave this place 
secretly, and, projceeding to the Court, personally unfold thine 
innocence. After this it will not be too late to die. Moreover 
the people of this time are always saying that thy slave resem- 
bles the Great Minister in appearance. Therefore I will now die 
in the place of the Great Minister, and so make clear the Great 
Minister's redness of heart." ' So he threw himself on his 
sword, and slew himself. Then Takechi no Sukune, alone, 
grieving greatly for him, secretly left Tsukushi, and embarking 
on the sea, went round by way of the Southern Ocean. Anchor- 
ing in the harbour of Ki, he hardly succeeded in making his 
way to the Court, where he explained his innocence. The 
Emperor forthwith questioned Takechi no Sukune along with 
Umashi no Sukune, upon which these two men were each ob- 
stinate, and wrangled with one another, so that it was 
impossible to ascertain the right and the wrong. The Emperor 
then gave orders to ask of the Gods of Heaven and Earth the 
ordeal by boiling water. Hereupon Takechi no Sukune and 
Umashi no Sukune went out together to the bank of the Shiki 
river, and underwent the ordeal of boiling water. Takechi no 
Sukune was victorious. Taking his cross-sword, he threw 
down Umashi no Sukune, and was at length about to slay 
him, when the Emperor ordered him to let him go. So he 
gave him to the ancestor of the Atahe of Kii. 

* i.e. you. ^ Sincerity. 

OjIN. 259 

nth year. Winter, loth month. The Tsurugi, Kakaki, and y"; ***• 
Mumaya-zaka ponds were made. 

This year there was a man who made representation to the 
Emperor, saying : — " There is in the land of Hiuga a maiden 
whose name is Kami-naga-hime.* She is the daughter of Ushi- 
morowi, the Kimi of Muragata. She is distinguished for beauty 
over all the Land.'* The Emperor was pleased, and wished in 
his heart to obtain her. 

13th year, Spring, 3rd month. The Emperor sent a special a.d. 282. 
messenger to summon Kami-naga-hime. 

Autumn, 9th month. Kami-naga-hime arrived from Hiuga, 
and was straightway settled at the village of Kuhadzu. Now 
the Imperial Prince, Oho-sazaki no Mikoto, when he saw Kami- 
naga-hime, was struck with the beauty of her form, and had a 
constant love for her. Hereupon the Emperor became aware 
of Oho-sazaki no Mikoto's passion for Kami-naga-hime, and 
wished to unite her to him. Therewith the Emperor, on the 
day that he gave a banquet in the hinder palace,* sent for 
Kami-naga-hime for the first time, and so gave her the upper 
seat in the banquet ing-room. Then he brought in Oho-sazaki 
no Mikoto, and pointing to Kami-naga-hime, made a song, 

saying : — 

Come ! my son ! 

On the moor, garlic to gather, 

Garlic to gather 

On the way as I went, 

Pleasing of perfume 

Was the orange in flower. 

Its branches beneath 

Men had all plundered, 

Its branches above 

Birds perching had withered. X 8. 

[Of three chestnuts]' 

Midmost, its branches 

Held in their hiding 

A blushing maiden. 

Come ! and for thee, my son, 

Let her burst into blossom. 

Hereupon Oho-sazaki no Mikoto, being favoured with this 

* The long-haired lady. ^ i.e. the women's apartments. 

* This is a mere makura-kotoba of little or no meaning. 

S 2 

260 NiHONGI. 

poetry, forthwith understood that he was receiving Kami-naga- 

hime as a gift ; and, greatly delighted, made a song in reply, 

saying :— 

In the pond of Yosami 

Where the water collects, 

The marsh-rope coils 

Were growing, but I knew not of them : 

In the river- fork stream. 

The water-caltrops shells 

Were pricking me, but I knew not of them. 

Oh, my heart ! 

How very ridiculous thou wert ! * , 

Oho-sazaki no Mikoto, after the consummation of his union 
with Kami-naga-hime, was very attentive to her, and when he 
was alone with her, made a song, saying : — 

The maid of Kohada 

Of the further province ! 

As of a God 

Though I had heard of her. 

We are folded in each other's arms. 

Again he made a song, saying : — 

The maid of Kohada 
Of the further province — 
Oh ! how I love her 
As she lies 
^- '^' Unresisting ! 

One account says : — " Ushi, the Kimi of Mdrogata in 
Hiuga, was in the service of the Court. But having 
become old in years, he was unable to serve, and so, 
having ceased his service, he retired to his own land. 
Thereupon he offered the Emperor his own daughter, 
Kami-naga-hime. When she first arrived at Harima, the 
Emperor had made a progress to the island of Ahaji, and 
was hunting there. Hereupon the Emperor, looking 
towards the west, saw several tens of stags swimming 


* In the " Kojiki " this poem is attributed to the Emperor. See Ch. K., 
p. 249. The marsh-rope is the Brasenia peltata, according to Chamberlain. 
The general meaning of the poem seems to be : " What a fool I was to be 
in such despair as to be unconscious of bodily suffering, while happiness was 
all the while near me ! " ; 

OjIN. 261 


towards him over the sea. Presently they entered the 
harbour of Kako in Harima. The Emperor addressed his 
courtiers, saying : — * What stags are these which come in 
numbers swimming over the great sea ? ' Then the cour- 
tiers all looked at them and wondered. So a messenger 
was sent to make examination. The messenger, when he 
came there, saw that they were all men, only they had for 
clothing deer-skins with the horns attached. He inquired 
of them, saying : — * What men are ye ? ' They replied, 
saying : — ' Ushi, the Kimi of Morogata, being old in years, 
has ceased his service, but he cannot forget the Court. 
Therefore he offers his own daughter, Kami-naga-hime.* 
The Emperor was delighted, and sending for her, made 
her follow the Imperial ship. For this reason, the men of 
that time called the place where they reached the shore 
the harbour of Kako.* It was perhaps at this time that 
the practice began of using the word kako as a general 
name for sailors.** 
14th year. Spring, 2nd month. The King of Pekch^ sent as a.d. 283. 
tribute a seamstress named Maketsu.' She was the first 
ancestress of the present seamstresses of Kume.* This year the 
Lord of Yutsuki * came from Pekch6 and offered his allegiance. X. 10. 
Accordingly he addressed the Emperor, saying : — ** Thy servant 
was coming to offer allegiance with one hundred and twenty 
districts of the people of his own land, when the men of Silla 
prevented them, and they were all forced to remain in the land 
of Kara." Hereupon Katsuraki no Sotsuhiko was sent to bring 
the men of Yutsuki from Kara. Now three years passed, and 
Sotsuhiko did not come. 

15th year. Autumn, 8th month, 6th day. The King of a.d. 284. 
Pekch^ sent A-chik-ki with two quiet horses as tribute. So 
they were fed in stables on the acclivity of Karu. Accordingly 
A-chik-ki was appointed to have charge of their foddering. 

* Kako is written with characters which mean deer-little-one. 

* I have here followed the traditional kana pronunciation. The Corean 
pronunciation of the Chinese characters would be Chin-mo-chin. Another 
reading makes two women. 

'In Yamato. 

* Yutsuki is the traditional rendering of the characters ^ M • This in 
Corean would be Kung-wtil. 

262 NiHONGl. 

Therefore the place where the horses were kept was named 
Mumaya-saka.^ Moreover, A-chik-ki was able to read the 
classics, and so the Heir Apparent, Uji no Waka-iratsuko,' made 
him his teacher. Hereupon the Emperor inquired of A-chik-ki, 
saying : — ** Are there other learned men superior to thee ? " He 
answered and said : — " There is Wang-in,' who is superior." 
Then Areda wake, ancestor of the Kimi of Kodzuke, and 
Kamu nagi wake were sent to Pekch6 to summon Wang-in. 
X. II. This A-chik-ki was the first ancestor of the A-chik-ki (or 
Atogi) no Fumi-bito.* 
A.D. 285. i6th year, Spring, 2nd month. Wang-in * arrived, and 
straightway the Heir Apparent, Uji no Waka-iratsuko, took him 

» Stable-hill. 

'^ But he was not the heir. Oho-sazaki was heir. See Ch. K., pp. 254 
and 257. 

* The traditional reading is Wani, which is also found in the " Kojiki.'* 

* Scribes. 

* There are clear indications that the Chinese language and character 
were not wholly unknown in Japan from a time which may be roughly put 
as coinciding with the Christian epoch. But this knowledge was probably 
confined to a few interpreters. There were no schools, and no official 
records. The arrival of Wangin was therefore a most important event in 
Japanese history. It was the beginning of a training in Chinese ideas 
which has exercised a profound influence on the whole current of Japanese 
thought and civilization up to our own day. 

The date given for it in the " Nihongi," however, cannot be correct. 
As I have endeavoured to show in a paper on " Early Japanese History" 
contributed to the Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, Wangin's 
arrival must be placed 120 years later, i.e. in 405 instead of in 285. Whether 
the whole chronology of this period requires to be altered accordingly, as 
I am disposed to believe, or only the dates of those events which relate to 
Corea, is a question which has not yet received an adequate answer. It 
is curious that the ** Kiujiki " omits all mention of them. 

Corea preceded Japan by only a very short time in the establishment of 
schools of Chinese learning and in the institution of official records. 
Kokuryo established a High School in 372, and Pekchd appointed a Professor 
of Chinese two years later. Before this time, says the " Tongkam," P^kch6 
had no written records. See " Writing, Printing, and Alphabet in Corea,*' 
"J^R.A.S.," 1895. 

A-chik-ki is the Corean pronunciation of the characters Rf Bit ft* The 
traditional rendering in kana is Achiki or Atogi. The " Kojiki " calls him 
Achi-Kishi, where Kishi is written *§ tSf, the name of a Corean rank of 
no great eminence. 

OjIN. 263 

as teacher, and learnt various books from him. There was none 
which he did not thoroughly understand. Therefore the man 
called Wang-in was the first ancestor of the Fumi no Obito.* 

In this year King Ahwa of Pekch6 died. The Emperor then 
sent for Prince Tyon-chi,* and addressed him, saying : — ** Do 
thou return to thy country and succeed to the (royal) Dignity." 
Accordingly he further granted to him the territory of Eastern 
Han, and so dismissed him.' 

Eastern Han comprises Kam-na-syong, Ko-nan-syong, 
and I-rim-syong.* 

8th month. Kidzu no Sukune of Heguri and Tada no 
Sukune of Ikuba were sent to Kara. Choice troops were 
granted them, and the Emperor commanded them, saying : — 
** The long delay in Sotsuhiko's return must be owing to his X. 12. 
being detained by the opposition of the men of Silla. Do you 
go speedily, assail Silla, and open a way for him." Hereupon 

* Fumi no obito, chiefs of writing. 

* Prince Tyon-chi. The " Nihongi" has Ht 3c here and below (25th year), 
which would be in Corean Chik-chi. But ]y[ is a mistake for ^, the former 
character having slipped in from the name of the horse-keeper mentioned 

' The following are the notices in the **Tongkam" relating to Prince 
Tyonchi's being sent to Japan : — 

" Reign of Ahwa, 6th year, Summer, 5th month. P^kch^ made friends a.d. 397 
with Wa. Tyonchi, the Heir Apparent, was sent as a hostage." 

" Reign of Ahwa, 14th year. Autumn, 9th month. King Ahwa of P^kch^ a.d. 405. 
died. The Heir Apparent Tyonchi had not returned from Wa, whither he 
had gone as a hostage. Tyonchi's next younger brother, Hunhd, administered 
the Government in expectation of the Heir Apparent's return. The youngest 
brother, Syol-ly6, slew Hunh^, and set himself up as King. When Tyonchi 
heard of the King's death, he wept bitterly, and asked permission to return. 
The Lord of Wa gave Tyonchi one hundred soldiers as an escort. When 
he arrived at the frontier, a man of Hansyong * named H^-chhung cmme to 
meet him, and said :— * The Great King (Ahwa) having left this world, 
Syol-ly^ slew his elder brother and set up himself as King, I pray that the 
Heir Apparent will promptly take measures for this.' Tyonchi, guarded by 
the Wa soldiers, repaired to an island in the sea, and made provision there 
while the people of the land killed Syol-lye, and going to meet (Tyonchi), 
established him as King." " Tongkam," III. 14. 

* Syong means a walled city. 

»^^»^M — ■■ ■ - - ■ ■ r I - - ■ ■— M ^ _i_ 

' The present capital of Soul. 

264 NiHONGI. 

Kidzu no Sukune and his colleague moved forward their choice 
troops and arrived at the Silla frontier. The King of Silla was 
afraid, and confessed his guilt, so they brought away with them 
the people of Kungwol * and Sotsuhiko. 
A D. 288. igth year, Winter, loth month, ist day. The Emperor 
made a progress to the Palace of Yoshino.^ At this time the 
Kuzu' came to his Court, and presenting to the Emperor 
newly-brewed sake, made a song, saying : — 

At Kashinofu 

A cross-mortar * we made : 

In that cross-mortar 

The great august sake that we have brewed 


Do thou partake of it 

Oh ! our father ! * 

When the song was finished, they drummed on their mouths 
and looked up laughing. At the present time, on the day that 
the Kuzu * present their country's produce to the Emperor, 
when their song is finished they drum on their mouths and look 
up laughing. This custom is probably a rdic of antiquity. 
Now the Kuzu are very plain and honest in character. They 
commonly gather wild berries for food, and they also boil frogs, 
X. 13. which they reckon a great dainty, calling them kebi. Their 
country lies to the south-east of the capital, on the other side of 
a mountain. There they dwell by the River Yoshino (amid) 
steep cliffs and deep ravines. The roads are narrow, with deep 
hollows. Therefore, although the distance from the capital is 
not great, their visits to Court had been rare. However, from 
this time forward they came frequently, bringing the produce 
of their country to present to the Emperor. This produce 
consists of such things as chestnuts, mushrooms, and trout. 
A.D. 289. 20th year. Autumn, 9th month. Achi no Omi, ancestor of 

' Or Yutsuki. - In the south of Yamato. 

' Local chieftains. 

^ It is not clear what a cross-mortar was. Vide Ch. K., p. 251. 

* The word translated father is cki, which is also used more generally as a 
term of respect. Perhaps " Lord " might be better here. 

* Seventeen was their number in later times, according to the Yengi Shiki. 

OjIN. 265 

the Atahe of the Aya* of Yamato, and his son Tsuga no Omi X. 14 
immigrated to Japan, bringing with them a company of their 
people of seventeen districts. 

22nd year, Spring, 3rd month, 5th day. The Emperor made a.d. 291. 
a progress to Naniha, where he dwelt in the Palace of Oho- 

loth day. He ascended a lofty tower and had a distant 
prospect. Now he was attended by his concubine Yehime, 
who, looking towards the west, lamented loudly. Hereupon 
the Emperor inquired of Yehime, saying: — "Why dost thou 
lament so bitterly ? " She answered and said : — ** Of late thy 
handmaiden has been thinking fondly of her father and mother, 
and so, looking towards the west, unawares she made lament. I 
pray thee let me return for a while that I may see my parents." 
Hereupon the Emperor loved Yehime's tender thought for the 
warmth and coolness' of her parents, and addressing her, 
said : — " Many years have passed since thou hast seen thy 
parents. It is clearly right that thou shouldst wish to return 

' Aya is the traditional Japanese rendering of ;g|, i.e. Han, the name of a 
Chinese dynasty. No satisfactory explanation of the reason why this 
character should be read aya has been given. As a mere guess, I would 
suggest that Hada or hata for ^ (Ts*in), Kure for Wu ^ and Aya for Han 
may have been names given from the textile products with which these three 
Chinese dynasties, or the emigrants, may have been associated ; Hada or 
Hata meaning loom or cloth generally, Kure, dyed stuffs (for Kurenawi, pink 
or scarlet), and Aya, figured stuffs. There were numerous weavers among the 
Corean (or Chinese) emigrants to Japan. See below, A.D. 306. For Kure, 
another derivation is that which makes it mean " distant," a sense in which 
it occurs more than once in the " Manyoshiu," and in a poem in the 
" Nihongi," Reign of Saimei, year 4. 

This family was called the Aya of Yamato to distinguish it from another 
family of the same name in Kahachi. These two families were also known 
respectively as the Higashi no Aya, or Eastern Aya, and the Nishi no 
Aya, or Western Aya. 

Motoori (" Kojikiden," XXXIII. 39) shows that, like other events relating 
to Corea in this part of the " Nihongi," this immigration must be dated 120 
years later. 

The Yamato Aya claimed descent from the Emperor Ling-ti of the Later 
Han dynasty, who reigned a.d. 168 to 190. We are told that on the fall of 
that dynasty in 221, Prince Achi fled to Corea, whence he subsequently 
emigrated to Japan ; but how much of this is true it is impossible to say. 
Cf. Ch. K., p. 253. 

- i.e. thoughtfulness for her parents' comfort. 

266 NiHONGI. 

and visit them." So he granted her permission, and summon- 
ing eighty fishermen of Mihara in Ahaji and making sailors of 
them, sent her to Kibi. 

Summer, 4th month. Yehime set sail from Ohotsu* and 
X. 15- The Emperor, standing on the high tower, looked towards 
Yehime's ship and made a song, saying : — 

Thou Island of Ahaji 
With thy double ranges ; - 
Thou Island of Adzuki 
With thy double ranges— 
Ye good islands 

• 3 

Ye have seen face to face 
My spouse of Kibi. 

Autumn, 9th month, 6th day. The Emperor hunted in the 
Island of Ahaji. This island lies beyond the sea to the west of 
Naniha. There is a confusion of peaks and cliffs ; hills and 
valleys succeed to one another. Fragrant herbs grow luxuri- 
antly ; it is washed by the long billows. Moreover, great deer, 
wild ducks, and wild geese are abundant in that island. There- 
fore the Emperor made frequent excursions thither.* Now the 
Emperor, going round by way of Ahaji, made a progress to 
Kibi and went on an excursion to the Island of Adzuki. 

nth day. He again removed his dwelling to the Palace of 
^- '6- Ashimori in Hata. Then Mitomo wake presented himself and 
entertained the Emperor, employing his brother, children and 
grandchildren as stewards. Hereupon the Emperor, observing 
the reverential fear with which Mitomo wake waited on him, 
was pleased, and accordingly, having divided the province of 
Kibi, granted it in fee to his children ; that is to say, dividing 
off the district of Kahashima, he granted it to the eldest son, 
Inehaya wake. He was the first ancestor of the Omi of Shimo- 

' Ohotsu is literally " great port." Perhaps Ohosaka is meant. 
■ Showing a double row of mountain peaks. 
' The sixth line of the original is unintelligible. 

* Riding in his carriage, says the original, a Chinese expression which is 
not meant to be taken literally. 

OjIN. 267 

tsu-michi.* Next he took the district of Kamu-tsu-michi and 
granted it to the middle son, Nakatsuhiko.' He was the first 
ancestor of the Omi of Kamu-tsu-michi and of the Omi of Kaya. 
Next he took the district of Mino and granted it to Otohiko.' 
He was the first ancestor of the Omi of Mino. Afterwards he 
took the district of Hakuke and granted it to Ahiru wake, the 
younger brother of Mitomo wake. He was the first ancestor of 
the Omi of Kasa. Accordingly he took the district of Sono X. 17. 
and granted it to his elder brother, Urakori wake. He was the 
first ancestor of the Atahe of Sono. And taking the district of 
Hatori-be,* he granted it to Yehime. Wherefore his descendants 
dwell to this day in the Land of Kibi. This is the reason of it.' 

25th year. King Tyon-chi of Pekch6 died.* Accordingly a.d. 294. 
his son Ku-ni-sin became King. The King was a child. 
Therefore Mong-man-chi of Yamato ' took the administration 
of the State. He had an intrigue with the King's mother, and 
his conduct was in - many ways improper. The Emperor 
hearing this, sent for him. 

The Pekch6 record says : — ** Mong-man-chi was the 
son of Mong-na Keuncha,* born to him of a Silla woman 

* Shimo-tsu-michi means the lower road, i.e. the part of the i>rovince 
furthest from the capital. Kamu-tsu-michi, on the other hand, is the higher 
road — the part nearest the capital. 

* Middle prince. ' Younger prince. "• Weavers. 

* If we take a broad view of Japanese History we shall recognize in it a j 
constant oscillation between two forms of government. At one time there 
is a strong central authority with local governors removable at pleasure or at 
short intervals. By degrees the latter offices become hereditary and more 
independent of the throne, so that eventually a sort of feudal system is the 
result. Then the pendulum swings back again, and imder a strong ruler 
the old centralized government is restored, while the local nobles, deprived 
of effective authority, retain their titles only. 

Notwithstanding the numerous imperfections of the record, it is clear that 
in Ojin's reign the feudal system prevailed. Towards the end of the seventh 
century, again, we find a much more centralized form of government. The 
Revolution of 1868 is a remarkable example of a rapid change from a feudal 
system to a strong central government. The converse process is always 
far more gradual. 

® The " Tongkam " gives a.d. 420 as the year of Tyon-chi's death. The 
usual difference of 120 years is therefore not exactly realized in this case. 

^ Or Great Wa. :^ g|. 

* See above, p. 249. This does not look like a Japanese name. 

268 NiHONGI. 

when he invaded that country. The great services of his 
father gave him absolute authority in Imna. He came 
into our country and went back and forward to the 
honourable country,* accepting the control of the Celestial 
Court. He seized the administration of our country, and 
his power was supreme in that day. The Emperor, hearing 
of his violence, recalled him." 
A.D. 297. 28th year, 'Autumn, 9th month. The King of Koryo sent an 
envoy to the Court with tribute. He presented an address, in 
which it was said : — " The King of Koryo instructs the Land of 
X. 18 Nippon." Now the Heir Apparent, Uji no Waka-iratsuko, read 
this address and was enraged. He reproached the Koryo envoy 
with the rudeness of the address and tore it up.' 
A.D. 300. 31st year. Autumn, 8th month. The Emperor commanded 
his ministers,' saying : — '* The Government ship named Karano 
was sent as tribute by the Land of Idzu. It is rotten, and 
unfit for use. It has, however, been in Government juse for a 
long time, and its services should not be forgotten. Shall we 
not keep the name of that ship from being lost, and hand it 
down to after ages ? " The ministers, on receiving this com- 
mand, made the functionaries take the timber of that ship and 
use it as firewood for roasting salt. Herewith they got five 
hundred baskets of salt, which were freely given away to the 
various provinces, and the latter were accordingly caused to 
build ships. Upon this, all the provinces at the same time 
sent up ships as tribute, to the number of five hundred, which 
all assembled in the harbour of Muko. At this time the Silla 

* Japan. 

* If this story were true, it would have to be dated 120 years later. But 
even then Koryo was still Kokuryo. The name Koryo did not come into 
official use till a.d. 918, though as a literary designation examples of it may 
be found as early as a.d. 500. Koryo, however, is out of place in an 
ostensible quotation from a formal official document of this period, and 
shows that this story is untrue or much garbled. 

The term Nippon for Japan is also an anachronism. It was not officially 
notified to Corea until a.d. 670, though there are examples of its use earlier 
in the same century. 

Waka-iratsuko did not become Heir Apparent until a.d. 309 (of the **Ni- 
hongi " chronology), and as he is there alluded to as being of tender years, 
he must have been at this time a somewhat precocious prince. 

' See above, p. 257. 

OjIN. 269 

tribute-envoys were stopping along with them at Muko.* 
Hereupon, of a sudden, fire broke out in the Silla lodgings. It 
presently spread to the fleet of ships, so that many of them 
were burnt. In consequence of this, the Silla men were called 
to an account. The King of Silla, when he heard of it, was 
afraid, and, greatly alarmed, sent tribute of skilful workmen. 
They were the first ancestors of the Wina* Be. In the begin- 
ning, when the ship Karano was burnt as firewood for making 
salt, some was left over from the burning. It was thought 
strange that it did not burn, and it was accordingly presented 
to the Emperor. The Emperor wondered at it, and had it 
made into a koto, which had a ringing note, and could be 
heard afar off. Then the Emperor made a song, saying : — 

(The ship) Karano X. 19. 

Was burnt for salt : 

Of the remainder 

A koto was made. 

When it is played on, 

(One hears) the saya-saya ' 

Of the summer trees 

Brushing against, as they stand, 

The rocks of the mid-harbour— 

The harbour of Yura. 

37th year. Spring, 2nd month, ist day. Achi no Omi and a.d. 306. 
Tsuga no Omi * were sent to Wu,* to procure seamstresses. 
Now Achi no Omi and his companions crossed over to the 
Land of Koryo, and endeavoured to reach Wu. But on 
arriving at Koryo they knew not the road at all, and begged 

Hiogo, or some place in the vicinity, is meant. 

' A place in Settsu. 

' Saya-saya is an onomatopoetic word for rustling, equivalent to the 
French frou-frou. 

Yura is in Ahaji. Cf. Ch. K., 285. 

^ They were Coreans. See above, p. 264. 

* Wu ^, called by the Japanese Go or Kure, was a Chinese dynasty, 
the last sovereign of which was deposed a.d. 280, long before the despatch of 
these envoys. We learn, however, from a note to the " Shukai " edition that 
this appellation was applied (perhaps popularly) to all the six dynasties 
established at Nanking or the neighbourhood from Wu to Ch^n inclusive, 
i.e. from A.D. 229 to 589. To this day a draper's shop is called in Japan a 
Go-fuku-ya, or " house for Go-clothing." 

X. 20. 
A.D. 309. 

270 NiHONGI. 

Koryo to give them persons who knew the road. The King 
of Koryo sent with them as guides two men called Kureha and 
Kureshi.* In this way they were enabled to reach Wu. The 
King ' of Wu thereupon gave them four women as workwomen, 
namely Ye-hime, Oto-hime, Kure-hatori and Ana-hatori.' 
A.D. 308. 3gth year, Spring, 2nd month. The King of Pekch^ sent 
his younger sister, the Lady Sin-cha-to,* to wait upon (the 
Emperor as his concubine). Now the Lady Sin-cha-to came 
over, bringing in her train seven women. 

40th year, Spring, ist month, 8th day. The Emperor 
summoned to him Oho-yama-mori no Mikoto * and Oho-sazaki 
no Mikoto, and inquired of them, saying : — " Do ye love your 
children ? " They answered and said : — " We love them ex- 
ceedingly." Again he inquired : — " Which are most dear — 
the elder ones or the younger ? " Oho-yama-mori no Mikoto 
answered and said: — "There is none like the elder." On this 
the Emperor showed displeasure. Then Oho-sazaki no Mikoto, 
who had previously observed the Emperor's expression of face, 
answered and said : — ** The older has experienced many colds 
and heats, and has already become a man, so that there is no 
reason for anxiety about him. But in the case of a young child 
one knows not whether he will reach manhood or not, and for 
that reason he is very pitiable." The Emperor was greatly 
pleased and said: — ** Thy words are truly in accordance with 
my feelings." At this time it was the Emperor's constant 

' The Chinese characters given in the text seem to be only Japanese 
phonetic renderings of the names, and I have therefore not given them their 
Corean sounds, which would be Ku-ny^-pha and Ku-ny^-chi. But they do 
not look like real names. They appear to be made up of Kure, the name of 
the dynasty, or rather of the countr>^ ruled by it, and a termination. 

' Some local authority must be intended. 

' These names mean respectively " elder lady," " younger lady," " Kure 
weaver," and " hole weaver.*' But Ana, hole, is probably a mistake for Aya, the 
Japanese name of the Chinese Han dynasty. Wu (or Kure) and Han (or 
Aya) weavers arc mentioned together below, year 14 of Yuriaku's reign. See 
also above, p. 265. 

* The Japanese traditional reading is Shi-se-tsu. The " Shukai " edition 
rejects the name Chikchi, which in the older editions follows Pekche. It is 
not in the old books, and besides his death has been already recorded 

* He was the son of an inferior consort. 

OjIN. 271 

desire to establish Uji no Waka-iratsuko as Prince Imperial, and 
so he wished to conciliate the minds of the two Imperial 
Princes. Therefore he started this inquiry. On this account 
he was displeased with Oho-yama-mori no Mikoto's answer. 

24th day. Uji no Waka-iratsuko was established as successor 
(to the throne). On the same day Oho-yama-mori no Mikoto ^ 
was appointed to the charge of the mountains, rivers, woods, 
and moors, while Oho-sazaki no Mikoto was made Assistant to 
the Prince Imperial, and caused to administer affairs of State. 

41st year. Spring, 2nd month, 15th day. The Emperor died ad. 31 
in the Palace of Toyo-Akira at the age of iio." 

One account says: — ** He died in the Palace of Oho- 

In this month Achi no Omi and his companions arrived in 
Tsukushi from Wu. Now the Great God of Muna^gata" asked 
for workwomen. Therefore Ane-hime was offered to the Great 
God of Muna-gata. She was the ancestor of the Mitsukahi* no 
Kimi, who now dwell in the Land of Tsukushi. He then took 
with him the three women, and proceeded to the Land of Tsu.* 
But when he reached Muko the Emperor was dead and he was 
too late. Accordingly he offered them to Oho-sazaki no Mikoto. 
The descendants of these women are the present seamstresses 
of Kure and the seamstresses of Kaya.® 

* His name, Great-mountain-warden, already indicates this office. There 
is a distinction between the char^ters for Mikoto applied to the elder and 
younger brothers, the latter having the more honorific character no doubt 
because he afterwards became Emperor. See above, p. 2. 

- The "Kojiki** says 130. He was deified at a later period under the 
name of Yahata or Hachiman as the God of War, and there are many shrines 
in his honour standing at this day. 

'In Chikuzen. 

* Mitsukahi means " august messenger." ' Settsu. 

* Kaya is written with the characters for " Musquito-net." There is a place 
in Bittchiu of this name, but written with different characters. 




The Emperor Oho-sazaki was the fourth child of the Emperor 
Homuda. His mother's name was Nakatsu-hime no Mikoto. 
She was a granddaughter of the Imperial Prince Ihoki-iri-hiko. 
The Emperor from his childhood was intelligent and sagacious, 
and his face was fair to look upon. When he grew to manhood 
he was indulgent and humane. The Emperor Homuda died in 
Spring, the 2nd month of the 41st year of his reign. >Iow the 
Prince Imperial offered to cede the Dignity to Oho-sazaki no 
Mikoto. He would not assume the Imperial Dignity, but 
advised with Oho-sazaki no Mikoto, saying : — " He that shall 
rule over the Empire and govern the myriad subjects, should 
overspread them like Heaven, and comprehend them like Earth. 
If there is above a cheerful heart with which to employ the 
people, the people are happy and the Empire tranquil. But 
here am I, a younger brother, and moreover wanting in talent. 
How shall I presume to succeed to the Dignity and to enter 
upon the Celestial task ? But thou, O great Prince, art dis- 
tinguished in appearance and of a far-reaching benevolence. 
Thou art also of ripe years and art fit to become Lord of the 
Empire. The late Emperor established me as his Heir: But 
was this for my abilities ? No, it was simply because he loved 
me. Moreover, there is the weighty matter of the service of 
the Ancestral shrines and of the Gods of the Earth and of Grain." 
For this thy servant is wanting in ready tact and is unmeet to 

* Great -wren. See below, XI. 7. ^ Benevolence- virtue. 

' These expressions are simply borrowed from Chinese books, and have no 
bearing on Japanese ancient institutions or ideas. 

NiNTOKU. 273 

fill the ofl&ce. Now, there is a general principle admitted by XI. 2. 
both ancient and modern times that the elder brother should 
be above and the younger brother below, that the wise man 
should be Lord and the stupid man a vassal. Let the Prince 
therefore unhesitatingly assume the Imperial Dignity, and I 
will be simply his servant and assistant." Oho-sazaki no 
Mikoto answered and said : — ** It was the intention of the late 
Emperor that the Imperial Dignity should not be vacant for a 
single day. Therefore he made choice beforehand of an 
illustrious virtue and established the Prince as his duplicate. 
The succession he bestowed on thee and the people he granted 
to thee. Let us honour his preference, and publish it through- 
out the land. Wanting in wisdom though I am, shall I dis- 
regard the command of the late Emperor, and without con- 
sideration comply with the request of the Prince, my younger 
brother ? " 

He firmly declined and would not receive it, and each of 
them wished to transfer (the sovereignty) to the other. 

At this time the Imperial Prince Nukada no Oho-naka-tsu- 
hiko, intending to take charge of the ofl&cial rice-lands and 
granary of Yamato, addressed Oii no Sukune, ancestor of the 
Omi of Idzumo, who was the ofl&cer charged with these official 
rice-lands, saying : — ** These official rice-lands were originally XI. 3 
Mountain-warden-land, and therefore I will now take the 
management of them. Thou oughtest not to hold them." 

Now Oil no Sukune reported the matter to the Prince 
Imperial, who spake to him, saying: — ** Do thou represent the 
matter to Oho-sazaki no Mikoto." Hereupon Oii no Sukune 
made representation to Oho-sazaki no Mikoto, saying : — " The 
Imperial Prince Oho-naka-tsu-hiko will not allow thy servant 
to manage the official rice-fields which were placed in his 
charge." Oho-sazaki no Mikoto inquired of Maro, the ancestor 
of the Atahe of Yamato, saying : — ** It is stated that the official 
rice-lands of Yamato were originally Mountain-warden-land. 
How is this ? " He answered and said : — ** Thy servant knows 
not. But thy servant's younger brother, Akoko, knows." It 
happened that at this time Akoko had been sent to the Han ' 
country and had not yet returned. Hereupon Oho-sazaki no 

' Corea. 

274 NiHONGI. 

Mikoto spake to Oii, saying: — " Do thou go thyself to the Han 
country and summon Akoko. Go quickly, travelling day and 
night." So he assigned to him eighty fishermen of Ahaji as 
sailors. Hereupon Oii proceeded to the Han country, and 
straightway came accompanied by Akoko. Accordingly he was 
asked about the Yamato official rice-lands. He replied, saying : 
— " I have heard by tradition that, in the time of the Emperor 
who reigned in the palace of Tamaki at Makimuku,^ the official 
rice-fields of Yamato were settled in the charge of Oho-tarashi- 
hiko no Mikoto, the Prince Imperial. At that time there was 
an Imperial Decree to the effect that the official rice-lands of 
Yamato were always to be the official rice-lands of the reigning 
Sovereign, and could not be held by anyone who was not the 
reigning Sovereign, even an Emperor's child. It is therefore 
wrong to say that this is Mountain-warden-land." 

Then Oho-sazaki no Mikoto sent Akoko to the Imperial 
Prince Nukada no Oho-naka-tsu-hiko, and made him acquaint 
him with these circumstances. The Imperial Prince Oho-naka- 
tsu-hiko knew not at all what to do, and Oho-sazaki no Mikoto, 
recognizing that he was in the wrong, forgave him and did not 
punish him. 
XI. 4. Thereafter Prince Oho-yama-mori " was full of resentment 
that he was passed over by the late Emperor and not established 
as Prince Imperial. In addition he had this cause of hatred. 
So he plotted, saying : — *' I will kill the Prince Imperial and 
will ultimately ascend to the Imperial Dignity." Hereupon 
Oho-sazaki no Mikoto, having heard beforehand of his plot, 
secretly advised the Prince Imperial to prepare soldiers for his 
protection. Then the Prince Imperial got ready troops and 
awaited him. The Imperial Prince Oho-yama-mori, not know- 
ing that soldiers had been prepared, took with him only a few 
hundred fighting men, and starting in the middle of the night, 
proceeded thither. At dawn he arrived at Uji, and was about 
to cross the river when the Prince Imperial, having put on 

* Suinin Tenno. 

2 Clearly Oho-yama-mori is the same person who is spoken of above as 
Nukada no Oho-naka-tsu-hiko. Either Nukada all through the above 
passage is a mistake, or the genealogy (p. 255) which makes two persons of 
them is wrong. I think the latter more likely, Oho-yama-mori being an 
official designation, and Nukada, etc., the name. 

NiNTOKU. 275 

hempen garments, took the helm, and secretly mingled with 
the ferrymen. He then took the Imperial Prince Oho-yama- 
mori on board and ferried him over as far as the middle of the 
river, where he induced the ferrymen to step on the (side of 
the) boat and make it heel over. Hereupon the Imperial 
Prince Oho-yama-mori fell into the river and sank. But he 
rose to the surface again, and while floating down the stream 
made a song, saying, — 

At the ferry of Uji 

« « « 1 

Among the pole-men 
Those who are nimblest 
Will come to me. 

But a large number of ambushed soldiers sprang up, so that 
he was unable to reach the bank, and he finally sank and died. 
Search was caused to be made for his dead body, and it came 
to the surface at the ferry of Kahara. Then the Prince 
Imperial seeing the dead body, made a song, saying, — 

O thou Mayumi tree 

For Adzusa bows 

That growest by the ferry — 

The ferry of Uji I 

« « « 

In my heart I thought 

To cut thee, 

In my heart I thought 

To take thee, 

But at the bottom, XI. 5. 

Of my lord I bethought me, 

But at the top, 

Of thy spouse I bethought me. 

There I thought pitifully, 

Here I thought mournfully — 

Uncut I leave thee, 

O thou Mayumi tree 
For Adzusa bows ! * 

* The asterisks represent an untranslatable pillow-word. See Ch. K, 
p. 255. 

» Mayumi is the Euonymus. Adzusa is the Catalpa, a tree suitable for 
making bows. It has no particular meaning here. There is much difier- 

T 2 

276 NiHONGI. 

So he was buried at Mount Nara. Afterwards the Prince 
Imperial built a palace at Uji, wherein he dwelt. Moreover in 
consequence of his ceding the Dignity to Oho-sazaki no Mikoto, 
he remained for a long time without assuming the Imperial 
rank. Now three years passed during which the Imperial 
rank was vacant. Then there was a fisherman who brought a 
mat-basket of fresh fish, which he offered as a present at the 
Uji Palace. The Prince Imperial commanded the fisherman, 
saying : — ** I am not the Emperor," and sent him away, telling 
him to present it at Naniha. Oho-sazaki no Mikoto also sent 
him away, telling him to present it at Uji. Hereupon the 
fisherman's mat-basket became putrid on his journeys back and 
forward. So he sent it away again and procured other fresh 
fish, which he presented, and which were declined as on the 
previous day. The fresh fish again became putrid. The 
fisherman was grieved at his frequent returning, so he flung 
away the fresh fish and wept. Therefore the proverbial say- 
ing, " There is a fisherman who weeps on account of his own 
things," which had its origin in this. 

The Prince Imperial said : — ** I know that the Prince, my 
elder brother, is not to be moved from his resolution. Why 
then should I prolong my life and give trouble to the Empire ? " 
So he died by his own hand. Then Oho-sazaki no Mikoto, 
hearing of the Prince Imperial's death, was greatly shocked, 
XI. 6. and hastening from Naniha arrived at the Palace of Uji. Now 
three days had passed since the Prince Imperial's death. Oho- 
sazaki no Mikoto beat his breast, wept aloud, and knew not 
what to do. He loosed out his hair, and bestriding the corpse, 
called upon him thrice, saying : — " Oh, my younger brother, 
the Imperial Prince ! " In course of time he came to life, 
raised himself up, and remained in a sitting posture. Here- 
upon Oho-sazaki no Mikoto addressed the Heir Apparent, 
saying: — ** Oh, what grief! Oh, what regret! Why didst 
thou pass away of thine own accord ? If the dead had any 

ence of opinion among native commentators as to the meaning of this poem. 
It would seem as if the Prince, having thrown his brother overboard, could 
hardly claim much credit for clemency. But probably this is a genuine 
ancient poem, which the author has inserted here without much regard to 
fitness. The asterisks represent the untranslatable pillow-word Chihay- 
bito, an epithet of Uji. 

NiNTOKU. 277 

knowledge, what would the late Emperor think of me ? " So 
the Prince Imperial addressed the Prince his elder brother, 
saying : — " It is the command of Heaven. Who may stay it ? 
If I should go to the place where the Emperor is, I will tell 
him of all the Prince, my elder brother's wisdom, and also of 
my abdication. But the sage Prince must surely be fatigued 
after the long and hurried journey which he undertook on 
hearing of my death." So he presented to him the Imperial 
Princess Yata,* his younger sister by the same mother, saying : — 
" Though she is unworthy of thy nuptials, she may in some 
small measure serve to be entered in the number of the side 
Courts." So he lay down again in his cofl&n and died. 

Hereupon Oho-sazaki no Mikoto put on plain unbleached 
garments and began mourning for him, and his lamentation 
was exceedingly pathetic. He was buried on the top of the 
hill of Uji. 

1st year, Spring, ist month, 3rd day. Oho-sazaki no Mikoto a.d. 313. 
assumed the Imperial Dignity. The Empress was honoured 
with the title of Grand Empress. He made his capital at 
ITaniha. |lt was called the Palace of Takatsu. The Palace 
enclosure and buildings were not plastered, the gable rafters xi. 7. 
and ridgepoles, the posts and pillars were devoid of ornament ; 
the covering of thatch was not evenly trimmed.* This was 
that he might not delay the season of agricultural operations 
for the sake of his own personal caprices. 

Before this time, on the day that the Emperor was born, an 
owl entered the parturition house. The next morning the 
Emperor Homuda called to him the Prime Minister Takechi 
no Sukune, and addressed him, saying: — '*What may this 
portend ? " The Prime Minister answered and said : — ** It is 
a lucky omen. Moreover yesterday when thy servant's wife 
was in labour, a wren entered the parturition house. This also 
is strange ! " Hereupon the Emperor said : — " Now our child 
and the Prime Minister's child have been born on the same day. 

* She was also a daughter of the late Emperor. This shows that marriages 
of sisters by the father s side only were allowed. The Prince Imperial was 
able to give his sister by the mother's side in marriage. He would have 
had no control over his sisters by the father's side only. 

- It should be remembered that at this period every Mikado built himself 
a new palace in a new locality. 

278 NiHONGI. 

In the case of both there are omens. This is an indication 
from Heaven. Let us take the names of these birds, and each 
exchanging them, call our children after them as a covenant 
to future generations." So he took the name **wren" (sazaki) 
and called the Prince Imperial by it, saying : — ** The Imperial 
Prince Oho-sazaki.** * And he took the name " owl " (Dzuku) 
and called the Prime Minister's child by it, saying: — " Dzuku 
XL 8. no Sukune." He was the first ancestor of the Omi of Heguri. 
This year was the year Midzunoto Tori (loth) of the Cycle. 

A.D. 314. 2nd year. Spring, 3rd month, 8th day. Iha no hime no Mikoto 
was appointed Empress. She was the mother of the Emperor 
Ohi-ne' Iza-ho-wake, of the Imperial Prince Suminohe no 
Nakatsu, of the Emperor Midzu-ha-wake, and of the Emperor 
Wo-asa-tsu-ma-waku-go no Sukune. Another consort, Kami- 
naga-hime of Hiuga, bore to him the Imperial Prince Oho- 
kusaka and the Imperial Princess Hatahi. 

A.D. 3i6Sr~ 4th year. Spring, 2nd month, 6th day. The Emperor 
addressed his ministers, saying: — *' We ascended a lofty tower 
and looked far and wide, but no smoke arose in the land. 
From this we gather that the people are poor, and that in the 
houses there are none cooking their rice. We have heard that 
in the reigns of the wise sovereigns of antiquity, from every 
one was heard the sound of songs hymning their virtue, in every 
house there was the ditty, * How happy are we.' But now 
when we observe the people, for three years past, no voice of 
XI. 9. eulogy is heard ; the smoke of cooking has become rarer and 
rarer. By this we know that the five grains ^ do not come up, 
and that the people are in extreme want. Even in the Home 
provinces^ there are some who are not supplied ; what must it 
be in the provinces outside of our domain ? " 

3rd month, 2ist day. The following decree w^as issued : — 

^ I have elsewhere suggested that the name of the Emperor Oho-sazaki 
was a posthumous title given him owing to the great size of the mound 
(sasagi) under which he is buried near Sakai. And although there is much 
to be said on the other side, I am not sure that this may not after all be 
correct. The difference in spelling between sasagi and sazaki is immaterial. 

2 Ohi-ne or Oho-ye means great-elder-brother. It is hardly a name. 

* Hemp, millet, rice, wheat and barley, pulse. 

* The territor>' round the capital ruled immediately by the Emperor. 
This is a Chinese phrase, not properly applicable to Japan at this period. 

NlNTOKU. 279 

" From this time forward, for the space of three years, let 
forced labour be entirely abolished, and let the people have rest 
from toil." From this day forth his robes of state and shoes 
did not wear out, and none were made. The warm food and 
hot broths did not become sour or putrid, and were not renewed. 
He disciplined his heart and restrained his impulses so that he 
discharged his functions without effort. 

Therefore the Palace enclosure fell to ruin and was not 
rebuilt ; the thatch decayed, and was not repaired ; the wind 
and rain entered by the chinks and soaked the coverlets ; the 
starlight filtered through the decayed places and exposed the 
bed-mats. After this the wind and rain came in due season,* 
the five grains produced in abundance. For the space of three 
autumns the people had plenty, the praises of his virtue filled 
the land, and the smoke of cooking was also thick. XI. la 

7th year, Summer, 4th month, ist day. The Emperor was a.d. 319. 
on his tower, and looking far apd wide, saw smoke arising 
plentifully. On this day he addressed the Empress, saying : — 
** We are now prosperous. What can there be to grieve for ? " 
The Empress answered and said : — '* What dost thou mean by 
prosperity ? " The Emperor said : — ** It is doubtless when the 
smoke fills the land, and the people freely attain to wealth." 
The Empress went on to say: — *'The Palace enclosure is 
crumbling down, and there are no means of repairing it ; the 
buildings are dilapidated so that the coverlets are exposed. 
Can this be called prosperity ? " The Emperor said : — " When 
Heaven establishes a Prince, it is for the sake of the people.1 
The Prince must therefore make the people the foundation. 
For this reason the wise sovereigns of antiquity, if a single one 
of their subjects was cold and starving, cast the responsibility 
on themselves. Now the people's poverty is no other than 
Our poverty ; the people's prosperity is none other than Our 
prosperity. There is no such thing as the people's being 
prosperous and yet the Prince in poverty." ' 

' The notion that the virtues of the Emperor have a direct influence on 
the weather is, of course, Chinese. 

" This whole episode is the composition of some one well acquainted 
with Chinese literature. The sentiments are throughout characteristically 
Chinese, and in several cases whole sentences are copied verbatim from 
Chinese works. 

28o NiHONGI. 

Autumn, 8th month, gth day. For the Imperial Prince 
Ohine Izaho-wake there was established the Mibu Be,* and 
again for the Empress there was estabUshed the Katsuraki 

gth month. The provinces, without exception, petitioned, 
saying: — "Three years have now elapsed since forced labour 
was altogether remitted. The Palace buildings have therefore 
become decayed, and the Treasury empty. The black-headed 
XI. II. people have now abundance, and remnants are not picked up. 
Therefore in the villages there are no men without wives or 
women without husbands, in the houses there is store of spare 
provisions. If at such a time there was no payment of taxes 
with which to repair the Palace buildings, we fear that we 
should incur guilt in the sight of Heaven." The Emperor, 
however, continued to be patient, and would not grant their 

A.D. 322. loth year. Winter, lOth month. Forced labour for the 
building of a Palace was imposed for the first time. Hereupon 
the people, without superintendence, supporting the aged and 
leading by the hand the young, transported timber, carried 
baskets' on their backs, and worked their hardest without 
distinction of night or day, vying with one another in the con- 
struction. In this manner, ere long the Palace buildings were 
every one completed. Therefore up to the present day he is 
styled the Sage Emperor. 

A.D. 323. nth year, Summer, 4th month, i6th day. The Emperor 
commanded his ministers, saying : — *' Viewing this land, the 
moors and marshes extend far and wide, and the cultivated fields 
are few and rare. Moreover, the river waters spread out to each 
side, so that the lower streams flow sluggishly. Should there 

^ This Be is also called the Nibu Be. There are several places in Japan 
of this name. It was originally the group of peasants whose duty it was to 
provide wet nurses, etc., for infant princes. See Ch. K., p. 268, and Moto- 
wori in " Kojikiden," xxxv. 12. 

- The " Kojiki " says that these two Be were instituted as " mi5dai " of 
the Prince and the Empress, i.e. in order to perpetuate their memory, the 
Be in such cases taking the name of the person or of his or her residence. 
The last explanation might apply to the Empress, but it is not clear how 
the name Mibu could perpetuate the memory of this Prince. 

» Of earth. 

NiNTOKU. 281" 

happen to be continuous rains, the tide from the sea flows up 
against them so that one may ride in boats through the 
villages : and the highways, too, are covered with mud. There- 
fore do ye our ministers examine this together, and having 
ascertained the source of the divergence, make a channel for 
theni to the sea, and, staying the contrary flow (of the tide), 
preserve the fields and houses." 

Winter, loth month. The plain north of the Palace was 
excavated, and the water from the south diverted into the 
Western Sea. Therefore that water was called by the name 
Hori-ye. * 

Moreover, in order to prevent the overflowing of the Northern xi. 12, 
river the Mamuta embankment was constructed. At this time 
there were two parts of the construction which gave way and 
could not be stopped up. Then the Emperor had a dream in 
which he was; admonished by a God, saying : — " There is a man 
of Musashi named Koha-kubi * and a man of Kahachi named 
Koromo no ko,' the Muraji of Mamuta. Let these two men be 
sacrificed to the River-God, and thou wilt surely be enabled to 
close the gaps." So he sought for these two men, and having 
found them, sacrificed them to the River-God. Hereupon 
. Koha-kubi wept and lamented, and plunging into the water, 
^ died. So that embankment was completed. Koromo no ko, 
however, took two whole calabashes, and standing over the 
water which could not be dammed, plunged the two calabashes 
into the mid-stream and prayed, saying : — ** O thou River-God, 
who hast sent the curse (to remove which) I have now come 
hither as a sacrifice. If thou dost persist in thy desire to have 
me, sink these calabashes and let them not rise to the surface. 
Then shall I know that thou art a true God, and will enter the 
^ater of my own accord. But if thou canst not sink the cala- 
bashes, I shall, of course, know that thou art a false God, for 
^hom, why should I spend my life in vain ? " Hereupon a 
'whirlwind arose suddenly which drew with it the calabashes 
and tried to submerge them in the water. But the calabashes, 

* Excavated estuary, or canal. - Strong-neck. 

Garment-child. These are personal names. Such names are in the 
original put after titles, but I have reversed this order, in accordance with 
European practice. 

282 NiHONGl. 

dancing on the waves, would not sink, and floated far away 
over the wide waters. In this way that embankment was 
completed, although Koromo no ko did not die. Accordingly 
XI- 13- Koromo no ko's cleverness saved his life. Therefore the men 
of that time gave a name to these two places, calling them 
** Kohakubi's Gap '' and ** Koromo no ko's Gap.'*/ 
^ This year ^fien ot Sill^came to the Court wifli tribute, and 

were made to labour at this public work. 

A.D. 324. 1 2th year. Autumn, 7th month, 3rd day. The Land of 
Koryo sent tribute of iron shields and iron targets. 

8th month, loth day. The Koryo guests were entertained 
at Court. On this day the ministers and functionaries were 
assembled and made to shoot at the iron shields and targets 
presented by Koryo. Nobody could pierce the targets except 
Tatebito no Sukune, the ancestor of the Omi of Ikuba,* who 
shot at the iron targets and pierced them. Then the guests 
from Koryo, when they saw this, were struck with awe by his 
excellent skill in archery, and, standing up " together, did 
obeisance~fonthe~ Emperor. The next day the Emperor com- 
mended Tatebito no Sukune and gave him a title, calling him 
Ikuba no Toda no Sukune. On the same day a title was 
given to Sukune no Omi, the ancestor of the Miyakko of 
Ohase, and he was called Sakashi-nokori ' no Omi. 

Winter, loth month. The Great Canal was dug in the 
district of Kurikuma in Yamashiro for the irrigation of the rice- 
fields. By this means the peasants of that district had always 
years of abundance. 

A.D. 325. i-^th year, Autumn, 9th month. Now for the first time 
official granaries were established at Mamuta. The Usu-me'* 
Be was accordingly instituted. 

Winter, loth month. The Pond of Wani * was made. In 
XI. 14. the same month the Yokono Embankment was constructed. 

A.D. 326. 14th year. Winter, nth month. A bridge was made at the 
Wikahi ferry. It was this place which was called Wo-bashi.* 
In this year a highway was constructed and laid down within 
the capital from the South Gate extending in a straight line as 

^ Tatebito means shield-man, and Ikuba, target. 

'^ Clever- remainder. ' Millers. ^ In Kahachi. 

* Small-bridge. 

NiNTOKU. 283 

far as the village of Tajihi. Moreover, a great canal was dug 
in Konku * by which the water of the Ishikaha River was 
brought to irrigate the four waste plains of Upper Suzuka and 
Lower Suzuka, Upper Toyora and Lower Toyora. By bringing 
these under cultivation there were gained more than 40,000 
Kiting 'of rice-land. Therefore the peasants of those places 
enjoyed abundance, and there was no longer the plague of bad 

i6th year. Autumn, 7th month, ist day. The Emperor, 
indicating Kuhada no Kugahime, a lady of the Palace, to his 
personal attendants, said : — ** It is our desire to bestow affection 
on this damsel, but, harassed by the Empress's jealousy, we have 
not been able to become united to her. Many years have XL 15. 
passed. Why should she waste her years of bloom ? " So he 
made a song, saying : — 

Who will nourish 

The daughter of the Omi 

That sweeps along the bottom of the water ? ' 

Then Hayamachi, the ancestor of the Miyakko of the 
province of Harima, advanced alone and made a song, 
saying :— 

I, Hayamachi of Harima, 
(Where the dreadful tides are) 
Though full of awe. 
Like rocks tumbling down, 
I will nourish her.* 

That same day Kugahime was given to Hayamachi. On the 
evening of the next day Hayamachi went to Kugahime's house. 
Now Kugahime would not comply with his wishes, but he per- 
sisted in approaching the curtained space. Then Kugahime 

* In Kahachi. 

* A Chinese measure of land equal to 100 mo, or more than fifteen English 
acres. This exact number of K^iiing occurs in a Chinese book of the Han 
period as the extent of land reclaimed by a similar operation. 

' The last line is a makura kotoba not in the least suitable as an epithet 
of Omi, a minister. But Omi is somewhat like ami, a net, for which it is 
satisfactory enough. The text is doubtful. 

* This stanza is in the ordinary 31 -syllable metre, and the previous one in 
the same, minus the first two lines. The second line is a makura kotoba. 

284 NiHONGI. 

said : — " Thy handmaiden will end her years husbandless. 
How can she become my Lord's wife ? " Now the Emperor, 
when he heard this, wished to accomplish Hayamachi's desires, 
so he sent Kugahime along with Hayamachi to Kuhada. But 
Kugahime straightway became ill and died on the journey. 
Therefore there is to this day the tomb of Kugahime. v^ 

A.D. 329. 17th year. Silla did not attend the Court with tribute. 

Autumn, gth month. Toda no Sukune, ancestor of the 
Omi of Ikuba, and Sakashi-nokori no Omi, ancestor of the 
Miyakko of Ohase, were sent to inquir e the reason of the failure 
to send tribute. Hereupon the Silla people were^fraid, and 
XI. 16. presented 1460 pieces oT tribute, fine silks, and miscellaneous 
objects of all kinds — in all eighty ship-loads. 

A.D. 334. 22nd year. Spring, ist month. The Emperor addressed the 
Empress, saying : — " I have taken to me the Imperial Princess 
Yata, and am about to make her my concubine." But the 
Empress would not allow it. Hereupon the Emperor made 
a song, in which he besought the Empress, saying : — 

As a means of raising up 

Dear ones : 

As a spare bowstring 

To supply a vacancy 

I would place (her) along with (thee). 

The Empress made a song in reply, saying : — 

In the case of garments 

To double them is well, 

But my Lord who would set in a row 

The couches of night — 

I wonder if he is wise. 

The Emperor again made a song, saying : — 

Like the shore of Narabi ' 

Of Cape Naniha 

That projects (into the sea) 

It must have been solely to be thy comrade 

That that child came into being. 

* Narabi means to be associated with, to be a companion. 


NiNTOKU. 285 

The Empress made a song in reply, saying : — 

Like the summer insect, 

The insect that seeks the fire 

Wearing double garments,* 

That the palace precinct should be thus, 

Nay! it is not good.' XI. 17 

The Emperor again made a song, saying : — 

Even the traveller, 

Who with unshared tears 

Toils over the little pass of Hika 

In Asatsuma' — 

Well for him had he a £ompanion ! 

The Empress finally refused her consent. Therefore she 
was silent, and answered not again. 

30th year, Autumn, 9th month, nth day. The Empress a.d. 342 
made an excursion to the land of Kii. She went as far as 
Cape * Kumano, and was coming back with leaves of the mit- 
suna,' which she had gathered there. On this day the Emperor, 
espying the Empress's absence, wedded the Imperial Princess 
Yata, and placed her in the Palace. Now the Empress, when 
she arrived at the Naniha ferry, heard that the Emperor had 
become united to the Imperial Princess Yata, and was very 
wroth. She flung into the sea the mitsuna leaves which she 
had gathered, and would not land. Wherefore the men of 
that day called the sea where the leaves were scattered XI. 18. 
Kashiha no Watari, or the Kashiha ferry. Now the Emperor, 
unaware that the Empress was angry and would not land, 
went in person to the Great Harbour,* and while awaiting the 
Empress's ship, made a song, saying : — 

^ Wings ? - The meaning is here somewhat doubtful. 

' Asatsuma is the name of a mountain in Yamato. It means " morning- 

* This is properly not a cape, but only a spur of a hill. 

* In the original mitsuna-kashiha. Kashiha is the Quercus dentata, a 
kind of evergreen oak, the leaves of which were used as drinking-cups. But 
this term was also applied to any leaves used for this purpose. Here the 
leaves of another tree— the mitsuna — seem to be intended. Chamberlain 
makes it the aralia. See Ch. K., pp. 248-273. 

* No doubt Naniha or Osaka. 

286 NiHONGI. 

Ye men of Naniha, 

Haul along the bell-(hung) ship, 

Soaked as to your loins, 

Haul along that ship. 

Haul along the great august ship. 

Now the Empress did not anchor at the Great Harbour, but 
drew onwards again, and, ascending the river, went round by 
way of Yamashiro, in the direction of Yamato.* The next day 
the Emperor sent an attendant named Toriyama to bring the 
Empress back, and made a song, saying : — 

In Yamashiro 

Overtake her, Toriyama. 

Overtake her, overtake her, 

My beloved spouse — 

I wonder wilt thou overtake and join her. 

The Empress would not come back, but continued her 
journey as far as the River of Yamashiro, where she made a 
song, saying : — 

Ascending the river — 
The River of Yamashiro — 
(Peak upon peak' — ) 
As I ascend it, 
By the river bend 
There stands luxuriant 
(Less-than-a-hundred) ' 
An eighty-leaved tree. 
Is it the Great Lord ? 

So she crossed over Mount Nara, and looking on Katsuraki, 
XI. 19. she made a song, saying: — 

Going up to Miya,* 
As I ascend 

1 Ch. K., p. 276. 

' Peak upon peak refers to yama, mountain, the first part of Yamashiro. 
It is a mere ornamental epithet. 

' Less than a hundred is a makura-kotoba of eighty. The luxuriant tree, 
with its plentiful foliage, reminds her of the Emperor. 

* Miya is probably short for Takamiya in the last line of the poem but 

NiNTOKU. 287 

The River of Yamashiro 
( — Peak upon peak — ) 
Nara I pass 
Of fertile soil ; 
Yamato I pass, 
Shielded by its mountains ; 
The land I long to see 
Is Takamiya of Katsuraki, 
For there is mv home.^ 

Returning again to Yamashiro, she built a Palace on the 
south side of the Hill of Tsutsuki, and dwelt there. 

Winter, loth month, ist day. Kuchi no Omi, ancestor of 
the Omi of Ikuba, was sent to fetch the Empress. 

One version says : — ** Kuchi no Omi, ancestor of the 
Omi of Wani." 

Now Kuchi no Omi went to the Palace of Tsutsuki, and 
wished to have audience of the Empress, but she remained 
silent and answered not. Then Kuchi no Omi prostrated him- 
self before the Empress's hall, and remained there day and 
night drenched by the rain and snow, and did not move. 
Hereupon Kuchi no Omi's younger sister, Kuniyori-hime, who 
was in the service of the Empress, and happened just then to 
be in attendance upon her, saw her elder brother wet with the 
rain, and shed tears and made a song, saying : — 

In the Palace of Tsutsuki, 
In Yamashiro, 

When I see my elder brother 
Delivering his message, 
My eyes fill with tears. 

Then the Empress addressed Kuniyori-hime, saying : — 
" Why weepest thou ? '' She answered and said : — ** He that 
lies prostrate in the courtyard and begs an audience is thy 
handmaiden's elder brother. He is wet with the rain, and XI. 20. 
does not flinch, but still lies prostrate in the hope of an audi- 
ence of thee. This is why I weep and am sorrowful.** Then 
the Empress addressed her, saying: — **Tell thy elder brother 
to return with all speed. I will never go back." Kuchi 
accordingly returned, and made his report to the Emperor. 

nth month, 7th day. The Emperor made a progress by 

' Much of this poem is of doubtful interpretation. Compare Ch. K. p. 275. 

288 NiHONGU 

river to Yamashiro. At this time there was a mulberry branch 
floating down the stream. The Emperor looked at the mul- 
berry branch, and made a song, saying : — 

The mulberry tree ^ 
* * • • 

Which Iha* no hime 
Will not listen to even absently 
May not reach (the bank), 
But by the bends of the river 
It seems to go tossing on — 
Oh I that mulberry tree ! 

On the next day the Imperial cortege arrived at the Palace 
of Tsutsuki. The Empress was sent for, but she refused to 
appear before the Emperor. Then the Emperor made a song, 
saying :— 

Like the radishes ' dug up 

With the wooden hoes 

Of the women of Yamashiro 

(Peak upon peak), 

C Purely, purely, 

C Clamorously, clamorously, 

Because thou hast spoken 

I have come hither 

Like the flourishing trees 

Which I look over at. 

* Mulberry is ura-kuha. In modern Japanese kuha alone means mulberry. 
Ura also means heart, and as koha means hard, there seems an allusion 
to the Empress's hard-hearted ness. 

The Emperor compares his condition to that of the mulberry branch 
drifting down the stream, and finding no rest anywhere. The metre is 

^ I ha means rock. It has here a makura-kotoba prefixed to it, viz. 
tsuno-sahafu, creeper-clad, which is inappropriate to Iha, when taken as the 
Empress's name, though suitable to it in its original meaning. 

' Radishes are at this day a staple food of the Japanese. When freshly 
washed they look very white and clean. The first four lines are a mere 
introduction to saha-saha, i.e. purely, and the author immediately goes on 
to exchange this meaning for another meaning of the same word, viz., 
clamorously, by a play of words common in Japanese poetry. The only 
bond of connection between the first and second halves of the poem is this 
double sense of saha-saha. " The flourishing trees '' represent the Em- 
peror's brilliant suite. The interpretation of this poem is more or less 
conjectural. Compare Ch. K., p. 279. 

NiNTOKU. 289 

Again he made a song, saying : — XI. ai. 

Had I not had for my pillow 

Thine arm 

White as the whiteness of the roots 

Of the radishes dug up 

With the wooden hoes 

Of the women of Yamashiro 

(Peak upon peak), 

Then mightest thou say that thou knowest me not. 

Then the Empress sent a message to the Emperor, saying : 
— ** My lord has taken the Imperial Princess Yata and made 
her his concubine. Now I do not wish to be associated with the 
Princess as Consort." So she refused to enter his presence, 
and the Imperial carriage returned to the Palace. The Em- 
peror hereupon resented the Empress's great indignation, but 
yet continued to love her. 

31st year, Spring, ist month, 15th day. Ohine-izaho-wake a.d. 343. 
no Mikoto was appointed Prince Imperial. 

35th year. Summer, 6th month. The Empress Iha no hime a.d. 347. 
no Mikoto died in the Palace of Tsutsuki. 

37th year, Winter, nth month, 12th day. The Empress a.d. 349. 
was buried on Mount Nara. 

38th year, Spring, ist month, 6th day. The Imperial Princess a.d. 35a 
Yata was appointed Empress. 

Autumn, 7th month. The Emperor and Empress dwelt in 
a high tower to escape from the heat. At this time there was 
heard every night from the moor of Toga the cry of deer with 
a musical, yet melancholy sound, so that a feeling of pity arose 
in them both. But when the interlune came, the cry of the deer XL 22. 
was no longer heard. Hereupon the Emperor addressed the 
Empress, saying : — " This evening the deer does not bell. 
Wherefore is this ? " ** The next day, a Saheki Be of the 
district of Wina presented a basket. The Emperor caused a 
steward to make inquiry of him, saying: — ** What is this 
basket?" The answer was, "A buck." He inquired — "A 
deer of what place ? " and was told, ** Of Toga moor." The 
Emperor considered that this basket * must be the deer which 

^ The basket is put for the contents (like the Latin sportula), and the 
word is used even when there may have been no basket at all. 


2^ NiHONGI. 

had belled, and he accordingly addressed the Empress, saying : 
— " We have been soothed in the anxious thoughts which have 
of late possessed us by listening to the belling of a deer. Now 
when the day or night, and the mountain or moor of the 
deer which has been caught are considered, they correspond 
to the deer which belled. It is true that that man was 
not aware of our feelings of affection, and that it was by 
chance that he came to take it. We nevertheless cannot 
resist a feeling of resentment. It is therefore our wish that 
the Saheki Be shall not approach the Imperial Palace." 
So he made the officials remove his residence to Nuta in 
Aki. He was the ancestor of the present Saheki Be of Nuta 
in Aki. 

There is a popular story that a long time ago there was a 
man who went to Toga, and spent the night on the moor. 
Now there were two deer which lay down beside him. When 
it was on the point of cock-crow, the male deer addressed the 
female, saying : — ** This night I had a dream in which I saw 
a white mist come down copiously and cover my body. What 
XI. 23. may this portend ? " The female deer answered and said : — 
" If thou goest out, thou wilt certainly be shot by men and die, 
and so thy body will be smeared with white salt to correspond 
with the whiteness of the mist." Now the man who was 
spending the night there wondered at this in his heart. Before 
it was yet dawn, there came a hunter, who shot the male deer, 
and killed it. Hence the proverbial saying of the men of that 
day — " Even the belling male deer follows the interpretation 
of a dream." 
A.D. 352 40th year, Spring, 3rd month. The Emperor wished to take 
to himself the Imperial Princess Medori * as concubine, and 
made the Imperial Prince Hayabusa wake ' his middle man. 
Now the Imperial Prince Hayabusa secretly wedded her him- 
self, and for a long time made no report of his mission. Here- 
upon the Emperor, not knowing that she had a husband, went 
in person to the Imperial Princess Medori's chamber. At 

^ Princess Medori was half-sister of the Emperor by a different mother, and 
full sister of the Empress. 

■ Hayabusa wake was half-brother to both Princess Medori and the 
Emperor by a different mother. 

NiNTOKU. 291 

this time the Imperial Princess was weaving, and her women 
made a song, saying : — 

The metal loom of Heaven — 
The everlasting — * 
The metal-loom where 
Medori is weaving 
Stuff for an august cloak 
For Hayabusa wake ! 

Upon this the Emperor saw that the Imperial Prince Haya- 
busa wake had secretly wedded her, and was angry. JBut out XI. 24. 
of regard for what the Empress might say, and also from 
respect for the principle which governs the relation of stem 
and branches,* he was patient and did not punish him. Now 
the Imperial Prince Hayabusa wake was lying down for a 
little with his head pillowed on the Imperial Princess's knee. 
Whereupon he addressed her, saying : — *' Which is the swiftest, 
the wren or the falcon?"* She said, "The falcon." Then 
the Imperial Prince said: — "That means that I shall be 
first." The Emperor heard these words, and his wrath was 
aroused again. At this time the Imperial Prince Hayabusa 
wake's attendants made a song, saying : — 

The falcon 

Ascending to Heaven 

With soaring flight — 

Let him seize the wren 

On the top of the Tsuki trees.* 

When the Emperor heard this song, he flew into a great 
rage, and said : — "We were unwilling for a private cause of 
hate to destroy one related to us, and we were patient. Why 
should a private cause of quarrel be converted into a matter 
which affects the State ? " 

So he wished to kill the Imperial Prince Hayabusa wake. 

^ The word translated everlasting is hisakata, lit. long-hard, an epithet 
involving a similar conception of the sky to our word *' firmament." By 
metal is probably meant *' adorned with metal fittings." 

' i.e. the head of the family and the junior members. 

• Hayabusa means ** falcon." 

^ In the original itsuki or idzuki. This the commentators explain as fifty 
<i) tsuki trees. But how would " sacred (idiu) tree " do— in allusion to the 
Emperor's rank ? 

U 2 

292 NiHONGI. 

Now the Imperial Prince fled with the Imperial Princess Medbri, 
intending to place her in the Shrine of Ise. -Hereupon the 
Emperor, hearing that the Imperial Prince Hayabusa wake had 
run away, straightway sent Wofuna of the Honchi Be of Kibi 
XI. 25. and Aganoko, Atahe of Saheki in Harima, saying: — ** Pursue 
them, and when you overtake them, slay them forthwith." Here- 
upon the Empress addressed the Emperor, saying: — "Truly 
the Imperial Princess Medori is liable to severe punishment. 
But when she is killed I hope her body may not be exposed." 
Accordingly he gave orders to Wofuna and his colleague not 
to take the Imperial Princess's leg-jewels or arm-jewels. Wo- 
funa and his colleague pursued them as far as Uda, and closed 
on them at Mount Soni. Here they hid in the herbage, and 
escaping by only a little, fled hastily, and crossed the moun- 
tain. Then the Imperial Prince made a song, saying :— 

Even this mountain, steep 
As a ladder, 
When I cross over it 
With thee, my love, 
Seems a restful couch. 


Hereupon Wofuna and the rest, seeing that they had escaped, 
followed after hastily, and when they came to the moor of 
Komoshiro in Ise, slew them. Then Wofuna and the others 
searched for the Imperial Princess's jewels, and took them 
from within her undergarments. So they buried the bodies of 
the Prince and Princess on the bank of the River Ihoki, and 
then made their report to the Emperor. The Empress caused 
inquiry to be made of Wofuna and the others, saying : — ** Did 
you see the Imperial Princess's jewels ? " They answered and 
said, " We did not see them." 

That year during the month * of the festival of tasting the 
first rice on the day of the banquet, sake was given to the 
princesses and ladies of the inner and outer circle. Thereupon, 
XI. 26. on the hands of two women, viz., the wife of Waka-mori-yama, 
Kimi of the mountains of Afumi, and Ihasakihime, one of the 
Uneme,' there were entwined excellent jewels. The Empress, 

* The nth month. 

'Probably |br yonerme, i.e. rice-woman, women attendants of the 
palace. They were selected for their good looks. 

NiNTOKU. 293 

observing that these jewels resembled those of the Imperial 
Princess Medori, straightway became suspicious, and com» 
manded an official to inquire under what circumstances they 
had come by these jewels. They answered and said : — " They 
are the jewels of the wife of Aganoko, the Atahe of Saheki." 
So Aganoko, being interrogated, answered and said : — " On 
the day that the Imperial Princess was put to death I searched 
her and took them." So they were about to put Aganoko to 
death. But he offered to the Emperor all his private lands, 
and prayed to escape from death. Therefore his land was 
confiscated, and the death penalty remitted. On this account 
that land was called Tama-de.^ ^ 

41st year, Spring, 3rd month. Ki no Tsuno no Sukune was a.d. 353. 
sent to Pekch6. He was the first to distinguish the boundaries 
of provinces and districts, and to commit to writing in detail 
the productions of the soil in each locality. At this time Lord 
Chyu,* the grandson of the King of Pekch6, was disrespectful, 
and accordingly Xi no Tsuno no Sukune remonstrated with XI. 27. 
the King of Pekch6. The King of Pekch6 was afraid, and 
binding Lord Chyu in iron chains, delivered him up in charge 
of Sotsuhiko. Now Lord Chyu, when he came to Japan, 
straightway ran away, and concealed himself in the house of 
Koroshi, Obito of Nishikori in Ishikaha, deceiving him by 
saying : — *' The Empress has pardoned thy servant's offence. 
Therefore have I betaken myself to thee for maintenance." A 
long time after the Emperor ultimately forgave him his 

43rd year, Autumn, 9th month, ist day. Tsuchigura, Ahiko a.d. 355, 

* i.e. the price of jewels. 

' The original has fS, i.e. sake. Chyu is the Corean pronunciation, but 
it is doubtful what his name really was. 

• We are told above, p. 256, a.d. 272 of the " Nihongi" Chronology, that 
King Sins^ of P^kche was disrespectful, and that Ki no Tsuno no Sukune 
and others were sent to call him 10 an account. At p. 257, a.d. 277, we 
hear of King Ahwa being disrespectful, and a P^kchd Prince being sent to 
Japan as a hostage in consequence. Sotsuhiko is a name which has already 
occurred (p. 242, a.d. 205 of the " Nihongi " Chronology) in connection with 
Corean matters. But, as shown above (p. 256), King Sins& really died in 
392, and was succeeded by Ahwa. I strongly suspect that we have in 
the present passage only another version of the same incident, and that 
ail three versions are much antedated. 

294 NiHONGI. 

of Yosami, caught a strange bird and presented it to the 
Emperor, saying : — ** I am constantly spreading nets and 
catching birds in them, but never before have I caught a bird 
of this kind. I therefore thought it curious, and offer it to His 
Majesty." The Emperor sent for Lord Chyu and, pointing to the 
bird, said : — " What bird is this ? " Lord Chyu answered and 
said : — " Birds of this kind are numerous in Pekch6. They can 
be tamed so as to be quite obedient to man. Moreover they are 
swift of flight and prey upon all^ kinds of birds. The common 
people in Pekch6 call them. KucAtV So it was given to Lord 
Chyu to be fed and tamed. In no long time he succeeded in 
taming it. Lord Chyu accordingly fastened to its leg a soft 
leather strap, and attached to its tail a small bell.* Then, 
placing it on his forearm, he presented it to the Emperor. On 
this day he went to the moor of Mozu and hunted. At this 
XL 28. time a large number. of hen pheasants got up, and the falcon' 
was let loose and made to catch them. It speedily caught 
several tens of pheasants. In this month the Be of Taka-ama 
(falcon-sweet) was first established. Therefore the men of that 
time called the place where the falcon was brought up the 
village of Taka-ama. 
A.D. 362. 50th year. Spring, 3rd month, 5th day. A man of Kahachi 
informed the Emperor, saying: — ** Awild goose has laid an egg 
on the Mamuta embankment." That same day a messenger was 
sent to see. He said : — " It is true." The Emperor hereupon 
made a song, in which he inquired of Takechi no Sukune, 
saying : — 

O Aso of Uchi ! 

• • • *a 

Thou, beyond all others/ 
A man distant of age — 

* Fr. grdlot. 

* The taka or goshawk. The hayabusa mentioned above is a smaller 
bird, probably the peregrine falcon. The best hawks for hunting were 
formerly imported to Japan from Corea. 

' An untranslatable makura-kotoba comes in here. 

* Takechi no Sukune's death is not mentioned in the " Nihongi." A later 
authority says that he died in this year, having held office for 240 years, and 
lived 295 (or 299) years. Another authority states that he died in the 55th 
year of Nintoku Tenno, at the age of 28a Still another says that he died in 

NiNTOKU. 295 

Thou, beyond all others, 

A man long in the land — 

Hast thou not heard 

That a wild goose has laid an egg 

In Akitsushima, 

The land of Yamato ? * 

Takechi no Sukune made a song in reply^ saying : — 

Our great Lord 

Who rules tranquilly. 

Right is he, right is he 

To ask me. 

For in Akitsushima, 

In the land of Yamato, 

Never have I heard 

That a wild goose has laid an egg, 

53rd year. Silla_did_not attend the Court with tribute. ^^' ^^ 

5th month. Takahase, ancestor of the Kinii of Kodziike, was 
sent to ask the reason of the failure to seiid-trihutip. On his 
way he took a white deer, and returning with it, presented it to 
the Emperor. He then chose another day and started on his 
journey. Shortly after, the Emperor sent in addition Taka- 
hase's younger brother Tamichi, and commanded him, saying : — 
** If Sil la is recalcitrant, raise an army and invade that land." 
So he gave him chosen troops. Silla raised an army and made 
opposition. Now the Silla men offered battle daily. But 
Tamichi made strong his barriers, and would not go out. Now 
a Silla soldier who had been let out from the canrip was taken 
prisoner. So being questioned as to the condition of affairs, he 
answered, saying: — ** There are mighty men, called the ' Hun- 
dred Thrusters," nimble and valorous, who always form the 
right van of the army. Therefore if you observe this and 
attack the left, it will be routed." Now Silla allowed the left to 

the 78th year of Nintoku Tenno's reign, which, as one account says that he 
was bom in the 9th year of Keiko Tenno, woald make him 312 years of age 
at his death. It has been suggested that there were several persons of this 
name who succeeded each other as hereditary prime ministers. But the 
simpler explanation is that the chronology at this period is wildly inaccurate^ 
as there is plenty of other evidence to show. 

* See Ch. K., p. 283. Wild geese do not nest in Japan. 

* It may be only one man of this name. 

2.96 NiHONGI. 

be vacant, and filled up the numbers of the right. Hereupon 
Tamichi, drawing up his picked cavalry,' attacked their left, 
XI. 30. upon which the Silla troops were de feated. Accordingly letting 
go his men, he bore down on the enemy and slew several hun- 
dreds of them. So he took prisoners the people of four villages, 
A V with whom he returned to Japan.' 

A-D^^Sy. 55th year. The'^Temishi rebelled. Tamichi was sent to 
attack them. He was worsted by the Yemishi, and slain at the 
Harbour of Ishimi.* Now one of his followers obtained 
Tamichi's armlet and gave it to his wife, who embraced the. 
I armlet and strangled herself. When the men of that time 
heard of this they shed tears. After this the Yemishi again 
made an incursion and carried off some of the people. Accord- 
ingly they dug up Tamichi's tomb, upon which a great serpent 
started up with glaring eyes, and came out of the tomb. It bit 
the Yemishi, who were everyone affected by the serpent's poison, 
so that many of them died, and only one or two escaped. 
Therefore the men of that time said : " Although dead, Tamichi 
at last had his revenge. How can it be said that the dead have 
no knowledge ? " 

A.D. 370. 58th year. Summer, 5th month. By the road which passes 
to the south of the grove of firs at Arehaka,* there suddenly 
sprang up two kunugi ' trees, which joined over the road so that 
the ends of their branches met. 

Winter, loth month. The Land of Wu and the Land of 
Koryo together attended the Court with tribute.* 

A.D. 372. 60th year. Winter, loth month. The guardians of the 

* I do not regard this as any proof that the Japanese had cavalry at this 
time. The author is, I think, only using a Chinese phrase which suggested 
itself to his memory. 

* The **Tongkam" mentions descents by Japanese in 440 in which a 
number of Coreans were carried off. 

' In Kadzusa. This is the traditional kana for £^ ^, How the last 
character came to be read Shimi is not clear. 

* Arehaka means ruined tumulus. The well-known temple of Tennoji at 
Osaka now stands here. 

* Quercus serrata, Hepburn. 

* It is not to be supposed that China or even Koryo ever sent " tribute" 
to Japan. Presents were no doubt exchanged, which both sides very likely 
represented to their subjects as " tributd" 


NiNtOKU, 297 

Shiratori misasagi * were told off as labourers on the public 
works. Now the Emperor approached the place of the works. 
Hereupon Meki, one of the guardians of the misasagi, became 
suddenly changed into a white deer, and ran away. Upon this 
the Emperor commanded, saying : — " This misasagi has always XI. 31. 
been empty, and therefore I meant to abolish its guardians and 
for the first time to employ them as labourers. But now that I 
see this portent, I am filled with profound awe. Let not the 
guardians of the misasagi be disturbed." So he gave them to 
the Hashi no Muraji.' 

62nd year. Summer, 5th month. The Governor* of the a.d. 374. 
province of Totomi presented a memorial, saying : — " There is 
a great tree which has floated down the Ohowigaha until it was 
stopped in a bend of the river. It is ten girths * in size. It has 
one stem which divides into two at the extremity." Now 
Akoko, Atahe of Yamato, was sent to make a boat of it. He 
conveyed it by way of the Southern Sea, and brought it to the 
Harbour of Naniha, where it was enrolled among the number 
of the Imperial vessels. 

This year the Imperial Prince Nukada no Ohonakatsu hiko 
hunted in Tsuke. Now the Imperial Prince, looking down over 
the moor from a mountain-top, espied something in shape like 
a hut. So he sent a messenger to look at it. The messenger 
returned and said : — " It is a muro." Accordingly he sent for 
Ohoyama-nushi, the Inaki of Tsuke, and inquired of him, 
saying: — **That thing which is on the moor — ^what kind of 
muro is it ? " He informed him, saying: — ** It is an ice-muro." 
The Imperial Prince said : — " How is the ice stored ? Moreover, 
for what is it used ? " He said : — " The ground is excavated 
to a depth of over ten feet. The top is then covered with a 
roof of thatch. A thick layer of reed grass is then spread, upon XI. 32. 
which the ice is laid. The months of summer have passed and 
yet it has not melted. As to its use — ^when the hot months 

* The tomb, or rather cenotaph, of Yamato dake. 

* Who were charged with matters connected with the misasagi. Se 
above, p. 181. 

' Provincial governors ^ ^ are now mentioned for the first time. 

^ The character rendered *^ girth " is ^, which is a measure of half a 
cubit according to some, of three feet by others. However, a ten-girth tree 
is merely a loose expression for a large tree. 

298 NiHONGI. 

come it is placed • in water or sake and thus used." The 
Imperial Prince straightway brought some of that ice, and 
presented it to the Palace. The Emperor was delighted with 
it, and from that time forward it became the rule always to store 
up ice from the last month of winter until the second month of 
spring when the ice melts. 

A.D. 377. 65th year. In the province of Hida there was a man called 
Sukuna, who was so formed that on one trunk he had two faces. 
The faces were turned away from each other. The crowns 
met, and there was no nape of the neck. Each had hands and 
feet. There were knees, but no popliteal spaces or heels. 
XI. 33. He was strong and nimble. He carried swords on his right 
and on his left side, and used bow and arrow with all four 
hands at once. On this account he was disobedient to the 
Imperial command, and took a pleasure in plundering the 
people. Hereupon the Emperor sent Naniha-neko Take- 
furu-kuma, ancestor of the Omi of Wani, who put him to 

A.D. 379. 67th year. Winter, loth month, 5th day. The Emperor 
made a progress to the plain of Ishitsu in Kahachi, where he 
fixed upon a site for a misasagi. 

1 8th day. The building of the misasagi was commenced. 
On this day there was a deer which suddenly got up in the 
moor and ran in among the labourers, where it lay down and 
died. Now, its sudden death appearing strange, they looked 
to see where it was hurt, upon which a shrike came out 
of its ear and flew away. Accordingly they looked into its 
ear, and found that the skin was all bitten off. So this was 
the reason why they called that place the plain of Mozu no 

This year, at a fork of the River Kahashima, in the central 
division of the Province of Kibi, there was a great water-snake 
which harassed the people. Now when travellers were passing 
that place on their journey, they were surely affected by its 
poison, so that many died. Hereupon Agata-mori,^ the ances- 

^ Shrike-ear. This plain lies inland from Sakai, near Osaka. The 
misasagi is still intact, and is, perhaps, the largest of its kind in Japan. 
Richiu Tenno and Hanzei Tenno are buried one on each side of Nintoku. 

' District-warden. 

NiNTOKU. 299 

tor of the Omi of Kasa, a ms^i of fierce temper and of great 
bodily strength, stood over the pool of the river-fork and flung 
into the water three whole calabashes, saying : — " Thou art XL 34* 
continually belching up poison and therewithal plaguing 
travellers. I will kill thee, thou water-snake. If thou canst 
sink these calabashes, then will I take myself away, but if thou 
canst not sink them, then will I cut up thy body." Now 
the water-snake changed itself into a deer and tried to 
draw down the calabashes, but the calabashes would not. 
sink. So with upraised sword he entered the water and 
slew the water-snake. He further sought out the water- 
snake's fellows. Now the tribe of all the water-snakes 
filled a cave in the bottom of the pool. He slew them 
every one, and the water of the river became changed to 
blood. Therefore that water was called " The pool of Agata- 
mori. * 

At this time pestilential vapours arose more and more, and 
there were one or two cases of rebellion. Hereupon' the 
Emperor, rising early in the morning and going to bed (late) 
at night, lightened the taxes, reduced the imposts, and so was 
generous to the people. He dispensed virtue and practised 
kindness, therewithal encouraging the indigent. He showed 
sympathy for the dead, and inquired after the sick, providing 
for the orphan and the widow. In this way the decrees of his 
Government were diffused into wide operation, and the Empire 
was at peace, so that for over twenty years nothing untoward 

87th year, Spring, ist month, i6th day. The Emperor a.d. 399 

* The traditional kana rendering of the Chinese character translated 
" water-snake" is midzuchi. Midzu is water, and chi a honorific term mean- 
ing " elder." Midzuchi means indifferently water-snake or water-god, the 
two ideas being intimately associated in the Japanese mind. Dennys, in 
his " Folk Lore of China," quotes from the North China HercUd as fol- 
lows : — " The River-God is in every case (where the waters of inundations 
were abated by them) a small water-snake, which popular fancy has con- 
verted into a deity." The poisonous breath of serpents is an article of 
popular faith in many countries. 

• From " Hereupon " down to " operation " is taken almost verbatim from 
a Chinese book. 

300 NiHONGI. 

Winter, loth month, 7th day. He was buried in the misa- 
sagi on Mozu moor.* 

* The Emperor's age is not given here. The " Kojiki " makes him eighty- 
three years of age at his death. Others say 1 10. But if we allow him to 
have been at least sixteen when he fell in love with Kami-naga-hime (see 
above, p. 259) in a.d. 282, he cannot have been less than 132 at the time of 
his death. 




The Emperor Iza-ho-wake was the eldest son of the Emperor 
Ohosazaki. His mother's name was Iha no hime no Mikoto. 
She was the daughter of Katsuraki no Sotsuhiko. He was 
made Prince Imperial in Spring, the ist month of the 31st year 
of the reign of the Emperor Ohosazaki. He was then fifteen 
years of age. The Emperor Ohosazaki died in Spring, the ist 
month of the 87th year of his reign. 

After the period of mourning, and in the interval before he 
assumed the exalted Dignity, he wished to take Kurohime,' 
the daughter of the Hata no Yashiro no Sukune, to him as 
concubine. The wedding presents ' having been already given, 
he sent the Imperial Prince Nakatsu of Suminoye to give 
notice of the lucky day. Now Prince Nakatsu having assumed 
the elder Prince's name, by this means seduced Kurohime. 
On this night the Imperial Prince Nakatsu * came away, having 
forgotten his wrist-bells in Kurohime's house. On the follow- 
ing night, the Heir to the Throne, not knowing that the 
Imperial Prince Nakatsu had himself seduced her, went there. 
He entered the chamber, drew aside the curtain, and sat down 
upon the jewel-couch. Then there was a sound of bells at the 
head of the couch. The Heir wondering at this, inquired of XII. 2. 

* That is, " He who treads in the middle " (the right path). 

* Black lady. ' Probably a trait of Chinese manners. 

* Nakatsu means " of the middle/' tsu in this and similar words being the 
genitive particle. 

302 NiHONGI. 

Kurohime, saying : — " What bells are these ? " She answered 
and said : — " Are they not the bells which thou didst bring last 
night ? Wherefore dost thou ask thy handmaiden any more 
about them ? " The Heir naturally concluded that the Im- 
perial Prince Nakatsu had assumed his name and by thts 
means seduced Kurohime, so he retired in silence. 

Now the Imperial Prince Nakatsu, fearing that trouble would 
come of this, was about to kill the Heir to the Throne, and 
secretly raising a force, surrounded his Palace. Then Heguri 
no Tsuka no Sukune, Mononobe no Ohomahe no Sukune, and 
Achi no Omi, the ancestor of the Aya no Atahe, these three 
men, gave information to the Heir, but he would not believe 

One version says : — " The Heir was drunk and would 

not get up." 
Therefore the three men assisted the Heir, and making him 
mount on horseback, caused him to escape. 

One account says : — ** Ohomahe no Sukune took the 

Heir to the Throne in his arms and mounted him on a 

The Imperial Prince Nakatsu, not knowing that he was absent, 
set fire to his Palace. The fire lasted all night without being 
extinguished. When the Heir arrived at the Hanifu Hill in 
the Province of Kahachi he became sober, and looking back to 
Naniha, he saw the blaze of fire. He was greatly alarmed, and 
fled hastily by way of Ohosaka in the direction of Yamato. 
XII. 3. When he got as far as Mount Asuka, he met a girl at the 
entrance of the mountain, of whom he inquired, saying: — 
** Are there any men on this mountain ? " She answered and 
said : — " This mountain is full of many armed men. Thou 
hadst better go round and cross over by the Tagima road.*' 
Hereupon the Heir thought to himself: — ** By listening to the 
words of this girl I have been enabled to escape calamity." So 
he made a song, saying : — 

At Ohosaka, 
The girl that I met — 
When I asked her the way, 
She said not, ** right on," 
She said, " Tagima way." 

RiCHiu. 303 

So he turned aside again, and having raised the troops of 
that district, made them follow him, and crossed over by way 
of Mount Tatsuta. At this time several tens of armed men 
came in pursuit of him. The Heir, looking at them from a 
distance, said : — '* Who are those men who are coming ? And 
why is their pace so hurried ? Can they be an enemy ? " 
Accordingly they hid themselves on the mountain, and waited. 
When they approached, one man was sent to inquire of them, 
saying : — " What men are ye, and whither go ye ? " They 
answered and said : — *' We are fishermen of Nojima in Ahaji. XII. 4. 
Hamako, the Muraji of Adzumi,* on behalf of the Imperial 
Prince Nakatsu [One .account says Sato-tomo, Muraji of 
Adzumi] , has sent us in pursuit of the Heir to the Throne." 
Hereupon he brought out the troops which were in ambush, 
and surrounding them, captured ' them every one. At this time 
Akoko, the Atahe of Yamato, who from, the first had loved 
Prince 'Nakatsu, and was privy to his conspiracy, secretly 
assembled choice troops to the number of several hundred at 
Kurusu in Kakibami, and on behalf of Prince Nakatsu with- 
stood the Heir. Now the Heir, not knowing that he was 
beset with troops, went out for several ri from the mountain. 
He was stopped by a large force of armed men, and was unable 
to advance. So he sent a messenger and inquired of them, 
saying : — " What men are ye ? " They answered and said : — 
** Akoko, Atahe of Yamato." And in their turn they questioned 
the messenger, saying : — ** Who has sent thee ? " He said :— 
**The Prince Imperial has sent me." Then Akoko, fearing 
lest there might be a numerous army there, said to the mes- 
senger : — " Information has reached me that something unusual 
has happened to the Prince Imperial, and in order to assist 
him I am waiting upon him with this force that I have pre- 
pared." The Heir, however, doubted his intentions, and tried 
to kill him. Whereupon Akoko was afraid, and offering as a 
present his own younger sister Hinohime,* through her begged 
that his capital ofifence might be pardoned. He was pardoned 

^ See above, p. 256, where his ancestor was made prefect of the fisher- 
' As usual, "captured " stands for " slew." 
' The Princess of the Sun. 

304 NiHONGI. 

accordingly. It was prolably at this time that the custom 
began of the Atahe of Yamato sending tribute of ladies of the 

The Heir took up his abode in the shrine of Furu no Iso no 
Kami. Hereupon the Imperial Prince Midzuhawake, discover- 
ing the absence of the Heir, sought him out and followed him. 
The Heir, however, suspected the intentions of the Prince, his 
younger brother, and would not send for him. Then the 
Imperial Prince Midzuha wake sent a message to the Heir, 
saying : — ** Thy servant has not a black heart. Only, distressed 
at the absence of the Heir, he has come hither." Hereupon 
the Heir sent a message to the Prince, his younger brother, 
saying : — " I have escaped hither alone in fear of the rebellion 
XII. 5. of Prince Nakatsu. Why should I not suspect thee ? So long 
as the Imperial Prince Nakatsu lives his sole endeavour will 
still be to do me a mischief, and I wish sooner or later ta 
get rid of him. Therefore, if thou hast really not a black heart, 
return again to Naniha, and kill the Imperial Prince Nakatsu. 
After that I will see thee." The Imperial Prince Midzuha wake 
represented to the Heir, saying : — ** Is not the Great Man's * 
anxiety excessive ? At present the Imperial Prince Nakatsu's 
unprincipled conduct is detested by the officials and the people 
alike. His own household, moreover, are against him, and 
think him a brigand. He stands alone, and there is nobody 
whom he can consult. I knew of his rebellion, but I had not 
received the commands of the Heir, and was therefore merely 
indignant at it. Now that I have received an order, why 
should I make any difficulty about killing the Imperial Prince 
Nakatsu? All that I fear is that when I have killed him thou 
mayest still suspect thy servant.' I pray that a trusty person 
may be selected, and I desire that he should make clear my 
loyalty." Accordingly the Heir joined to him Dzuku no Sukune 
and so despatched him. Hereupon the Imperial Prince 
Midzuha wake made lament, saying : — ** The Heir and the 
Imperial Prince Nakatsu are both my elder brothers : which 
shall I obey ? Which shall I oppose ? If, however, I destroy 
the unprincipled and adhere to the righteous, who can suspect 

' Uneme. * A Chinese honorific for "you." 

> Ch. K., p. 289. 

.RicHiu. 505 

me ? " So he went to Naniha and observed the state of things 
with the Imperial Prince Nakatsu. The Imperial Prince 
Nakatsu, thinking that the Heir had fled away and disap- 
peared, had made no preparation. Now he had a Hayato ' 
named Sashihire. Prince Midzuha wake sent for Sashihire 
secretly and tampered with him, saying : — ** If thou wilt kill 
the Imperial Prince for me, then will I surely reward thee 
liberally." So he took off his coat and trousers of brocade and 
gave them to him. Sashihire, relying on his words of allure- 
ment, all by himself took his spear, and watching the time 
when the Imperial Prince Nakatsu went into the privy, stabbed 
him to death, and entered the service of Prince Midzuha wake. 
Hereupon Dsuku no Tsukune made representation to the Im- 
perial Prince Midzuha wake, saying : — " Sashihire has killed his 
own lord for the sake of another, and although for us he has 
done a great service, yet towards his own lord his conduct has 
been heartless in the extreme. Shall he be allowed to live ? " 
So he killed Sashihire. XII. 6. 

That same day the Prince proceeded towards Yamato, and 
at midnight arrived at Iso no Kami, and made his report. 
Hereupon the Heir summoned to him the Prince his younger 
brother, and was liberal of his favour to him, granting him the 
Mura-ahase official granaries. On this day Hamako, Muraji 
of Adzumi, was arrested. 

1st year, 2nd month, ist day. The Prince Imperial assumed a.d. 40a 
the Dignity in the Palace of Waka-zakura at Ihare. 

Summer, 4th month, 17th day. The Emperor summoned 
before him Hamako, Muraji of Adzumi, and commanded him, 
saying : — " Thou didst plot rebellion with the Imperial Prince 
Nakatsu in order to overturn the State, and thy offence is 
deserving of death. I will, however, exercise great bounty, 
and remitting the penalty of death, sentence thee to be 
branded." * The same day he was branded near the eye. 

' See above, p. 100. In this passage it seems used as a general name 
for retainer. Chamberlain renders it "man-at-arms" in the corresponding 
passage of the " Kojiki." 

* Literally " inked." The branding consisted in tattooing a mark on the 
face or other part of the person. Until quite recently criminals were branded 
on the arm with ink, each prison having its own special mark. Branding 
was originally one of the ** five punishments" of China. 


506 NlHONGI. 

Accordingly the men of that time spoke of the ** Adzumi eye." 
The fishermen of Nojima who had been Hamako's followers 
were also pardoned their offence, and employed as labourers at 
the official granaries of Komoshiro in Yamato. 

Autumn, 7th month, 4th day. Kurohime, daughter of Hata 

fio Sukune, was appointed Imperial concubine. She was the 

mother of the Imperial Prince Oshiha of Ichinobe in Ihazaka, 

XII. 7. of the Imperial Prince Mima, and of the Imperial Princess 


One account says: — " The Imperial Princess Ihi-toyo." 

His next concubine, the Imperial Princess Hatahi, was the 
mother of the Imperial Princess Nakashi. 

This year was the year Kanoye Ne (37th) of the Cycle. 
A.D. 401 2nd year, Spring, ist month, 4th day. The Imperial Prince 
Midzuha wake was appointed Heir * to the Throne. 

Winter, loth month. The capital was established at Ihare. 

At this time Heguri no Dsuku no Sukune, Soga no Manchi 

/ no Sukune, Mononobe no Ikofutsu no Ohomuraji, and 

Tsubura no Oho-omi together administered the affairs of the 


nth month. The Ihare pond was made. 

A.D. 402. 3rd year. Winter, nth month, 6th day. The Emperor 

launched the two-forked boat * on the pond of Ichishi at Ihare, 

and went on board with the Imperial concubine, each 

separately, and feasted.' The Lord Steward * Areshi set sake 

before the Emperor. At this time a cherry flower fell into the 

Emperor's cup. The Emperor wondered at this, and sending 

for Mononobe no Nagamake no Muraji, commanded him, 

saying: — "This flower has come out of season. Whence 

does it come ? Do thou thyself seek." Hereupon Nagamake 

no Muraji went himself and sought for the flowers. He found 

XII. 8. them on Mount Wakikamunomuro and presented them to the 

Emperor. The Emperor was delighted to get such a rare 

thing, and so made them the name of the Palace. Therefore 

' Note that the brother was made heir, though there were children. 

* See above, p. 297. 

* i.e. one in one fork of the boat, the other in the other. 

* Kashihade no Omi. The context shows that this is here an official 
designation, and not a mere title, much less a surname. 

RicHiu, 307 

it was called the Palace of lhare no Wakazakura.* This was 
the origin of the name. 

In this month the original title of " Nagamake no Muraji " 
was altered to " Wakazakura Be no Miyakko," and the Lord 
Steward, Areshi, was styled Wakazakura Be no Omi. 

4th year,' Autumn, 8th month, 8th day. Local Recorders a.d. 403. 
were appointed for the first time in the various provinces, who 
noted down statements, and communicated the writings of the 
four quarters. 

Winter, loth month. The Iso no kami conduit was ex- 

5th year. Spring, 3rd month, ist day. The three Deities* a.d. 404« 
who dwell in Tsukushi appeared within the palace and said : — 
" Why are we robbed of our people ? We will now disgrace 
thee." Hereupon the Emperor prayed, but his prayer was 
not answered. 

Autumn, gth month, i8th day. The Emperor went a- 
hunting to the Island of Ahaji. On this day the Kahachi 
Horse-keepers' Be were in attendance on the Emperor, and held XII. 9. 
the bit. Before this the Horse-keepers' Be had been branded * 
on the face, and none of their wounds had yet healed. Now 
the God Izanagi, who dwells in the island, spoke by the mouth 
of a hafuri, saying : — " I cannot endure the stench of blood." 
Accordingly divination was made, and the answer was, ** The 
God dislikes the smell of the branding of the Horse-keepers' Be." 
Therefore from that time forward the branding of the Horse- 
keepers' Be was utterly discontinued. 

19th day. There was a sound as of a blast of wind which 
cried aloud in the Great Void, saying : — " O thou Prince, 
inheritor of The Sword ! " * Again there was a voice which 

* i.e. young cherry. This cannot be correct. See above, 3rd year of 
Jing5 Kogu, whose capital was also at lhare, and was called Wakazakura. 

* We have not yet got down to times of accurate chronology. Wani's 
arrival was in 405, and it is not likely that recorders were appointed till a 
good many years later. Examples of these " statements " occur frequently 
below. Most of them fall under the description of folk-lore. 

' Probably the three children of the Sun-Goddess mentioned at p, 37. 

* The branding here is not a criminal punishment, but only a distinctive 

* The sword was one of the Regalia. 

X 2 

308 NiHQNGI. 

said : — "Thy younger sister * of bird-frequented Hata has gone 
to be buried at Hasa. [Another version is : — " Sanakita no 
Kbmotsu ' no Mikoto has gone to be buried at Hasa.'T Sud- 
denly a messenger arrived in haste, who said :-^*' The Imperial 
concubine is dead." The Emperor was greatly shocked, and 
. straightway ordering his carriage,* returned. 

22i;id day. The Emperor arrived from Ahaji. 

Winter, loth month, lith day. The Imperial concubine was 
buried. After this the Emperor, vexed with himself that he had 
not appeased the divine curse, and had so caused the death of the 
Imperial concubine, again sought to ascertain where the fault 
lay. Some one said :-:-" The Kimi of the Cart-keepers * went 
to the Land of Tsukushi, where he held a review of all the 
XII. lo. Cart-keepers' Be, and he took along with them the men allotted 
to the service of the Deities. This must surely be the offence." 
The Emf)eror straightway summoned to him the Kimi of the 
Cart-keepers and questioned him. The facts having been 
ascertained, the Emperor enumerated his offences, saying : — 
•* Thou, although only Kimi of the Cart-keepers, hast arbitrarily 
appropriated the subjects of the Son of Heaven.' This is one 
offence. Thou didst wrongfully take them, comprising them 
in the Cart-keepers' Be after they had been allotted to the 
service of the Gods of Heaven and Earth. This is a second 
offence." So he imposed on him the expiation of evil and the 
expiation of good,' and sent him away to Cape Nagasa, there 
to perform the rites of expiation. After he had done so, the 
Emperor commanded him, saying : — " Henceforward thou 
mayest not have charge of the Cart-keepers' Be of Tsukushi." 
So he confiscated them all, and allotted them anew, giving them 
to the three Deities. 
A.D. 405 6th year. Spring, ist month, 6th day. The Imperial 
Princess Hatahi of Kusaka was appointed Empress J 

* Kurohime, the Imperial concubine, is meant. 

* Apparently another name for Princess Hata. 

' The word carriage is not to be taken too literally. The kana interlinear 
gloss has Ohon muma ni tatematsurite, which means " mounted his horse.'* 
^ Kuruma-mochi. * The Emperor. 

* i.e. a fine of the articles required in the ceremony of purgation or 
expiation. See above, p. 48. 

^ She was the Emperor's half-sister. 

RicHiu.l 309 

9th day. A Treasury was instituted and. a Treasury ^ Be 

2nd month, ist day. The Emperor sent for Futohime no 
Iratsum'e and Takatfuru iio ITfafsume, daughters of Prince 
Funashi wake, and having bestowed them in the Empress's 
palace,' made them both his concubines.* Upon this the two xil. 11. 
concubines lamented continually, saying : — " Alas ! Whither 
has the Prince, our elder brother, gone ? " The Emperor heard 
their lamentation, and inquired of them, saying : — " Why do 
ye lament ? " They answered and said :— '* Thy handmaidens' 
elder brother. Prince Washizumi, is strong and nimble. • 
Alone he has taken a running leap over an eight-fathom house, 
and gone away. Many days have passed that we have not 
spoken to him face to face. Therefore do we lament." The 
Emperor was pleased to hear of his great strength, and sent 
for him. But he would not come. Again messenger* after 
messenger was sent to summon him, but still he would not 
come, and continued to reside in the village of Suminoye. 
After this the Emperor ceased to demand his presence. He 
was the first ancestor of the two houses of the Miyakko of 
Sanuki and the Wake of Ashikuhi in Aha. 

3rd month, 15th day. The Emperor's precious body became 
ill at ease, and, the elements of water and earth being inhar- 
monious, he died in the Palace of Waka-zakura, at the age of ^ 

* The Treasury means the office, the Be the staff. The ** Kogo-jui " says : — 
" Until the reign of the latter Ihare no Waka-zakura (i.e. Richiu Tenno) 
the three Han failed not to send tribute for many generations. Beside the 
Sacred Treasury, there was erected an Inner Treasury, where the official 
property was classified and deposited. Achi no Omi and Wang-in (or 
Wani), the learned men of P^kch^, were made to record the ingoings and 
outcomings. A Treasury Be was first established." If we allow for the 
error of two cycles, this year, A.D. 405, is the very year in which Wang-in 
arrived. But the ** Nihongi" chronology cannot yet be depended on. 

The " Shoku-in-rei " says : — " The Interior Treasury Department has one 
Chief, who has control of gold and silver, jewels, precious utensils, brocade 
and satin, sarsnet, rugs and mattresses, and the rare objects sent as tribute 
by the various barbarians." 

* Women's apartments. 

* The character used implies a subordinate rank. 

* Other calculations make him sixty-four, seventy-seven, eighty-five, and 
€ighty-seven. It is obvious that none of them can be relied on. 

310 NiHONGI. 

Winter, loth month, 4th day. The Emperor was buried in 
the misasagi on the Plain of Mozu no Mimi. 





The Emperor Midzuhawake was a younger brother by the 
same mother of the Emperor Izaho-wake. He was appointed 
Prince Imperial in the second year of the Emperor Izaho- 
wake. The Emperor was born in the Palace of Ahaji. At his 
birth his teeth were like one bone,' and his appearance was 
beautiful. Now there was a well called Midzu no wi (the 
beautiful well) from which water was drawn to wash the Heir* 
to the Throne. A tajihi * flower had fallen into this well and 
it was accordingly made the name of the Heir to the 
Throne. The tajihi flower is what is now the itadori flower. 
Therefore he was styled the Emperor Tajihi* no Midzuha- 

The Emperor Izaho-wake died in Spring, the 3rd month of 
the 6th year of his reign. 
A.D 406. 1st year, Spring, ist month, 2nd day. The Heir Apparent 
assumed the Imperial Dignity. 

^ Midzu ha means beautiful teeth. 

* This is explained to mean " the Emperor who turned matters into the 
right path," han meaning turn, and sei or sho " right." 

* In the Bamboo Books (" Legge's Chinese Classics"), p. 143, there is 
mention of an ancient Chinese king whose teeth were one piece of bone. 
The " Kojiki " says (Ch. K., p. 292) : — " The length of his august teeth was 
one inch, and their breadth two lines, and the upper and lower [row] corre- 
sponded exactly, like jewels strung [together]." 

* He was not Heir at this time. 

* The Polygonum Cuspidatum. Hepburn. 

* The ** Seishi roku " states that in consequence of this incident Tajihi Be 
were established in all the provinces to be the villages for the hot baths of 
the Imperial Princes. 

Hanzei. 311 

Autumn, 8th month, 6th day. Tsuno hime, daughter of 
Kogoto, ancestor of the Omi of Ohoyake, was appointed xil. i> 
Imperial concubine.* She was the mother of the Imperial 
Princess Kahihime, and of the Imperial Princess Tsubura. 
Moreover, he took to him the Imperial concubine's younger 
sister Otohime, who bore to him the Imperial Princess Takara 
and the Imperial Prince Takabe. 

Winter, loth month. The capital was established at Tajihi • 
in Kahachi. It was called the Palace of Shibagaki. 

At this time the rain and wind were seasonable, and the five 
kinds of grain reached maturity ; the people enjoyed abundance, 
and the Empire was at peace. 

This year was the year Hinoye Muma (43rd) of the Cycle. 

6th ' year, Spring, ist month, 29th day. The Emperor died * a.d. 410. 
in the chief sleeping-chamber. 

* The word for concubine here is yi A. We have now had three 
ranks of concubines mentioned, showing that Chinese customs were coming 
in. In the older reigns the only distinction made is that of the Empress 
and other consorts. 

* This is hardly consistent with the story of the tajihi flower on the 
previous page. 

' The original reading is 6th. The " Shukai " editor would correct it into 
5th from the " Kiujiki " It signifies extremely little which reading we take^ 
as no reliance can yet be placed on any of the dates given. 

* The age of this Emperor is not stated here. The " Kojiki " says sixty. 




The Emperor Wo-Asa-tsuma wakugo no Sukune was a younger 
brother by the same mother of the Emperor Midzuha wake. 

From infancy to puberty,* the Emperor was kind and unas- 
suming. When h^ attained to manhood, he became very ill 
and lost the free use of his limbs. 

The Emperor Midzuha wake died in Spring, the ist month 
of the 5th year of his reign. Hereupon the Ministers held 
counsel, saying : — " There are at the present time the Imperial 
Princes Wo-Asa-tsuma wakugo no Sukune and Oho-Kusaka, 
children of the Emperor Oho-sazaki. The Imperial Prince 
Wo-Asa-tsuma wakugo no Sukune, however, is the elder, and 
of an affectionate, dutiful disposition." So they chose a lucky 
day, and kneeling down, offered him the Imperial signet. The 
Imperial Prince Wo-Asa-tsuma wakugo no Sukune declined it, 
saying : — " I am an unluclcy man, long afflicted with a grievous 
disease, which I cannot shake off. I am unable to walk. Of 
myself, without informing the Emperor, I have secretly treated 
XIII. 2. my disease by self-mutilation,^ in the hope of getting rid of it, 
but still I am not healed. Therefore the former Emperor chid 
me, saying : — * What greater extreme of unfilialness can there 
be than this conduct of thine, in wantonly mutilating thy body 

* Wo, male ; Asa-tsuma (morning-wife) is the name of a place ; wakugo. 
young child ; Sukune, name of dignity. 

- Ingio is from the **Shooking," the Canon of Yaou, § i, where Legge 
translates ** sincerely courteous." 

■ The words translated infancy and puberty are in the original descriptive 
of the mode of dressing the hair at these periods of life in China. 

* The precise meaning is doubtful. 

iNGtO. 313 

l)ecause thou sufferest from disease ? However long thou 
mayst live, thou must never succeed to the thrdne.' Moreover, 
the two Emperors, my elder brothers, despised me and thought 
me a fool, as is known to all the Ministers. Now the Empire 
is a great organization: the Imperial Dignity is a vast institu- 
tion : and to be the father and mother of the people is the 
office of a sage. How can such a charge be given to a fool ? 
Make another choice of some wise Prince, and let him be esta- 
blished as Emperor. I, the unworthy one, may not presume 
to fill the office." The Ministers bowed down twice, and said : * 
— " The Imperial Dignity should not be long vacant ; the com- 
mand of Heaven should not be modestly refused. We, thy 
servants, fear that if thou, the Great Prince, dost delay the 
time, and in opposition to the general desire dost refiise to 
rectify the name and dignity, the nation's hopes will be disap- 
pointed. We pray therefore that the Great Prince, notwith- 
standing his sufferings, will yet assume the Imperial Dignity." 
The Imperial Prince Wo-Asa-tsuma wakugo no Sukune said : — 
** It is a weighty matter to take charge of the ancestral temples 
and the temples of the earth and of grain.* I, the unworthy 
one, am grievously ill, and am incompetent to fill this office 
worthily." He continued to decline it, and would not give his 
consent. Hereupon all the Ministers persisted in their petition, 
saying: — ** In the humble opinion of thy servants, thou, the xill. 3. 
Great Prince, art eminently worthy to take over charge of the 
Temples of thy Imperial Ancestors. Even the myriad people 
of the Empire all deem thee fit. We pray thee, O Great 
Prince, to give thy consent." 

1st year, Winter, 12th month. The Prince's concubine, a.d. 41?. 
Osaka no Oho-nakatsu hime no Mikoto, was grieved at the 
mutterings of vexation of the Ministers, and taking in her own 
person water for washing the hands, came before the Imperial 
Prince and addressed him, saying : — " Thou, O Great Prince, 
having declined to assume the Dignity, it has remained vacant 
for years and months. The Ministers and functionaries are 
grieved, and know not what to do. I pray thee, O Great 
Prince, comply with the general wish, and, however reluctantly, 
assume the Imperial Dignity." The Imperial Prince, however, 

» i.e. " the state." 

314 NiHONGI. 

was loath to consent, and turning his back upon her, sat 
without saying a word. Hereupon Oho-nakatsu hime no 
Mikoto was afraid, and not knowing how to retire, remained 
in attendance on the Prince for four or five half-hours. It was 
then the 12th month, and the wind was blowing fierce and 
phill. The water in the basin which Oho-nakatsu hime had 
brought overflowed and became firozen on her arm. Unable to 
endure the cold, she was almost dying. The Imperial Prince 
looked round, and was shocked. He helped her to her feet, 
and said to her : — "The succession to the Dignity is so weighty 
a matter that I could not abruptly assume it. Therefore I have 
not complied up to the present. Now, however, the request of 
the Ministers is manifestly just. Why should I persist in my 
refusal ? " Hereupon Oho-nakatsu hime looked up delighted, 
and told all the Ministers, saying : — " The Imperial Prince is 
about to give ear to the request of the Ministers. Now is the 
time to offer him the Imperial signet." Thereupon the 

XIII. 4. Ministers were much rejoiced, and on that same day delivered 
up to him the Imperial signet with repeated obeisances. The 
Imperial Prince said : — " Ye Ministers have, on behalf of the 
Empire, made a joint request of unworthy me. How can I 
presume to persist in refusing it ? " So he assumed the 
Imperial Dignity. 
This year was the year Midzunoye Ne (49th) of the Cycle. 

A.D. 413. 2nd year. Spring, 2nd month, 14th day. Osaka no Oho- 
nakatsu hime was appointed Empress. On this day there was 
established on behalf of the Empress the Osaka Be.' 

The Empress was the mother of the Imperial Prince Kinashi 
Karu, of the Imperial Princess Nagata no Oho-iratsume, of the 
Imperial Prince Sakahi no Kuro-hiko, of the Emperor Anaho, 
of the Imperial Princess Karu no Oho-iratsume, of the Imperial 

* The ** Kojiki " says that the Osaka Be was established as the Empress's 
na-shirOf which Chamberlain renders by ** proxy." I would prefer to call it 
" name-sake." The object was to perpetuate the name of the Empress — at 
least, if this account is correct. But there was an Osaka Be already in 
existence. It is mentioned in the 39th year of Suinin's reign. Besides, the 
Osaka Be were the executioners, a circumstance with which it is difficult to 
reconcile the statement in the text. It is true, however, that the Empress's 
full name was Osaka no Oho-nakatsu hime, Osaka being the name of her 

Ingio. 315 

Prince Yatsuri no Shiro-hiko, of the Emperor Oho-hatsuse 
Waka-take, of the Imperial Princess Tajima no Tachibana no 
Oho-iratsume, and of the Imperial Princess Sakami. 

At an eariier period, when the Empress was at home with 
her mother, she was walking alone in the garden, when the 
Miyakko of the Land of Tsuke passed along the road which 
was beside the garden. He was on horseback, and looking 
over the hedge, he addressed the Empress, and said mockingly : 
— "What an excellent gardener thou art." He also said: — 
"Pray, madam, let me have one of those orchids." The 
Empress accordingly plucked an orchid root, and gave it to the xiii. 5. 
man on horseback, asking him for what purpose he wanted the 
orchid. The man on horseback answered and said : — " I am 
going to the mountain, and it is to brush away the midges." 
Then the Empress reflected on this within her mind, and 
recognized the want of respect in the words of the man on 
horseback. So she addressed him, saying : — ** Sir,* I shall not 
forget this." 

Afterwards, in the year in which the Empress attained the 
felicitous rank, she sought out the man on horsieback who had 
asked her for an orchid, and having stated his former offence, 
wished to have him put to death. Hereupon the man who had 
asked for the orchid knocked his forehead on the ground, and 
making a deep obeisance,' said : — " Truly thy servant's guilt is 
deserving of ten thousand deaths. At that time, however, I 
did not know that thou wert of high rank." Hereupon the 
Empress remitted the penalty of death, but deprived him of his 
title and called him Inaki.* 

3rd year, Spring, ist month, ist day. An envoy was sent to a d. 414. 
Silla to procure a good physician. 

Autumn, 8th month. The physician arrived from Silla, and 
was forthwith made to treat the Emperor's disease. No long 
time after, he was healed of his disease. The Emperor was 

* The Chinese character translated " sir " means literally head or chief. 
The Japanese word intended is probably Obito or Obuto, which, I take it, is 
an abbreviation of Oho-bito, great man. In Chinese 1 ajen (in Corcan Tain), 
i.e. great man, is used as a personal pronoun in addressing men of rank. 
Our own word " master " (niagister, magnus) has a somewhat similar history. 

* Kowtow in Chinese. 

* Inaki was a lower title than Mivakko. 

XIII. 6. 

A.D. 415* 

316 NiHONGI. 

rejoiced, and having rewarded the physician liberally, sent Him 
back to his own country. 

4th year, Autumn, gth month, gth day. The Emperor made 
a decree, saying : — '* In the most ancient times, good govern- 
ment consisted in the subjects having each one his proper 
place, and in names * being correct. It is now four years since 
We entered on the auspicious office. Superiors and inferiors 
dispute with one another : the hundred surnames ' are not at 
peace. Some by mischance lose their proper surnames ; others 
purposely lay claim to high family. This is perhaps the reason 
why good government is not attained to. Deficient in wisdom 
although We are, how can We omit to rectify these irregularities ? 
Let the Ministers take counsel, and inform me of their deter- 
mination." All the Ministers said : — " If Your Majesty, restor- 
ing that which is lost and correcting that which is perverted, 
will thus determine Houses and surnames, your servants will 
stake their lives in recommending the adoption of such a 

28th day. The Emperor made a decree, saying : — *• The 
ministers, functionaries, and the Miyakko of the various pro- 
vinces each and all describe themselves, some as descendants of 
Emperors, others attributing to their race a miraculous origin, 
and saying that their ancestors came down from Heaven.' 
However, since the three Powers of Nature * assumed distinct 
forms,* many tens of thousands of years have elapsed, so 
that single Houses* have multiplied and have formed anew 
ten thousand surnames of doubtful authenticity. Therefore let 
the people of the various Houses and surnames wash themselves 
and practise abstinence, and let them, each one calling the 
XIII. 7. Gods to witness, plunge their hands in boiling water." The 
caldrons of the ordeal by boiling water were therefore placed on 
the " Evil Door of Words " spur of the Amagashi Hill. Every- 

* Literally surnames and personal names. What is really meant is titles. 
There were no proper surnames at this time. See above, p. 27. 

' The word for " hundred surnames " is ^ ^, which is also used for 
the nation generally, and in later times in Japan for the peasantry. Here 
its original meaning must be kept in view. 

' The " Sei-shi-roku " contains numerous instances of this. 

^ Heaven, Earth, and Man. Vide Mayers, p. 302. 

^ Since the creation, as we would say. ® Uji. 

Ingio. 317 

body was told to go thither, saying : — " He who tells the truth 
will be uninjured ; he who is false will assuredly suffer harm." 
This is called Kuka-tachi. Sometimes mud was put 
into a caldron and made to boil up. Then the arms were 
bared, and the boiling mud stirred with them. Sometimes 
an axe was heated red-hot and placed on the palm of the 
Hereupon every one put on straps of tree-fibre, and coming 
to the caldrons, plunged their hands in the boiling water, when 
those who were true remained naturally uninjured, and all those 
who were false were harmed. Therefore those who had falsi- 
fied (their titles) were afraid, and slipping away beforehand, 
did not come forward. From this time forward the Houses 
and surnames were spontaneously ordered, and there was no 
longer any one who falsified them.* 

5th year, 7th month, 14'th day. There was an earthquake. a.d. 416. 
Before this timeTamada noSukune, grandson' of Katsuraki no 
Sotsuhiko, had been commanded to superintend the temporary 
burial of the Emperor Midzu-ha-wake. On the evening after 
the earthquake, Aso, Ohari no Muraji, was sent to examine the 
condition of the shrine of temporary burial. Now all the men 
assembled, and none were absent except Tamada no Sukune, XIII. 8. 
who was not present. Aso reported to the Emperor, saying : — 
'* Tamada no Sukune, the High Officer of the Shrine of 
temporary interment, was not to be seen at the temporary 
place of interment." Accordingly, Aso was sent again to 
Katsuraki to see Tamada no Sukune. On this day it so 
happened that Tarnada no Sukune had gathered together men 
and women and was holding revel. Aso made a statement of 
all the circumstances to Tamada no Sukune. Tamada no 
Sukune was afraid that trouble might ensue, and gave Aso a 
horse as a present. However, he secretly waylaid Aso and 
killed him on the road. Therefore he ran away and concealed 
himself within the precinct of the tomb of Takechi no Sukune. 
When the Emperor heard this, he sent for Tamada no Sukune. 

* This measure can only have been applicable to a dominant caste. The 
nation cannot have all been subjected to the ordeal at Amagashi. Doubtless, 
then as now, the bulk of the people cared little for genealogies, and indeed 
had none but personal names. 

' Below, XIV. 20, he is the son of Sotsuhiko. 

3l8 NiHONGI. 

Tamada no Sukune was suspicious, and put on armour under 
his clothing and so presented himself; The border of the 
armour projected from within his garment. The Emperor, in 
order to ascertain clearly how this was, made an Uneme, named 
Woharida, present sake to Tamada no Sukune. Now the 
Uneme observing distinctly that there was armour underneath 
his clothing, reported this particularly to the Emperor; The 
Emperor got ready soldiers and was about to kill Tamada no 
Sukune, when he secretly ran away and hid in his house. The 
Emperor again despatched soldiers, who surrounded Tamada's 
house, took him, and put him to death. 

Winter, nth month, nth day. The Emperor Midzu-ha- 
wake was buried in the Mimihara Misasagi. 
^XIh'q. 7^^ y^^r. Winter, 12th month, ist day. There was a banquet 
in the new Palace.* The Emperor in person played on the 
lute,' and the Empress stood up and danced. When the 
dance was ended, she did not repeat the compliment. At 
that time it was the custom at a banquet for the dancer, when 
the dance was ended, to turn to the person who occupied the 
highest place, and say, " I offer thee a woman." Now the 
Emperor said to the Empress : — " Why hast thou failed to say 
the usual compliment ? " The Empress was afraid. She stood 
up again and danced, and when the dance was over, she 
said : — " I offer thee a woman." The Emperor forthwith 
inquired of the Empress, saying : — ** Who is the woman whom 
thou offerest me ? I wish to know her name." The Empress 
could not help herself, and addressed the Emperor, saying : — 
** It is thy handmaiden's younger sister, whose name is Oto- 
hime." ' Otohime's countenance was of surpassing and peerless 
beauty. Her brilliant colour shone out through her raiment, 
so that the men of that time gave her the designation of 
Sotohori Iratsume.'* The Emperor's wishes had dwelt upon 

* The interlinear kana has miya, palace, for ^, oftener rendered muro. 
But nihi-muro, new muro, is probably the word really meant. 

' Koto. 

* Otohime means simply " the > ounger lady.'' 

^ Clothing -pass -maiden. The " Kojiki " makes her the Emperor's 
daughter. Cf. Shelley's — 

** Child of Light ! thy limbs are burning, 
Thiough the vest which seems to hide them." 


I NGIO. 3 ' 9 

Sotohori Iratsume, and therefore it was that he insisted on the 
Empress's offering her to him, while the Empress, knowing 
this, was reluctant to make the compliment. Now the Emperor 
was delighted, and the very next day he despatched s, messenger 
to summon Otohime. At this time Otohime dwelt with her 
mother at Sakata in the land of Afumi. But she feared the 
feelings of the Empress and therefore refused to come. Again 
seven times she was sent for, and yet she obstinately refused 
and did not come. Upon this the Emperor was displeased, 
and again gave command to one of the Toneri, a Nakatomi 
named Ikatsu * no Omi, saying : — " The damsel Otohime, who 
was given to me by the Empress, has not come although sent 
for. Do thou go thyself and bring Otohime here with thee, and 
I will surely reward thee liberally." Hereupon Ikatsu no Omi, 
having received the Imperial command, withdrew, and having 
concealed a stock of provisions in his clothing, went to Sakata, 
where he prostrated himself in Otohime's courtyard, and 
said : — •" By command of the Emperor, I summon thee." 
Otohime answered and said : — " Far be it from me not to 
fear the Emperor's command. But I am unwilling to hurt the 
Empress's feelings. Thy handmaiden will not come, though XIII. lo. 
it should cost her her life to refuse." Then Ikatsu no Omi 
answered and said : — " As thy servant has received the 
Emperor's commands, I must bring thee back with me. If I 
bring thee not back, I shall surely incur punishment. There- 
fore it is better to die lying prostrate in this courtyard than to 
return and undergo the extreme penalty." So for seven days 
he lay prostrate in the courtyard, and although food and drink 
were offered to him, he refused to taste them, but secretly ate ' 

the provisions in his bosom. Hereupon Otohime said : — ** By 
reason of the Empress's jealousy, thy handmaiden has already 
disobeyed the Emperor's commands. To be the ruin of my 
Lord, who art his faithful servant, would be another crime on 
my part." Accordingly she came along with Ikatsu no Omi. 
When they reached Kasuga in Yamato they had food by the 
well of Ichihi. Otohime herself gave sake to the Omi, and 
soothed his spirit. The Omi that same day arrived at the 

' As he was Toneri, the Ikatsu no Omi is clearly a mere title, like the no 
Kami's of recent times. 

3^0 NlHONGI. 

capital, and having }odged Otohime at the house of Akoko» 
the Atahe of Yamato, made his report to the Emperor. The 
Emperor was greatly rejoiced. He commended Ikatsu no 
Omi, and showed him liberal favour. The Empress, however^ 
showed her vexation, and Otohime could therefore not approach 
the interior of the Palace. Accordingly, a separate building 
was erected for her at Fujihara, and she dwelt there.^ On the 
night that the Empress gave birth to the Emperor Oho- 
hatsuse, the Emperor for the first time went to the Fujihara 
Palace. The Empress hearing this, was angry, and said:— r- 
" Many years have passed since I first bound up my hair and 
became thy companion in the hinder palace. It is too cruel 
of thee, O Emperor. Wherefore, just on this night when I 
am in childbirth and hanging between life and death, must 
thou go to Fujihara?" So she went out, set fire to the 
parturition house, and was about to kill herself. The 
Emperor, hearing this, was greatly shocked, and said : — " We 
are wrong." So with explanations he soothed the mind of the 

A.D. 419. 8th year. Spring, 2nd month. The Emperor went to Fuji- 
hara and secretly observed how matters were with Sotohori 

XIII. II. Iratsume. That night Sotohori Iratsume was sitting alone, 
thinking fondly of the Emperor. Unaware of his approach,, 
she made a song, saying : — 

This is the night 
My husband will come. 
The little crab— 
The spider's action 
To-night is manifest.' 

The Emperor, when he heard this song, was touched by it,, 
and made a song, saying : — 

* Hence perhaps the name Soto-wori-hinre, or the Lady who lives without, 
as opposed to Oho-nakatsu hime, the dame of the Great Interior. 

2 It was considered that when a spider clung to one's garments, it was a 
sign that an intimate friend would arrive. Little crab is another name for 
spider. Sotohori hime was in after times looked on as the " Muse of 
poetry." This poem is a regular Tanka, as are the others in this passage. 

Ingio. -^2 1 


Loosening and removing 
The brocade sash 
Of small pattern, 
Not often have I slept — 
But one night only. 

The next morning, the Emperor looked at the cherry flowers 
beside the well, and made a song, saying : — 

As one loves the cherry 

Sweet of blossom. 

Did I love another, 

Then her I should not love — 

The girl whom I love. 

This came to the Empress's ear, and she was very wroth. 
Hereupon Sotohori Iratsume addressed the Emperor, saying : — 
** Thy handmaiden desires to be always near the Royal Palace, 
and night and day without ceasing to view the glory of Your 
Majesty. But the Empress, being thy handmaiden's elder 
sister, is, on her account, continually resentful towards Your 
Majesty, and is also vexed because of thy handmaiden. I pray 
therefore that I may be removed far from the Royal dwelling, 
and I wish to live at a distance. This might perhaps cause 
the Empress's jealousy somewhat to abate." The Emperor xiil 12. 
forthwith built anew a palace in Chinu in Kahachi, and made 
Sotohori Iratsume to dwell there. And for this reason he 
frequently went a-hunting to the moor of Hine. 

gth year, Spring, 2nd month. The Emperor made a progress a.d. 420. 
to the Palace of Chinu. 

Autumn, 8th month. The Emperor made a progress to 

Winter, loth month. The Emperor made a progress to 

loth year. Spring, ist month. The Emperor made a progress a.d. 421. 
to Chinu. Hereupon the Empress addressed him, saying: — 
**Thy handmaiden is not a whit jealous of her younger sister. 
Only she fears that the people may be distressed by Your 
Majesty's frequent progresses to Chinu. I humbly pray thee 
to diminish the number of thv visits." Thereafter his excursions 
thither were infrequent. 


322 NiHONGI. 

A.D. 422. nth year, Spring, 3rd month, 4th day. The Emperor made 
a progress to the Palace of Chinu. Sotohori Iratsume made a 
song, saying : — 

For ever and ever, 
Oh I that I might meet my Lord I 
As often as drift bcachward 
The weeds of the shore of ocean 
(Where whales are caught). 


Then the Emperor spake to Sotohori Iratsume, saying : — 
" No other person must hear this song. For if the Empress 
heard it, she would surely be greatly wroth." Therefore the 
men of that time gave a name to the shore-weed and called it 

XIII. 13. Before this time, when Sotohori Iratsume dwelt in the Palace 
of Fujihara, the Emperor commanded Ohotomo Muruya no 
Muraji, saying : — ** Of late we have gotten a beautiful woman, 
the younger sister of the Empress by the same mother.' In 
Our heart we dearly love her, and it is Our desire that her 
name should be handed down to after ages. How can this be 
done ? *' In accordance with the Imperial command, Muruya 
no Muraji proposed a plan for the Emperor's approval. Conse- 
quently the Miyakko of the various provinces were charged to 
establish Fujihara Be on behalf of Sotohori hime. 

A.r. 425. 14th year, Autumn, 9th month, 12th day. The Emperor 
hunted in the island of Ahaji. Now the deer, monkeys, and 
wild boar, like dust-clouds, confusedly, filled the mountains and 
valleys. They sprang up like flames of fire, they were dispersed 
like flies. And yet all day long not a single beast was caught. 
Herewith the hunt was suspended, and divination was made 
anew. Then the God of the Island ^ gave an oracular utterance. 

* Na-nori-ahi means " mutually to tell one's name," and mo is the general 
word for seaweed. There is a seaweed so called, but what this circumstance 
has to do with the story is not clear. 

* The traditional kana has haha-hara-kara. As hara-kara by its deriva- 
tion means "of the same womb,'' it is needless to prefix haha, mother. But 
this shows that when these kana glosses were written, hara-kara had come 
to mean simply brother or sister, as it does at present. 

^ Izanagi. 

Ingi5. 323 

saying : — ** It was by my intent that no beast was caught. In 
the bottom of the sea of Akashi there is a pearl. If this pearl is 
sacrificed to me, ye shall be able to catch all the beasts." Here- 
upon they proceeded to assemble the fishermen of the various 
places, and made them search the bottom of the sea of Akashi. 
When they dived into the sea, however, they were unable to 
reach the bottom. But there was one fisherman named XIII. 14. 
Wosashi, a fisher of Naga-zato in the province of Aha, who 
excelled all the fishers. He tied a rope to his loins, and went 
down to the bottom of the sea. After some time he came forth, 
and said : — ** In the bottom of the sea there is a great sea-ear,* 
and this place is shining." Everybody said : — ** Probably the 
pearl which the God of the Island has asked for is in this sea- 
ear's belly." Again he went in and searched for it. Hereupon 
Wosashi came to the surface with the great sea-ear in his arms, 
but his breath had ceased, and he died on the surface of the 
waves. Afterwards a rope was let down and the bottom of the 
sea was measured. The depth was found to be sixty fathoms. 
When the sea-ear was split open, a true pearl was found in its 
belly, in size like a peach. This was offered to the God of the 
Island, and a hunt being made, they caught many beasts. But 
they grieved that Wosashi had met his death by entering the 
sea, and made a tomb, in which they reverently interred him. 
That tomb exists at the present day. 

23rd year. Spring, 3rd month, 7th day. The Imperial Prince a.d. 434. 
Kinashi Karu was made Heir to the Throne. He was fair to 
look upon, and those who saw him spontaneously loved him. 
His sister by the same mother,* the Imperial Princess Karu 
no Oho-iratsume, was also beautiful. The Heir Apparent's 
thoughts were constantly bent on becoming united to the 

* The ahabi or Haliotis tuberculata. 

- The prominence given to brotherhood and sisterhood by the same 
mother in the *' Nihongi," as in Homer, has not, it appears to me, the sig- 
nificance attributed to it by McLennan's theory, which would trace back such 
terms to a time when the mother was the only parent as to whom there 
could be no doubt. It seems to me that the father's parentage is here 
taken for granted, the phrase really meaning brother or sister bv the 
mothers side as well as by the father's, and that such phrases are merely 
indications of polygamous customs, not necessarily of promiscuity or 

Y 2 

324 NiHONGI. 

Imperial Princess Oho-iratsume, but he dreaded the guilt,* and 
was silent. But his passion had become so violent that he was 
well-nigh on the point of death. Hereupon he thought to 
himself, ** I will not die for nothing. It may be a crime, but 
how can I endure ? " At last he became secretly united to her, 
and so his desperate passion became somewhat abated. 
Accordingly he made a song, saymg : — 

On the foot-dragging mountain, 
Rice-fields are made ; 
So high is the mountain, 
1 he water- pipes are run beneath— 
Like them the hidden tears 
That I wept for my spouse, 
The unshared tears 
XIII. 15. That I wept for my spouse. 

But to-day, this very day, 
Freely our bodies touch.^ 

A.1). 435. 24th year, Summer, 6th month. The soup for the Emperor's 
meal froze, and became ice. The Emperor wondered, and had 
divination made in order to learn the meaning of it. The 
diviner said : — ** There is domestic disorder,' perhaps the illicit 
intercourse of near relations with one another." Then some 
one said : — ** The Heir Apparent, Kinashi Karu, has seduced 
his younger sister by the same mother, the Imperial Princess 
Karu no Iratsume.'' So examination was made, and it was 
found that these words were true. The Heir Apparent being 
the successor to the Throne, it was impossible to punish him. 

' See Ch. K., Introd., p. xxxviii. I do not feel sure that Chamberlain is 
right in attributing to Chinese influence the stigma attached to unions of 
brothers and sisters of the full blood. See a paper on *' The Family and 
Relationships in Ancient Japan," in the •* Transactions of the Japan Society,'' 

- A somewhat different version of this poem is given in the " Kojiki." See 
Ch. K., p. 296. I have adopted one or two of Motowori's emendations. See 
" Kojikiden," xxxix. 23. ** Foot-dragging " is a makura-kotoba or conven- 
tional epithet of mountain, used because in ascending a mountain we drag one 
foot painfully after the other. At least, that is the common interpretation. 
The metre is somewhat irregular naga-uta. 

' i.e. incest. 

Ingio. 325 

so the Imperial Princess Karu no Iratsume was banished to 
lyoJ At this time the Heir Apparent made a song, saying : — 

I, the (ireat Lord, 

To an island am banished : 

Remaining behind in the ship, 

I will certainly come back again. XIII. 16. 

Let my bed be respected — 

(In words indeed 

I shall call it my bed) 

Let my spouse be respected.* 

Again he made a song, saying : — 

The maiden of Karu 

(The Heaven-soaring), 

If she wept violently. 

Men would know of it — 

Like the doves of Mount Hasa, 

She weeps with a suppressed weeping/* 

42nd year, Spring, ist month, 14th day. The Emperor died. a.i>. 453. 
His years were many.^ 

* The " Kojiki " makes the Prince to be banished, and Motowori thinks 
with some reason that this must be the true version of the story. For one 
thing (he says), women have always been more lightly punished in Japan 
than men for the same offence, and the particular character of the fault in 
this case makes such a discrimination all the more reasonab'e. Moreover, 

t is hardly possible to construe the poem which follows otherwise than as 
composed by Prince Karu when about to be banished. An ancient note to 
the '^Nihongi" (see below) speaks of the Prince as having died by his own 
hand in lyo. 

* The word for bed is tatami, now applied to the thick mats used to cover 
the floor of a Japanese house. At this time the tatami only covered the 
sleeping-place. There was a superstition forbidding people to meddle with 
the bed of an absent person, as to do so would bring down calamity on him. 
The word translated ** respect " is yume, taboo, religious abstinence. The 
third line of this poem is literally *'a ship-remainder," by which is understood 
** one who remains behind in a ship after the other passengers have landed." 
There are, however, other explanations. See Ch. K., p. 300. 

' The metre of this poem is irregular. "Heaven soaring" is a conven- 
tional epithet applied to Karu, which is the name of a place, because Kari 
means *• a wild goose " — hardly a sufficient reason to our Western minds. 

* Seventy-eight, says the *' Kojiki." Another authority says eighty. But 
his mother, the Empress I ha no hime, died A.D. 347, and she had ceased to 
cohabit with her husband A.D. 342 (see above, p. 285), so that he would be 
at least 1 10 at the time of his death. 

326 NiHONGI. 

Now the King of Silla, when he heard that the Emperor 
had died, was shocked and grieved, and sent up eighty tribute 
ships with eighty musicians of all kinds. They anchored at 
Tsushima, and made great wail. When they arrived in 
Tsukushi they again made great wail. Anchoring in the 
harbour of Naniha, they all put on plain white garments, and 
bringing all the articles of tribute, and stringing their musical 
instruments of all kind^, they proceeded from Naniha to the 
capital.* Sometimes they wept and wailed, sometimes they 
sang and danced, until at length they assembled at the Shrine 
of temporary interment. 

Winter, loth month, loth day. The Emperor was buried in 
the misasagi of Naga-no no Jiara in Kahachi. 
XIII. 17. nth month. The Silla messengers of condolence, when the 
funeral ceremonies were concluded, returned home. 

Now the men of Silla had always loved Mount Miminashi 
and Mount Unebi, which are hard by the capital city. Accord- 
ingly, when they arrived at the Kotobiki Hill, they looked back, 
and said : — ** Uneme haya ! Mimi haya ! " This was simply 
because they were unpractised in the common speech, and 
therefore corrupted Mount Unebi, calling it Uneme, and cor- 
rupted Mount Miminashi, calling it Mimi. Now the Yamato 
no Muma-kahi^ Be, who were in attendance on the men of 
Silla, heard these words, and conceived a suspicion that the 
Silla men had had intercourse with the Uneme. So they made 
them go back, and gave information to the Imperial Prince 
Ohohatsuse. The Imperial Prince straightway threw the Silla 
messengers every one into prison, and put them to an examina- 
tion. Then the Silla messengers made a statement, saying : — 
** We have done the Uneme no harm. Our words were simply 
expressive of our love for the two mountains close to the 
capital." Upon this it was recognized that the charge was 
groundless, and they were all released. But the people of 
Silla resented it greatly, and further reduced the kinds of 
articles sent as tribute and the number of ships. 

' Anaho in Yamato. - HorFc-kccpcrs. 


328 NiHONGI. 



The Emperor Anaho was the second child of the Empen 
Wo-asa-tsuma waku-go no Sukune. 

One account says : — '* The third child." 
Xlll. iS fjis mother's name was Osaka no Oho-nakatsu-hime i 
Mikoto. She was the daughter of the Imperial Prince Wakn 

The Emperor died in the 42nd year of his reign, Spring, tbt: 
1st month. In Winter, the loth month, the funeral cert 
monies were completed. At this time the Heir Apparent wa» 
guilty of a barbarous outrage in debauching a woman. Tl 
nation censured him, and the Ministers w^ould not follow hin.. 
but all without exception gave their allegiance to the Imperii 
Prince Anaho. Hereupon the Heir Apparent wished to attac 
the Imperial Prince Anaho, and to that end secretly got re^d^ 
an army. The Imperial Prince Anaho also raised a force, an. 
prepared to give battle. It was at this time that the tern. 
** Anaho arrow-notch " and " Karu arrow-notch " ' began. No 
the Heir Apparent, knowing that the Ministers would not foUo 
him, and that the people were uncompliant, went away and h; 
in the house of the Mononobe, Ohomahe no Sukune. Tl 
Imperial Prince Anaho, hearing this, forthwith surrounded i 
Ohomahe no Sukune came forth from the gate to meet hir 
upon which the Imperial Prince Anaho made a song, saying : 

To Oho-mahe 
Wo-mahe * Sukune's 
Metal-gate's shelter, 
Thus let us repair. 
And wait till the rain stops. 

1 Anko means peace. • A son of Ojin. See Ch. K., p. 242. 

* The parallel passage of the *' Kojiki " (Ch. K., p. 298) has "inside" (• 
" notch," and an ancient note explains that in the case of Prince Karu 
arrows, the *• notch " or "inside "was of copper, whereas those of Prinf 
Anaho were " like those of the present time," i.e. presumably of iron. Moto 
wori thinks that the arrow-points are intended. 

* It is a question whether Oho-mahe and Wo-mahe arc one person <• 
two brothers. The metre of this poem is impeifect Tanka. 

330 NiHONGI. 

mands." To the last they kept out of his way, and would not 
give ear to him/ 

A.D. 454. ist year, Spring, 2nd month, ist day. On behalf of the 
Imperial Prince Ohohatsuse the Emperor desired to betroth to 

XIII. 20. him the Imperial Princess Hata-hi, a younger sister of the 
Imperial Prince Ohokusaka,' and for this purpose sent Ne no 
Omi, ancestor of the Omi of Sakamoto, to request her of the 
Imperial Prince Ohokusaka, saying: — *' I beseech thee let me 
have the Imperial Princess Hata-hi, whom I desire to espouse 
unto the Imperial Prince Ohohatsuse." Hereupon the Imperial 
Prince Ohokusaka answered and said : — ** Thy servant has for 
some time suffered from a severe illness, which cannot be healed. 
He may be compared to a ship which has taken in its cargo 
and is waiting for the tide. Death, however, is our destiny ; 
and there is no sufficient reason for regret. Only I cannot die 
in peace because my younger sister, the Imperial Princess 
Hata-hi, will be left alone and unprotected. If now Your 
Majesty will not loathe her for her ugliness, and will allow her 
to complete the number of the duckweed flowers,' it will be a 
matter for the deepest gratitude. How should I decline the 
favour of thy commands ? In order, therefore, to show my 

^ This and many other stories in the " Nihongi" show that the position of 
women in these times was by no means one of abject dependence on their 
male relatives. 

* They were children of the Emperor Nintoku, who died a.d. 399, 
aged 122. The "Shukai" suggests that the Prince and Princess here 
named were grandchildren, and not children of Nintoku, but the more 
obvious explanation of the difficulty is that the chronology is entirely 

•■* " An aquatic plant with peltate floating leaves, probably a Lemnanthe- 
mum, or marsh-flower." Williams. The allusion is to the opening stanzas of 
the first ode of the She-king, translated by Dr. Legge as follows : — 

Kwafi, Kivan go the ospreys 

On the islet in the river. 

The modest, retiring, virtuous, young lady : — 

For our prince a good mate is she. 

Here long, there short, is the duckweed 
To the left, to the right, borne about by the current. 
The modest, retiring, virtuous, young lady : — 
Waking and sleeping he sought her. 

Anko. 331 

sincerity, I offer thee my private treasure, called the Oshiki ^ 
jewel head-dress [others say * standing head-dress,' and others, 
again, Ihaki (rock-tree) head-dress] , which I make so bold as 
to present to thee by the hand of Ne no Omi, the minister 
whom thou didst send to me. I beg thee to accept of it, 
although it is an object of no value, as a token of my good 

Hereupon Ne no Omi, when he saw the Oshiki jewel head- 
dress, was struck with its beauty, and the thought occurred to 
him of stealing it and making it his own treasure. So he falsely 
represented to the Emperor, saying: — ** The Imperial Prince 
Ohokusaka refused to obey thy orders, and spake to thy 
servant, saying : — * Shall he, though of the same house, have my XIH. 21. 
younger sister to wife ? ' '' Having done so, he retained the 
jewel head-dress, and did not present it to the Emperor, but 
made it his own. 

Hereupon the Emperor believed Ne no Omi's slanderous 
words, and was greatly wToth. He raised an armed force, with 
which he surrounded the house of the Imperial Prince Oho- 
kusaka and slew him. 

At this time the Hikakas, Kishi of Naniha, father and sons, 
were all in the service of the Imperial Prince Ohokusaka, and 
they were all grieved that their lord should die without a crime. 
Accordingly the father took in his arms the Prince's head and 
the two sons took up each one of the Prince's legs and cried 
aloud, saying: — *' Alas ! Our Lord has died without a crime. 
Were we three, father and sons, who served him in life, not to 
follow him in death, we should be no true retainers." So they 
cut their throats, and died beside the Imperial corpse. The 
army, to a man, all wept tears. Upon this the Emperor took 
Nakashi hime," the Imperial Prince Ohokusaka's wife, and 
bestowing her within the Palace, made her his concubine. 
Ultimately he sent for the Imperial Princess Hata-hi and gave 
h^r to the Imperial Prince Ohohatsuse to wife. 

This year was the year Kinoye Miima (31st) of the Cycle. 

2nd year. Spring, ist month, 17th day. Nakashi hime no a.d 455. 

' Oshiki means literally '' push-wood " or '* push-tree."' Its application 
here is uncertain. 

- 1 he " Kojiki '" gives here a different name. 

332 NiHONGI. 

Mikoto was appointed Empress. The Emperor loved her 


Before this time Nakashi hime no Mikoto bore Prince Mayu- 

wa to the Imperial Prince Ohokusaka. On his mother s account 

he escaped punishment, and was always brought up within the 

A.n. 456. 3rd year, Autumn, 8th month, gth day. The Emperor was 
XIII. 22. assassinated by Prince Mayuwa [a detailed account is given in 

the history of the Emperor Ohohatsuse's reign] . After three 

years he was buried in the misasagi of Fushimi at Sugahara. 




The Emperor Oho-hatsuse Waka-take was the fifth child * of 
the Emperor Wo-asa-tsuma Waku-go no Sukune. When the 
Emperor was born, a supernatural radiance filled the building/ 
When he grew to manhood, he was distinguished for sturdy 

In the 8th month of the 3rd year of his reign, the Emperor 
Anaho went to the Mountain Palace with the intention of 
taking the hot baths. At length he went up into a lofty tower 
and was enjoying the prospect. Accordingly he commanded 
sake to be brought and a banquet to be held. So then, whilst 
his mind was at ease and his pleasure at its height, in the course 
of conversation he turned to the Empress and addressed her, 
saying : — 

[The daughter of the Emperor Izahowake was called 
the Imperial Princess Nakashi hime. She was also called 
the Imperial Princess Nagata no Oho-iratsume. The 
Imperial Prince Ohokusaka, a child of the Emperor Oho- 
saziaki, took to wife the Imperial Princess Nagata, who 
bore to him Prince Mayuwa. Afterw^ards the Emperor 

* Hatsuse is the name of a place in Yamato. Waka-take means young 

- Yu-riaku means manly stratagem or counsel. The events related in this 
Book read more like genuine history, and the chronology, though it stiil 
leaves much to be desired, is not so wildly inaccurate as before. 

^ He was really the fifth son. See above, p. 315. 

* The same thing in nearly the same words is related of one of the Later 
Han Emperors of China. 

334 NiHONGi. 

Anaho, giving heed to the slander of Ne no Omi, put to 
death the Imperial Prince Ohokusaka and appointed the 
Imperial Princess Nakashi hime Empress. An account of 
this is given in the history of the reign of Anaho Tennd.] 
** Our younger sister " [it seems to have been the ancient custom 
to address one's wife as "younger sister'*], ** although thou 
art Our friend, We fear Prince May uwa.'^ Now Prince Mayuwa 
— who was only a boy — was playing below the tower, and heard 
everything that was said. Afterwards the Emperor Anaho, 
making a pillow of the Empress's knees, fell asleep in 'daylight 
XIV. 2. drunkenness. Hereupon Prince Mayuwa, watching the time 
when he was sound asleep, stabbed and murdered him. On 
this day one of the Oho-toneri ran [his name and surname 
are wanting '], and said to the Emperor': — "The Emperor 
Anaho has been murdered by Prince Mayuwa." The Emperor 
was greatly shocked, and straightway being suspicious of his 
elder brothers, put on his armour and girded himself with his 
sword. Taking command of his troops in person, he urgently 
questioned the Imperial Prince Yatsuri no Shiro-hiko. The 
Imperial Prince, seeing that he wished to do him a mischief, 
sat silent and said not a w^ord. So the Emperor drew his 
sword and slew him. Next he urgently questioned the Imperial 
Prince Sakahi no Kurohiko. But this Imperial Prince also 
knew that he was about to do him a mischief, and sat silent, 
saying not a word." The Emperor's rage became still mofe 
violent, so with the further object of killing Prince Mayuwa as 
well, he examined him as to the reason of his conduct. Prince 
Mayuwa said : — ** Thy servant has never sought the Celestial 
Dignity. He has only revenged himself on his father's enemy." 
The Imperial Prince Sakahi no Kurohiko, who feared pro- 
foundly the suspicion in which he was held, communicated 
secretly with Prince Mayuwa, and they at last found an oppor- 
XIV. 3. tunity of getting away together. They fled to the house of the 
Oho-omi * Tsubura. The Emperor sent a messenger to ask 

* This note is rejected by the '* Shukai " edition. It is certainly frivolous. 
- i.e. to the Emperor Yuriaku. 

5 The " Kojiki " relates these events quite differently. 
^ Oho-omi is written with the characters read in later times Daijin, i.e. 
Great Minister or Prime Minister. 

YuKiAKu. 335 

for them. The Oho-omi replied by a messenger, saying ; — 
" I may possibly have heard of a vassal in time of trouble taking 
refuge in a Royal chamber, but I had never seen Princes con- 
ceal themselves in the house of a vassal. At this very time the 
Imperial Prince Sakahi no Kurohiko and Prince Mayuwa, 
trusting profoundly in thy servant's heart, have come to thy 
servant's house. How can I have the heart to send them to 
thee ? " In consequence of this the Emperor raised a still 
greater army and surrounded the Oho-omi's house. The Oho- 
omi came out, and standing in the courtyard, tied his garters. 
At this time the Oho-omi's wife brought the garters, and heart- 
broken, alas ! made a song, saying * : — 

The Omi child 
Cloth trousers 
Nine-fold having put on- 
Standing in the courtyard 
His garters he adjusts I 

The Oho-omi, when he had finished dressing, advanced to 
the gate of the camp, where he knelt down and said : — " Thy 
servant cannot obey thy orders, even though his refusal costs him 
his life. There is a saying of a man of old, * The will of even a 
common man cannot be taken from him.' " This is precisely 
thy servant's case. I humbly beseech the Great Prince to 
allow thy servant's daughter, Kara-hime, and the seven build- 
ings ■ of Katsuraki, which I now offer thee, to be received as a 
ransom for their offences." The Emperor would not permit XiV. 4. 
it, but set fire to the houses and burnt them. Hereupon the 
Oho-omi with the Imperial Prince Kurohiko and Prince Mayuwa 
were all burnt to death together. Now Nihe no Sukune, Muraji 
of the Sakahi Be, took m his arms the Imperial Prince's dead 
body and so was burnt to death. His household [the names are 
wanting^] took up that which was burnt, but were never able to 
sort out the bones. They were deposited in one coffin and 

' This poem seems intended to express wonder at her husband's care for 
his appearance at a moment when his life was at stake. 
^ '* Confucian Analects," Book IX. chap. xxv. i. 
' Granaries, as the " Kojiki" informs us. 
* A silly note. No wonder the " Shukai " edition rejects it. 


36 NiHONGI. 

buried together on the hill south of Tsukimoto in Imaki no 

Winter loth month, ist day. The Emperor resented the 
Emperor Anaho's having formerly wished to transfer the king- 
dom to the Imperial Prince Ichinobe no Oshiha," and to 
commit the succession definitively to his charge. So he 
sent a man to the Imperial Prince Ichinobe no Oshiha, and 
treacherously arranged with him to go a-hunting. Inviting 
him to go on an excursion to the moors, he said : — Kara- 
bukuro,* the Kimi of the Sasaki mountain in Ohpmi, tells me 

XIV. 5. that now on the Kaya moor in Kutawata in Ohomi, there are 
wild boars and deer in plenty. The horns they bear are like 
the twigs of withered trees, their legs are thick together like a 
grove of bushes, the breath which they breathe resembles the 
mists of morning. Along with the Imperial Prince, I wish in 
the first month of winter, when the sky is cloudy and the cold 
wind blows keenly, to go for an excursion to the moors, where 
we may somewhat divert our minds by running archery." * The 
Imperial Prince Ichinobe no Oshiha accordingly followed the 
hunt. Hereupon the Emperor Ohohatsuse drew his bow and 
putting his horse to a gallop, called out falsely, saying, ** There is 
a wild boar ! " and shot the Imperial Prince Ichinobe no Oshiha 
dead. A man of the Imperial Prince's household named Uruwa, 
of the Saheki Be [another name is Nakachiko], took the dead 
body in his arms. In his consternation he knew not what to 
do, but writhed on the ground and called aloud upon his master, 
going to and fro. The Emperor put him to death also. 

In this month the Imperial Prince Mimiima,* who had 
formerly been pleased w^ith Musa, a place belonging to the 

XIV. 6. Kimi of Miwa, and wishing to shake off his cares, went thither. 
While on his way he unexpectedly fell in with a force which 
had been sent against him.^' He joined battle with them at the 

' This means literally the new-comer Aya or Han. See below, xix. 22. 
' The eldest son of Richiu Tennd. Seep. 306. He was, no doubt, thought 
too young to succeed to the throne at his father's death in 405. 
^ Kara bag. There is also a name Vamato-bukuro. 

* i.e. animals with the bow and arrow while one's horse is at a 

* The Prince of the august horses. A son of Richiu Tcnno. 
^ By the Emperor. 

YuKiAKU. 337 

well of Iha in Miwa, but was soon taken prisoner. When about 
to be executed, he pointed to the well and pronounced a curse, 
saying : — " This water may be drunk by the people only : royal 
persons alone may not drink of it." 

nth month, 13th day. The Emperor ordered commissioners 
to erect a lofty pavilion at Asakura in Hatsuse,' in which he 
assumed the Imperial Dignity, and at last established the 
Palace, He appointed Matori, Heguri no Omi as Oho-omi and 
Muruya, Oho-tomo no Muraji and Me, Mononobe no Muraji he 
made Ohomuraji.' 

1st year, Spring, 3rd month, 3rd day. The Imperial Princess a.d. 457. 
Kusaka no Hatahi hime was appointed Empress. [Another 
name for her is Tachi-bana-hime.] 

In this month three concubines were appointed. The senior 
of these, named Kara-hime, daughter of the Oho-omi of 
Tsubura in Katsuraki, was the mother of the Emperor Shiraga 
take-hiro-kuni-oshi Waka-Yamato-neko, and of the Imperial 
Princess Waka-tarashi-hime. [Also called the Imperial 
Princess Taku-hata no Iratsume.] This Imperial Princess 
attended to the sacrifices of the Great Deity of Ise.* Next XIV. 7. 
there was Waka-hime, daughter of the Omi of Kibi 
no Kamutsumichi.* [One book says she was the daughter of 
Kibi no Kuboya no Omi.] She bore two sons. The elder was 
called the Imperial Prince Ihashiro, and the younger the 
Imperial Prince Hoshikaha no Waka-miya. Next there was 
Woguna Kimi, daughter of Fukame, Omi of Wani in Kasuga. 
She was the mother of Princess Kasuga no Oho-iratsume [also 
called Princess Takahashi.] Woguna Kimi was originally an 
Uneme. The Emperor gave one night to her and she became 
pregnant. Ultimately she gave birth to a girl. The Emperor 
had suspicions and would not bring her up. When the girl was 
able to walk, the Emperor was in the great hall with the Oho- 
muraji Me, of the Mononobe, in attendance on him. The girl 

* The interlinear kana gloss has Hase. 

^ The " Shokugenshu " says :— *• The Prime Minister (Oho-omi or Daijin) 
conducts the Government in conjunction with the Ohomuraji." Another 
authority says that the Oho-omi was a civil and the Ohomuraji a military 
officer. The titles were hereditary in these Houses. They became extinct 
towards the end of the sixth century. 

* The Sun-Goddess. * The upper province of Kibi, now Bizen. 


338 NiHONGI. 

crossed the courtyard. Me, the Ohomuraji, looking round, said 
to the Ministers : — *^ What a pretty girl ! There is a saying of 
the men of old, * Thou art like thy mother.* * [This ancient 
saying is not clear.] Whose little girl is she said to be who is 
walking with leisurely pace in the pure court ? " The Emperor 
said : — " Why dost thou ask ? " Me no Ohomuraji answered 
and said : — ** When thy servant looks at this little girl walking, 
she appears to him strongly to resemble the Emperor." The 
Emperor said : — ** Every one who sees her makes the same 
remark. Sed insolitum est, quum ei unam solum noctem 
dederim, eam concepisse et filiam peperisse. Quam ob rem 
suspiciones mihi excitatae sunt." Ohomuraji dixit : — ** Sed in 
hac und nocte quoties cum eA rem habuisti ? '' ** Septies," in- 
XIV. 8. quit Imperator. Ohomuraji loquitur: — '* Si haec femina pure 
corpore et purd mente recepit unam noctem quam ei dedisti, cur 
tam facile concipis suspiciones et nolis fidere alterius castitati ? 
Servus tuus audivit feminas quae facile praegnantes fiant vel 
tactu braccarum concipere. Multo magis, quum totam noctem 
dederis, sine justA ratione non debes suspiciones concipere." 

The Emperor, by order to the Ohomuraji, made the little 
girl an Imperial Princess, and appointed her mother to be a 

This year was the year Hinoto Tori (34th) of the Cycle. 
A.D. 458. 2nd year. Autumn, 7th month. Iketsu hime of Pekche,- in 
despite of the Emperor's intention to favour* her, had an 
amour with Tate of Ishikaha. 

In an old book it is said : — " Tate, the ancestor of the 
Obito of Momoahi in Ishikaha." 
The Emperor was greatly enraged, and giving his commands 
to the Ohomuraji Muruya, of the Ohotomo House, sent some 
Kume Be who stretched the four limbs of the woman on a tree. 
The tree was placed over a cupboard, which was set lire to, 
and she was burnt to death. 

The *' Shinsen " * of Pekche says : — ** In the 6th year of 

* These words are in Japanese. 

- Corea has been hardly mentioned for fifty years or so. Probably 
some of the events allotted to the previous period really belong to this 
interval . 

* i.e. wed. * i.e. new compilation, the name of a book. 

YuKiAKU. 339 

the Cycle ' King Kero ascended the throne. The Emperor . 

sent Aretoku hither to ask for a nyorang. Pekche adorned 

the daughter of the Lady Moni, called the Nyorang Chok- 

k6, and sent her as tribute to the Emperor." ' 
Winter, loth month, 3rd day. The Emperor made a pro- 
gress to the Palace of Yoshino, and on the 6th he proceeded to 
Mimase. Giving orders to the wardens, he indulged in the 
chase. They climbed the towering peaks, they crossed the 
wide jungles. Before the shadows fell, out of ten, seven or XIV. 9. 
eight had been caught. Every time they hunted, they caught 
many, so that the birds and beasts were almost exhausted. 
At length they rested by the springs and groves, and sauntered 
together in the thickets and meadows. Halting his footmen, 
the Emperor counted the chariots and horses. Then he in- 
quired of the Ministers, saying: — ** It is a pleasure of the hunt- 
ing-field to make the stewards cut up the fresh meat. Suppose 
that you and We cut it up ourselves ? " The Ministers were 
taken aback and could find no answer. Hereupon the Emperor 
became very wroth, and drawing his sword, slew one of the 
stewards named Mumakahi of Ohotsu. On this day the 
Imperial cortege arrived from the Yoshino Palace. The people 
of the province all shook with fear. In consequence the 
Grand Empress and the Empress, hearing of this, were full of 
apprehension, and sent to meet him Hi-no-hime, the Uneme of 
Yamato,* to offer him sake. The Emperor, seeing the beauty 
of the Uneme's countenance,^ and the elegance of her appear- 
ance, softened .his looks, and with a pleased expression, said : — 
*' How should I not wish to behold thy pleasing smile ? " So 

* Corresponding to A.n. 429. The "Tongkam" places this event in A.D. 455. 

* The use of the words " Emperor " and ** tribute '* shows that this " new 
compilation," like the ** Pekchd record " already mentioned, was probably 
the work of Corean literati domiciled in Japan. Nyorang is in the Chinese 
"i^ fiI5 (lady), which in modern Japanese riieans a harlot. The 
Interlinear Kana is Yehashito, which probably means "beautiful person." 
The nyorang were no doubt concubines of inferior rank. The word rendered 
lady is 4< A, a title of the wives of officials above a certain rank. 
Aretoku is not like a Japanese name. 

* The Atahc of Vamato was her father. 

* She was of a marriageable age before the accession of Richiu Tenno in 
A.D. 400, and we are now at 458. 

Z 2 

340 NlHONGI. 

XIV. 10. hand in hand with her, he entered the hinder palace, where he 
addressed the Empress Dowager, saying : — " In to-day's hunt 
we took many birds and beasts. We wished along with the 
Ministers to cut up the fresh meat and to have a banquet on 
the moor. But having proposed this to them, not one of them 
gave us an answer. Therefore did We get angry." The 
Empress Dowager, knowing the feeling which dictated these 
words of the Emperor, mollified him, saying : — " The Ministers 
did not understand that your Majesty, in connection with the 
sport on the hunting-field, was establishing a Fleshers' Be, and 
therefore did condescend to ask their opinion, so that their 
silence was reasonable, and it was hard for them to reply. 
But even now it is not too late to offer them.* I will make a 
beginning with myself. My steward Nagano is good at making^ 
mince meat.' I beg permission to present him to thee." The 
Emperor knelt down and accepted him, saying : — " It is good." 
This is what the rustic means when he says: — **The nobles 
understand each other's hearts." The Empress Dowager sa\sr 
the Emperor's gratification, and pleasure filled her bosom. She 
further wished to offer men, and said : — " There are my two 
scullions, Masakida and Takame,* of the Mito Be of Uda. I 
beg leave to add these two men to the others to form a 
Fleshers' Be." From this time forward Akoko no Sukuile, 
the Miyakko of the province of Yamato, sends some of the 

XIV. II. Kotori Wake of Saho to form the Fleshers' Be. The Omi, the 
Muraji, the Tomo no Miyakko, and the Kuni no Miyakko also, 
following (the Empress's example), presented some, one after 

In this month the Fumubito ^ Be, and theToneri* Be of 
Kahakami, were instituted. 

The Emperor, taking his heart for guide, wrongfully slew 
many men. The Empire censured him, and called him " The 
greatly wicked Emperor." The only persons who loved him 

^ Men to serve as fleshers. 

^ It must be remembered that the Japanese having no table- knives, all 
flesh is cut up small before it is served. 

* A curious name ! It means " High Heaven." Uda is the name of a 
Kori of Yamato. There is a village there called Mitobe, which means 
Imperial House Be. It probably was an appanage of the Empress. 

* Scribes. * Palace attendants. 


were Awo Musa no Suguri * of the Scribes' Be and Hakatoko, 
Hinokuma no Tami-tsukahi.' 

3rd year, Summer, 4tK month. Kunimi, Abe no Omi [His a.d. 459. 
other name was Shikotohi], uttered a slander respecting the 
Imperial Princess Taku-hata and Takehiko, Ihoki Be no Muraji, 
the bath-official, saying : — ** Takehiko has had illicit intercourse 
with the Imperial Princess.*' Takehiko's father, Kikoyu, hear- 
ing this rumour, was afraid lest calamity might overtake him- XIV. 12. 
self, and persuaded Takehiko to come with him fo the River 
Ihoki. There, pretending to make cormorants dive into the 
water to catch fish, he took him unawares and slew him. When 
the Emperor heard this, he sent messengers to question the 
Imperial Princess. The Imperial Princess answered and said : — 
** Thy handmaiden knows nothing." Suddenly the Imperial 
Princess took a divine mirror and went to Isuzu no Kahakami,' 
and watching for a time when no one was passing, buried the 
mirror, and hanged herself. The Emperor became suspicious 
on account of the Imperial Princess's absence, and constantly 
sent persons in the dead of night to search in all directions. 
When they came to Kahakami, a rainbow appeared, like unto a 
serpent, four or five rods in length. When they dug the place 
from which the rainbow sprang they found the divine mirror, 
and no great distance off, they discovered the Imperial 
Princess's body. On ripping her open and making examina- 
tion, there was in her belly something like water, and in the 
water there was a stone. Kikoyu was thus enabled to establish 
his son's innocence, but on the other hand he had remorse for 
having slain him. He revenged him by killing Kunimi, and 
then fled and hid in the Shrine of Isonokami. 

4th year. Spring, 2nd month. The Emperor went a-hunting a.d. 46«t 
with bow and arrows on Mount Katsuraki. Of a sudden a tall XIV. 13. 
man appeared, who came and stood over the vermilion valley.* 

* Suguri is written with Chinese characters which mean " village master.*' 
It is said to be a Corcan word. 

* Tami-tsukahi means "employer of the people." It seems to be a title 
of a low class. It may be observed that the ** Kojiki " strives to put a 
favourable construction on Vuriaku's conduct. 

' Where the Ise shrines are. 

* Fairy-land. It is perhaps here the name of a place, Tanikahi. 

342 NiHONGI. 

In face and demeanour he resembled the Emperor. The 
Emperor knew that he was a God, and therefore proceeded to 
inquire of him, saying : — ** Of what place art thou Lord ? " 
The tall man answered and said : — ** I am a God of visible 
men.* Do thou first tell thy princely name, and then in turn I 
will inform thee of mine." The Emperor answered and said : — 
" We are Wake-take no Mikoto." The tall man next gave his 
name, saying: — "Thy servant is the God Hito-koto-nushi." * 
He finally joined him in the diversion of the chase. They 
pursued a deer, and each declined in favour of the other to let 
fly an arrow at him. They galloped on, bit to bit, using to one 
another reverent and respectful language, as if in the company 
of genii. Herewith the sun went down, and the hunt came to 
an end. The God attended on the Emperor and escorted him 
as far as the Water of Kume. At this time the people all 
said : — ** An Emperor of great virtue ! " 

Autumn, 8th month, i8th day. The Emperor made a 
progress to the Palace of Yoshino. 

28th day. He made a progress to Kahakami no Ono,'* where 
he commanded the forest wardens to drive the wild beasts. 
He lay in wait hoping to shoot them himself, when a gad-fly 
came swiftly flying. Then a dragon-fly flew thither suddenly, 
bit the gad-fly, and went away with it. The Emperor was 
pleased at its attention, and commanded his Ministers, saying: 
— ** Do ye on Our behalf compose an ode in praise of this 
XIV. 14. dragon-fly." As none of the Ministers made so bold as to com- 
pose an ode, the Emperor forthwith composed a short piece,* 
saying :— 

These tidings some one 
Told in the Great Presence, 
How in Yamato 
On the Peak of Womura 
Four-footed game was lying : 

* i.e. who has assumed mortal form. 

• Lit. one-word-master. The " Kojiki " expands this into " The Deity who 
dispels with a word the evil, and with a word the good." Sec Ch. K., p. 319. 
The " Kiujiki " makes him a son of Susanowo. 

' The little moor of the upper stream. 

P S^- This was the name of a particular kind of Chinese poetry of 
four or eight lines. 

YuRiAKU. 343 

The Great Lord, 

When he heard this, 

Stood at his throne 

Entwined with jewels, 

Stood at his throne 

Entwined with cloth : 

Waiting for the game 

Whilst I * remained : 

Waiting for the wild-boar 

Whilst I was standing, 

My arm in the fleshy part, 

Was stung by a gad-fly : 

But soon a dragon-fly 

That gad-fly did bite. 

Even a creeping insect 

Waits upon the Great Lord. 

Thy form it will bear, 

O Yamato, land of the dragon-fly ! * 

One book has, instead of ** the great presence," ** the 
great Lord/' 

One book has, instead of ** stood at his throne," " re- 
mained in his throne." 

One book has, instead of from ** even a creeping insect " 
(inclusive) to the end, the following : — 

That in this wise 

It should be famous, 

The Heaven-filling* 

Land of Yamato 

Was called the Land of the Dragon-fly.* 

Therefore in honour of the Dragon-fly this place was called 
Akitsu no.^ xiv. 15. 

* The change from the third to the first person is much less marked in the 
Japanese. It is not to be supposed that the Emperors actually composed 
these verses themselves, nor perhaps any others ascribed to them in the 
" Nihongi." The hand of the Court-poet is plain in the honorific epithets 
and forms given to him therein. 

^ The word for throne is agura. It was no doubt something of the 
nature of a camp-stool. 

' Heaven-filling. See above, p. 135, note 5. The metre is irregular 

* This is the " Kojiki " version. 

* The moor of the Dragon-fly. See above, p. 134, note 8. 

344 NiHONGi. 

A.D. 461. 5th year, Spring, 2nd month. The Emperor hunted on 
Mount Katsuraki. Suddenly there came a supernatural bird, 
in size like a sparrow, with a long tail which trailed upon the 
ground. Now this bird chirruped, saying : — ** Have a care ! 
Have a care ! " Then suddenly there appeared, issuing furiously 
from the herbage, a raging wild boar of which they had been in 
chase, and pursued the men. The huntsmen in great terror 
climbed up into trees. The Emperor commanded his attend- 
ants, saying : — " When a savage beast meets with man, it 
straightway halts. Encounter it with a shot from your bows, 
and then stab it." The attendants were of an effeminate 
nature. They climbed up trees, and changed countenance, 
and their five senses were masterless. The raging wild boar 
came straight on, and tried to bite the Emperor. But the 
Emperor with his bow pierced it and stayed its course. Then, 
raising his foot, he killed it with a kick. Hereupon, when the 
chase was over, he wanted to cut down the attendants. The 
attendants, when about to be executed, made a song, saying : — 

Oh I my elder brother, 
Thou alder-tree branch — 
Over Ariwo, 

To which I climbed up in flight, 
XIV. 16. The snorting of the wild-boar, 

That was shot 
Hy Our great Lord 
Who rules peacefully I * 

The Empress, hearing their lament, was sorry for them, and 
tried to stay (the execution). The Emperor said: — '* The 

* This translation exactly reverses the order of the lines of the original. 
The " Kojiki" version {vide Ch. K., p. 318) varies somewhat. Ariwo 1 take 
(doubtfully) to be a proper name. The "Kojiki" says that it was the 
Emperor who climbed into the tree, and Motoori takes this view. I agree 
with Chamberlain that this won't do. Perhaps something has been omitted 
in the *' Kojiki " narrative. The insertion of the single word Toneri in one 
place would make it agree with the " Nihongi." It is not likely that a poem 
should have been composed to commemorate the Emperor^s ascent into a 

The alder-tree branch is addressed as " elder brother '* in gratitude for its 

YuRiAKu. 345 

Empress is taking part, not with the Emperor, but with the 
attendants." She answered and said : — " The people all say, 
* His Majesty is fond of the chase, and loves game. Is not 
this wrong ? * If now Your Majesty, on account of a savage 
boar, puts to death your attendants, Your Majesty is, as it 
were, not different from a wolf." The Emperor with the 
Empress went up into their carriage and returned home. 
Amid cries of ** Long live the Emperor ! " he said : — 
** How delightful is this! Everybody has caught game, and 
We have caught good words, which We have brought back 
with us." ' 

Summer, 4th month. Lord Kasyuni [i.e. King Kero] of 
Pekch^, having learnt by rumour that Iketsu hime [viz. the 
Nyorang Chok-ke] had been put to death by burning,' held 
counsel, saying : — ** The ancient custom of sending tribute of 
women to be made Uneme is contrary to decorum, and is 
injurious to our country's reputation. Henceforward it is 
untneet that women be sent as tribute." Accordingly he inti- 
mated to his younger brother, Lord Kun ' [i.e. Lord Kon-chi], 
saying: — **Do thou go to Japan,* and serve the Emperor." 
Lord Kuh answered and said : — ** My Lord's commands must 
not be disobeyed. I pray thee give me one of thy consorts, 
and then I will undertake this mission." Lord Kasyuni 
accordingly took one of his consorts who was pregnant, ^^V. i 
and having given her in marriage to Lord Kun, said: — 
** The month for the delivery of this pregnant consort of 
mine has already arrived. If she should be delivered on 
the journey, I pray thee place (the child) on board a ship, 
and whatever place thou mayest have arrived at, cause it 
to be at once sent back to this country." So at last he 
took his leave, and went on his mission to the (Japanese) 

' This passage, from "If now Your Majesty" down to "with us," is 
copied, with a few trifling alterations, from a Chinese book. Motoori dis- 
misses the whole incident of the Empress's interference as a silly imitation 
of Chinese models. He is doubtless right. 

* See above, p. 338. 

^ The traditional Kana rendering of !^ 'S (War-lord) is Komukishi. 

* Japan is 4^, or Nippon, by which name this country' was not known 
till much later. 

346 NiHONGi. 

6th month, ist day. The pregnant consort realized the 
words of Lord Kasyuni, and gave birth to a child in the island 
of Kahara in Tsukushi. So this child was given the name of 
Lord Shima.* Upon this Lord Kun straightway took a ship 
and sent Lord Shima to his country. He became King Mu- 
nyong. The people of Pekch^ call this island Chuto.' 

Autumn, 7th month. Lord Kun entered the capital. After 
this he had five children. 

The Pekche Shinsen says : — ** In the year Kanoto ushi 

(a.d. 461') King Kero sent his younger brother, Lord 

Konchi, to Great Wa, to wait upon the Emperor and to 

confirm the friendship of former sovereigns.'* 

A.D 462. 6th year, Spring, 2nd month, 4th day. The Emperor made 

an excursion to the small moor of Hatsuse. There, viewing the 

aspect of the hills and moors, in an outburst of feeling, he made 

a song, saying : — 

The mountains of Hatsuse, 

The secluded — 
They stand out 
Excellent mountains I 
They run out 
Excellent mountains ! 
The mountains of Hatsuse, 

The secluded - 
Are full of various beauties I 
Are full of various beauties ! * 

Hereupon he gave a name to the small moor, and called it 
Michi no Ono.** 

' Shima is the Japanese for island. The Corean is syom, the two words 
being no doubt identical. See "Early Japanese History " in " T. A.S.J.,'' 
Vol. XVI. i. p. 68. 

' Master-island. 

' This date is noteworthy as being the first in the "Nihongi" which is 
confirmed byj Corean history. It is true that it occurs only in a note, 
which was probably added by a later hand. But the narrative of the text 
no doubt refers to the same event. From this time forward the " Nihongi" 
chronology is never grossly inaccurate, though it would be too much to say 
that it can yet be depended on. See "Early Japanese History" in 
"T.A.S.J.,"XVI. i. p. 67. 

"• Metre irregular. * i.e. the small moor of the road. 

YuRiAKu. 347 

3rd month, 7th day. The Emperor wished to make the xiv\ 1 
Empress and his concubines plant mulberry trees with their 
own hands, in order to encourage the silk industry. Hereupon 
he gave orders to Sukaru [This is a personal name] to make a 
collection of silkworms throughout the country. Now Sukaru 
made a mistake and collected babies,^ which he presented to 
the Emperor. The Emperor laughed greatly, and gave the 
babies to Sukaru, saying : — ** Do thou bring them up thyself.*' 
Accordingly Sukaru brought them up hard by the Palace 
enclosure. So he was granted a title, and was called Chihisako 
Be " no Muraji. 

Summer, 4th month. The Land of Wu * sent envoys with 

7th year, Autumn, 7th month, 3rd day. The Emperor a.d. 46 
commanded Sukaru Chihisako Be no Muraji, saying : — " It is 
our desire to see the form of the Deity of Mimuro Hill. [Some 
say that the Deny of this mountain is Oho-mono-shiro-nushi no 
Kami. Others say Uda no Sumi-zaka no Kami.'] Thou dost 
excel in strength of body. Go thyself, seize him, and bring 
him here." Sukaru answered and said : — ** I will make the 
attempt, and go to seize him.'' So he ascended the Hill of 
Mimuro and caught a great serpent, which he showed the 
Emperor, who had not practised (religious) abstinence. Its 
thunder rolled, and its eyeballs flamed. The Emperor was 
afraid, and, covering his eyes, would not look upon it, but fled 
into the interior of the Palace. Then he caused it to be 
let loose on the Hill, and giving it a new name, called it 

8th month. One of the Toneri named Oho-sora,* of the Bow- XIV. i 

' The Japanese for silkworm is Kahiko. Kahi means to keep, to nurture, 
and ko is ** little one ; " so there was some excuse for Sukaru's mistake. 

2 Chihisako means '* little child." Ihe title and office seem merged in one 

* The Wu dynasty came to an end A.D. 280, and at this time the Sung 
dynasty held rule, but, as Mr. E. H. Parker has pointed out, Wu was also a 
territorial designation of that part of China about Nanking. Of course, by 
tribute is meant presents. The Japanese early adopted the Chinese 
arrogant way of speaking of foreign nations. 

* Thunderbolt. 

* Oho-sora means The Great Void (of Heaven). We have had above a 
name Takama, i.e. High Heaven. 

348 NiHONGI. 

makers' Be of Kibi, went home on some urgency. Sakitsuya 
Omi of Lower Kibi [In one book it says : — ** The Kuni no 
Miyakko, Yama, Kibi no Omi"], detained Oho-sora, and for 
several months would not consent to allow him to go up to the 
capital. The Emperor sent Mike no Kimi, a man of valour, to 
fetch him. Oho-sora came in obedience to the summons, and 
said : — " Sakitsuya took young girls to represent the Emperor's 
men, and grown-up women to represent his. own men. Then 
he made them fight with one another, and on seeing that the 
young girls were victorious, drew his sword and slew them. At 
another time he took a small cock, which he called the 
Emperor's cock, and pulled out its feathers and clipped its 
wings. Then he took a large cock, which he called his own 
cock, attached to it a bell,^ and armed its spurs with metal. 
Then he matched them together, and when the naked bird got 
the better of the other, he again took out his sword and killed 
it.'* When the Emperor heard this story, he sent thirty 
soldiers of the Monono Be, who put Sakitsuya to death, with 
seventy persons of his household. 

This year Tasa, Omi of Upper Kibi, while on duty beside 
the Palace, praised Waka-hime» abundantly to his friends, 
XIV. 20. saying: — " Of all the beautiful women in the Empire, there is 
none to compare with my wife. How blooming! How 
gentle ! How graced with various charms ! How radiant ! 
How genial ! What perfection in every feature ! She uses 
not flower of lead : * she adds not oil of orchids. Through 
the wide ages her equals are but few : in the present day she 
stands alone and peerless." The Emperor inclined his ear, 
and listening from a distance, rejoiced in his heart. So with 
the object of obtaining Waka-hime for himself, and making 
her one of his concubines, he appointed Tasa Govejn or o f 
Imna,^ and promptly favoured Waka-hime. When T^Sarno^^mi- 
wedded Waka-hime, she bore to him Ye-kimi and Oto-kimi." "* 
Another book savs : — '* Tasa no Omi's wife, bv name 

^ Small bells like the French grclots were used as ornaments to the wrist 
or attached to garters. 
- White lead ceruse. 

•"* Mimana or Kara in Corea, where there was a Japanese resident. 
^ Elder lord and younger lord. 

348 NiHONGI. 

makers' Be of Kibi, went home on some urgency. Sakitsuya 
Omi of Lower Kibi [In one book it says : — ** The Kuni no 
Miyakko, Yama, Kibi no Omi "], detained Oho-sora, and for 
several months w^ould not consent to allow him to go up to the 
capital. The Emperor sent Mike no Kimi, a man of valour, to 
fetch him. Oho-sora came in obedience to the summons, and 
said : — ** Sakitsuya took young girls to represent the Emperor's 
men, and grown-up women to represent his. own men. Then 
he made them fight with one another, and on seeing that the 
young girls were victorious, drew his sword and slew them. At 
another time he took a small cock, which he called the 
Emperor's cock, and pulled out its feathers and clipped its 
wings. Then he took a large cock, which he called his own 
cock, attached to it a bell,^ and armed its spurs with metal. 
Then he matched them together, and when the naked bird got 
the better of the other, he again took out his sword and killed 
it.** When the Emperor heard this story, he sent thirty 
soldiers of the Monono Be, who put Sakitsuya to death, with 
seventy persons of his household. 

This year Tasa, Omi of Upper Kibi, while on duty beside 
the Palace, praised Waka-hime^ abundantly to his friends, 
XIV. 20. saying: — ** Of all the beautiful women in the Empire, there is 
none to compare with my wife. How blooming! How 
gentle ! How graced with various charms ! How radiant ! 
How genial ! What perfection in every feature ! She uses 
not flower of lead : * she adds not oil of orchids. Through 
the wide ages her equals are but few : in the present day she 
stands alone and peerless.'* The Emperor inclined his ear, 
and listening from a distance, rejoiced in his heart. So with 
the object of obtaining Waka-hime for himself, and making 
her one of his concubines, he appointed Tasa Governorof 
Imna,"* and promptly favoured Waka-hime. When Tasa^rfS^^mt- 
wedded Waka-hime, she bore to him Ye-kimi and Oto-kimi." '' 
Another book says : — '* Tasa no Omi's wife, bv name 

^ Small bells like the French grclots were used as ornaments to the wrist 
or attached to garters. 
- White lead ceruse. 

•' Mimana or Kara in Corea, where there was a Japanese resident. 
* Elder lord and younger lord. 

YuRiAKu. 349 

Ke-hime, was the daughter of Tamado no Sukune, son of 
Katsuraki no Sotsuhiko. The Emperor, hearing of the 
serene beauty of her form, slew her husband, and wedded 
her himself/' 
After Tasa had arrived at his post, he learnt that the 
Emperor had married his wife, and with the object of obtaining 
succour, he went to Silla, which at that time did not do service 
to the Central Land/ The Emperor gave orders to Tasa no 
Omi's. son Otokimi, and also to Akawo Kibi no Ama ' no 
Atahe, saying : — ** Do ye go and chastise Silla." At this time 
a skilled artisan of Western Aya named Kwan-in Chiri,'' who XIV. j 
was near the Emperor, came forward and represented to him, 
saying : — ** There are in the Land of Han * many who are 
more skilful than thy slave. Let them be sent for and made 
to serve thee." The Emperor commanded his Ministers, 
saying: — ** Then let Kwan-in Chiri be joined to Otokimi and 
the others, and let him get instructions from Pekch6 ; at the 
same time let an Imperial rescript be delivered directing Pekche 
to offer skilled men." 

Hereupon Otokimi, in execution of these commands, took 
with him a body of men and proceeded as far as Pekche. 
When he entered that land, a God of the country,* assuming 
the form of an old woman, suddenly met him on the road. 
Otokimi inquired of her whether the country was far or near. 
The old woman answered and said : — " If thou goest on for 
one day more, thou wilt then arrive there." Otokimi thought 
to himself that the way was too far, and returned without 
having chastised it. He got together the Imaki* skilled 
artisans who had been given as tribute by Pekche on a large 
island, and under the pretence of awaiting a fair wind, 
tarried there for several months. Tasa no Omi, the Governor 
of Imna, pleased that Otokimi had gone away without chas- 

^ The " Central Land " is evidently Japan. The Kana has " Mikado." 

- Fishermen. 

•^ Possibly these are the names of two men. The Western Aya were the 
Aya of Kahachi. 

^ Corea. * This must refer to Silla. 

® Imaki is the name of a place in Yoshino in Yamato. It means "new- 
comer,' and the term may have been applied in the first place to this batch 
of emigrants to distinguish them from previous ones. 

350 NinoNGi. 

tising Silla, secretly sent a man to Pekche, to warn Otokimi, 
saying: — ** Is thine own head so firm that thou canst chastise 
others? A report has reached me that the Emperor has 
wedded my wife, with the result that he has had children by 
her. [The children are mentioned above.*] As I now fear 
that calamity may reach my own person, it is well that I should 

XIV. 22. wait with foot upHfted. Do thou, my son, come over and 
betake thyself to Pekche, and prevent it from communicating 
with Japan, while I will repair to and hold Imna, and will also 
hold no communication with Japan." Otokimi's wife Kusu- 
hime had profound patriotic sentiment ; the sense of duty 
between lord and vassal was strong in her ; her loyalty sur- 
passed the bright sun ; her principles excelled the evergreen 
fir. She abominated such treason, and having stealthily 
killed her husband, secretly buried him in the chamber. Then 
she remained in the large island with Akawo, Ama no Atahe, 
in charge of the skilled artisans presented by Pekche. The 
Emperor, hearing that Otokimi was missing, sent Katashiha, 
Hitaka no Kishi, and Ko An-chon.* These messengers together 
made their report to the Emperor. They * were accordingly 
ultimately settled in the village of Hirokitsu in Ato in the 
province of Yamato, where many of them died of disease. In 
consequence of this, the Emperor commanded Muruya, 
Ohotomo no Ohomuraji, to instruct Tsukami, Yamato no Aya* 

XIV. 23. no Atahe to remove Ko-kwi, of the Potters' Be, Kyon-kwi, of 
the Saddlers' Be, In-sa-ra-ka, of the Painters' * Be, Chong-an- 
na, of the Brocade-weavers' Be, and Myo-an-na, the Inter- 
preter, all belonging to the New Aya,* to other residences 
at the following three places, viz.. Upper Momohara, Lower 
Momohara, and Magami no Hara. 

^ As a matter of fact, they are not; the " Shukai " rejects this note. As 
the " Shukai " editor points out, all this cannot belong to the same year of 
Yuriaku's reign. 

- Ko Anchon. Probably a Corean. Chon means copper cash, which 
were unknown in Japan at this time. 

•'• This must refer to the Pekche artisans. 

* Otherwise called the Eastern Aya. 

* The first mention of the art of painting. 

* The Aya or Han would now appear to have three branches— the Eastern or 
Yamato Aya, the Western or Kahachi Aya, and the New or Imaki Aya, whose 
introduction is here related. They all consisted of skilled men from Corea. 


A certain book says : — ** Otokimi, Kibi no Omi, returned 
from Pbkch^, and presented a Be of Aya workmen, a Be 
of tailors, and a Be of fleshers." 

8th year, Spring, 2nd month. Awo, Musa no Suguri, and a.d. 464. 
Haka-toko, Hinokuma no Tami-tsukahi, were sent to the 
Country of Wu. 

From the accession of the Emperor up to this year eight 
years had now passed, during which the Land of Silla was refrac- 
tory and given to vain talk, and did not send presents. There- 
fore they feared the intentions of the Central Land,* and 
cemented friendship with Koryo. Consequently the King of 
Koryo sent one hundred picked soldiers to guard Silla. After 
a while, one of these Koryo soldiers returned to his own 
country on furlough. Now he took with him a Silla man as xiv. 24. 
groom. Turning to him, he addressed him, saying:—** Thy 
country will be conquered by my country ere long." [One 
book says : — Thy country will in the end become our territory, 
and that ere long.] When the groom heard this, he pretended 
a pain in his belly, and retiring, remained behind. At length 
he made his escape to his own country, and told what 
had been said. Hereupon the King of Silla knew that Koryo*s 
guard was mere pretence, and sent messengers to run and tell 
the people to kill the cocks kept in their houses. The people 
knew his meaning, and killed all the men of Koryo' resident in 
the country. Only one Koryo man was left, who seized an 
opportunity to effect his escape and flee to his own country, 
when he told the whole story. The king of Koryo accord- 
ingly raised an army and encamped by the city of Chhyuk- 
chong-nyu. [One book says the city of Tokusktki.'] At length 
they made music, with song and dance. Hereupon the King 
of Silla, hearing in the night the Koryo army singing and 
dancing on all sides, became aware that the enemy had occu- 
pied the whole land of Silla. So he sent a man to the King of 
Imna, saying : — ** The King of Koryo has attacked our country. 
At this present time, like the fringes sewn on a flag,' the condi- 

* Japan. 

' Kokuryo, the proper name of this country, resembles the onomatopoetic 
word for the crowing of a cock : English, cock-a-doodlc-doo ; French, 
kokeriko ; Japanese, Hckkako. 

' Which are always wobbling about. 

352 NiHONGI. 

tion of the land is more precarious than that of a pile of eggs. 
XIV. 25. The thread of life is short, and may not at all be reckoned. I 
humbly beg that the Japanese Authorities * will assist me with 
war generals." 

Accordingly the King of Imna persuaded Ikaruga, Kashihade 
no Omi, Wonashi, Kibi no Omi, and Akameko, Naniha no 
Kishi to go to the assistance of Silla. Kashihade no Omi and 
the others halted before they reached the camp, and before the 
Koryo generals had fought with Kashihade no Omi and the 
others, they were all afraid. So Kashihade no Omi and his 
colleagues did their best to keep the troops in good heart, and 
urged them to get ready the means of attack. Then suddenly 
they advanced and took the offensive. For more than ten 
days they and the Koryo men kept watch on one another. 
When night came on they pierced a steep place, and made a 
hollow way, along which they passed all the baggage wagons 
and prepared an ambush. At dawn the Koryo men thought 
to themselves : — " Kashihade no Omi and the others are steal- 
ing away." So they came in pursuit with their whole army. 
Then the troops in ambush, both horse and foot, were let go, 
and taking them from both sides, put them to a great rout. It 
was from this that the enmity between the two countries sprang. 
[By the two countries are meant Silla and Koryo.] 

Kashihade no Omi and his colleagues spake to Silla, saying : 
— ** Thou with the utmost weakness wert pitted against the 
utmost strength, and had it not been for the assistance of the 
Government "^ troops thou wouldst assuredly have been taken at 
a disadvantage and thy territory annexed. By this campaign 
be warned never in future to be disobedient to the Celestial 

» In the original B ^ J^' The "Shukai " editor alters this to 1^ f^ or 
official authorities, for no better reason than that the latter term is the one 
used in Kimmei's reign. Q 2t^ occurs frequently after this time, no doubt 
being employed retrospectively. Probably the actual word used by the King 
of Silla was Wa. 

^ i.e. Japanese. 

3 It is difficult to say how much truth there is in this Corean episode. The 
" Tongkam " lends no corroboration. On the contrary the only notices of 
Japan which it contains about this time relate to Japanese descents on the 
Silla Coast. One is recorded in 459, one in 463, and one in 476. No un- 
usual enmity between Silla and Koryo at this time is mentioned in the 

YuRiAKU. 353 

gth year, Spring, 2nd month, ist day. Katabu,^ Ofushi a.i). 4^5. 
Kahachi no Atahe, and an Uneme were sent to sacrifice to the 
Deity of Munagata." Katabu and the Uneme, having arrived 
at the altar-place,' were about to perform the rites, when 
Katabu debauched the Uneme. When the Emperor heard 
this, he said : — " When we sacrifice to the Gods and invoke 
from them blessings, should we not be watchful over our con- 
duct ? " So he sent Naniha no Hidaka no Kishi to put him to 
death. But Katabu straightway took to flight, and was not to 
be found. The Emperor again sent Toyoho, Yuge * no Muraji, 
who searched the districts of that province far and wide, and at 
length caught and slew him at Awi * no hara, in the district of 

3rd month. The Emperor desired to chastise Silla in person, 
but a God warned him, saying : — " Go not." For this reason 
the Emperor did not carry out his intention of going, but gave 
orders to Ki no Woyumi no Sukune, Soga no Karako no Sukune, 
Ohotomo no Katari * no Muraji, and Wokahi no Sukune, saying : 
— " Silla occupies the Western Land : age after age he has done 
us homage : he did not neglect visits of ceremony : his payment 
of tribute was duly discharged. But since We have come to rule xiv. 27. 
the Empire, he has betaken himself beyond Tsushima, and con- 
cealed his traces outside of Chamna. He prevents Koryo from 
sending tribute, he devours the walled cities of Pekchd. Nay, 
more — his missions of ceremony to this court have been 
neglected and his tribute remains unpaid. With the savage 

" Tongkam." Nor does this narrative square very well with what is related 
below, xiv. 26, 27. I am inclined, nevertheless, to believe that it has a solid 
foundation of fact, only that the dates must be wrong. 

From " having pierced " to ** great rout " is copied mutatis mutandis from 
a Chinese history of the Wei period, reign of Wu Ti, and Kashihade no 
Omi's speech to the King of Silla is extracted from the same source. 

* This curious name means " fragrance-giver." 
'In Yamato. 

^ The Kana rendering is Kamu-niha (divine courtyard), which is not 
exactly an altar, but a plot of ground set apart for the worship of the Gods. 
See above, p. 81, note 9. 

•• Bow-makers. 
Awi is indigo, the Polygonum tinctorium. 

* The Katari were reciters attached to the Court. Unfortunately we know 
very little about them, or what the subjects of their recitations were. 

A a 

354 NiHONGi. 

heart of the wolf he flies away when satiated, and sticks fast 
when starving. I appoint you four ministers to be generals. 
Take a royal army and chastise him. Let the punishment of 
Heaven be reverently executed.*' 

Hereupon Ki no Woyumi no Sukune laid a complaint before 
the Emperor through Ohotomo no Muruya no Ohomuraji, say- 
ing : — ** Thy servant, although feeble and incompetent, will 
respectfully obey the Emperor's orders. But now thy servant's 
wife has departed this life, and there is nobody to take care of 
thy servant. Do Thou, my Lord, I beseech Thee, represent 
this matter fully to the Emperor." Hereupon Ohotomo no 
Muruya no Ohomuraji represented it fully. When the 
Emperor heard this complaint, he uttered a sigh of pity. He 
took an Uneme from the hither province of Kibi, Ohomi * by 
name, and giving her to Ki no Woyumi no Sukune, attached her 
to his person to take care of him. So at length he sent him off 
with a shove to his axle. 

Ki no Woyumi no Sukune and the rest accordingly entered 
Silla, butchering as they went the districts along their way. 
XIV. 28. The King of Silla heard by night on all sides the drums of the 
Government army, and becoming aware that they had com- 
pletely conquered the land of Tok,* fled in confusion with several 
hundred cavalry. Thereby ensued a great defeat. Woyumi 
no Sukune pursued and slew the enemy's general in the midst 
of his army. The whole land of Tok was reduced to order, but 
there was a remainder which would not submit. Ki no Woyumi 
no Sukune again withdrew his troops, and having effected a 
junction with Ohotomo no Katari no Muraji and the others, they 
again, with a great display of forces, fought with the remaining 
band. This evening Ohotomo no Katari no Muraji and Ki no 
Okazaki no Kume no Muraji were both slain while fighting with 
all their might. Tsumaro, a follower of Katari no Muraji, of 
the same surname,^ afterwards came amongst the army and 
asked for his master. He went along the ranks and sought for 
him, making inquiry, and saying: — ** Where is my master, 
Lord Ohotomo ? '* Then some one informed him, saying : — 

* Great sea. 

- See above, p. 249, where it would seem that Tok was a part of Kara. 

* Or title. 

YuRiAKU. 355 

**Thy masters* have, indeed, been slain by the enemy," and 
pointed out to him the place where the dead bodies were. 
Tsumaro hearing this, leaped and exclaimed, saying : — " My 
master has fallen. What avails it that I alone should remain 
unhurt ? " Accordingly he too went against the enemy, and in 
the same hour perished. Soon after, the rest of the band retired 
of their own accord, and the Government army also followed 
their example, and fell back. The general-in-chief, Ki no 
Woyumi no Sukune, fell ill and died. 

Summer, 5th month. Ki no Ohiha no Sukune, when he heard 
that his father was dead, forthwith proceeded to Silla, and 
taking from Wokahi no Sukune his command of horse, foot 
and ships, with the various lesser offices, exercised absolute XIV. 29. 
authority. Hereupon Wokahi no Sukune had a profound 
resentment towards Ohiha no Sukune and made a false report 
to Karako no Sukune, saying : — " Ohiha no Sukune has told 
thy servant, saying : — * Ere long I will take the command of 
Karako no Sukune from him too.' I pray thee be ^yell on thy 
guard." In consequence of this there was a coolness between 
Karako no Sukune and Ohiha no Sukune. Upon this the 
King of Pfekche, hearing that there was a coolness between the 
commanders arising out of trifling causes, sent a man to Karako 
no Sukune and the others, saying : — ** I wish to view the 
frontier of the land. I pray you be so kind as to come and 
join me." Herewith Karako no Sukune and the rest went on 
with bridle-bits in a line until they came to a river, when 
Ohiha no Sukune let his horse drink from the river. Then 
Karako no Sukune shot at Ohiha no Sukune from behind, and 
hit the hinder part of his saddle frame. Ohiha no Sukune 
looked round startled, and shot Karako no Sukune down into 
the mid stream, so that he died. So the three Omi, having 
from before this time been rivals with one another, fell out by 
the way, and returned back without having reached the Palace 
of the King of Silla. 

Hereupon the Uneme, Ohomi, following the dead body of 
Woyumi no Sukune, arrived in Japan. She at length com- 
plained to Ohotomo no Muruya no Ohomuraji, saying: — 
"Thy handmaiden knows not where to bury him. I beseech 
thee let a good place be selected by divination." The Oho- 

* Sic in original. 
A a 2 

356 NiHONGi. 

muraji accordingly reported to the Emperor, who gave com- 
mand to the Ohomuraji, saying: — ** The Commander-in-chief, 
Ki no Woyumi no Sukune, tossing his head like a dragon, 
and glaring like a tiger, surveying with extensive view the eight 
cords,* overwhelmed the rebellious, and dashed against the 
XIV. 30 four seas.' So his body was worn out by, ten thousand ri,' and 
his life succumbed in the three Han. To show Our compassion, 
let there be appointed officials to conduct his funeral. Thou, my 
Lord Ohotomo, art of the same province and a near neighbour 
of the Lords of Ki, so that thy connection with him is of old stand- 
ing." Hereupon the Ohomuraji, having received the Emperor's 
commands, sent Wotori Hanishi* no Muraji to construct a tumu- 
lus at the village of Tamuwa, and bury him there. Upon this 
Ohomi, unable to contain herself for pleasure, sent to the Oho- 
muraji six Corean slaves named Muro, Te-maro, Oto-maro, 
Mi-kura, Wogura and Hari.* They are the Yake-bito* Be of 
the village of Kashimada in hither Kibi. Wokahi no Sukune 
came specially in attendance on Ki no Woyumi no Sukune's 
corpse. He remained, however, himself in the Land of Tsuno ' 
and sent Yamato-ko no Muraji [it is not clear what was the 
surname of this Muraji *] with a present of an eight-hand mirror 
to Ohotomo no Ohomuraji to make a petition, saying: — 
** Thy servant cannot bear to serve the Celestial Court along 
with my Lord of Ki.*-* Therefore I beg permission to remain 
and reside in the Land of Tsuno." Upon this the Ohomuraji 
laid the matter before the Emperor on his behalf, and he was 

* The eight cords, or measuring tapes, i.e. the eight quarters of the 

- The four seas are not put for Japan, but for the universe. All this 
bombast is copied from a Chinese book. 

^ i.e. by distant campaigning. 

^ The Hanishi were the chiy-workers whose ofllce it was to make the clay 
images which were set up round the tombs of the Emperors. His appoint- 
ment was therefore an appropriate one. lUit although the office and the 
title sometimes coincided, as in this case, they had often nothing to do with 
each other. A few pages back we had a Katari no Muraji (Chief of the 
Reciters) and a Kashihade no Omi (Lord Steward) in command of troops in 

^ These names are Japanese. * Domestics. "> In Suwo. 

* This is a stupid note which the " Shukai *' very properly rejects. In 
*' Nihongi " language Yamatc-ko no Muraji ts the surname. 

^ i.e.' Ki no Ohiha no Sukune. * 

358- NiHONGi. 

a dragon, with splendid high springing action, darting off like a 
wild goose/ His strange form w^as of lofty mould ; his remark- 
able aspect was of extreme distinction. Hiakiison approached 
and looked at him. In his heart he wished to possess him, so 
he whipped up the piebald horse which he rode and brought 
him alongside of the other, head by head and bit by bit. But 

XIV. 32. the red horse shot ahead, spurning the earth, and, galloping on, 
speedily vanished in the distance. Hereupon the piebald horse 
lagged behind, and, slow of foot, could not overtake the other. 
But the rider of the courser, knowing Hiakiison's wish, stopped 
and exchanged horses with him, upon which they took leave of 
each other and separated. Hiakiison, greatly rejoiced at obtain- 
ing such a steed, hastened home and placed him in the stable, 
where he took off his saddle, foddered him, and went to sleep. 
The next morning the red courser had become changed into a 
horse of clay. Hiakuson, wondering at this in his heart, went 
back, and, making search at the Homuda misasagi, found the 
piebald horse standing among the clay horses. So he took it, 
and left in its stead the clay horse which he had received in 

A.D. 466. loth year. Autumn, 9th month, 4th day. Awo, Musa no 
Sukuri, and the others arrived in Tsukushi with two geese pre- 
sented by Wu. These geese were bitten by Minuma no Kimi's 
dog and died. 

Another book says : — *' These geese were bitten by a dog 

XIV. 33. belonging to Nimaro, Tsukushi no Mine no Agata nushi, 

and died." 
Hereupon Minuma no Kimi, unable to contain himself for 
fear and sorrow, presented to the Emperor ten large wild geese 
with bird-keepers, and begged that his offence might thus be 
compounded for. The Emperor granted his petition. 

Winter, loth month, 7th day. The bird-keepers presented 
by Minuma no Kimi were settled in two places, viz. the villages 
of Karu and Ihare. 

^ As usual, \\i\^ purpureus panmts is copied from a Chinese author. 

- The clay horses here referred to were of the kind described at p. 181 as 
having been substituted for the living horses previously sacrificed at the 
tomb. Some of these have been preserved, and specimens may be seen in 
the Museum at Uyeno, Tokio, The illustration represents one of these. 

YuRiAKu. 359 

nth year, Summer, 5th month, ist day. It was reported a.d. 467. 
from the district of Kurimoto in the province of Ohomi that 
white cormorants dwelt on the shore at Tanagami. Orders 
were therefore given to establish toneri * of Kahase. 

Autumn, 7th month. There was a refugee from Pekch6 
who gave his name as Kwisin. It was also stated that Kwisin 
was a man of the Land of Wu. The Ihare no Kure ^ no Koto- 
biki and the Sakate no Yakata-maro are his descendants. 

Winter, loth month. A bird of the Bird- department was 
bitten by a dog belonging to a man of Uda and died. The 
Emperor was angry, and, branding him on the face, made him 
one of the Bird-keepers* Be. Hereupon some office coolies from 
the provinces of Shinano and Musashi, who were on night duty 
at the Palace, talked to one another, saying : — ** Ah ! In our 
country we pile up birds as high as a small tumulus and eat of 
them morning and evening, but still some are left. Now, for XIV. 34. 
the sake of one bird, the Emperor has branded a man on the 
face. He is a very unjust and wicked master." The Emperor, 
hearing this, ordered them to gather and make a heap (of birds), 
and as the office coolies were unable to complete it on the spot, 
he commanded that they should be enlisted in the Bird-keepers' 

I2th year, Summer, 4th month, 4th day. Awo, Musa no a.d. 468. 
Sukuri, and Haka-toko Hinokuma no Tamitsukahi went on a 
mission to Wu. 

Autumn, loth month, loth day. The Emperor commanded 
the carpenter Mita of Tsuke [** Mita of Winabe,*'** says one 
book — probably erroneouslyj to commence the erection of a 
lofty edifice. Hereupon Mita ascended this high building, and 
ran about nimbly on all sides as if he were flying. An Uneme 
of Ise looked up to the top of this high edifice and marvelled 
at his nimble movements, so that she fell down on her face in 
the courtyard, and upset a dish of meat which she was serving 

' No doubt to take charge of the cormorants. Kahase, which means 
river-reach, may or may not be a proper name. 

' Kure is the same as Wu, a part of China. Kotobiki means lute-player. 
It came to be a proper name. 

* From which it would seem that the office coolies were of higher rank 
than the Bird-keepers. 

* Winabe is the name of a place in Settsu. Tsuke is in Yamato. 

360 NiHONGI. 

to the Emperor. The Emperor forthwith suspected that Mila 
had debauched this Uneme, and conceiving to himself the 
thought of executing him, charged the Mononobe with this 
duty. At this time Hada no Sake* no Kimi was in attendance. 
He wished by the voice of his lute to make the Emperor under- 
stand, so placing his lute crosswise, and playing upon it, he 
said : — 

CIV. 35. Be there for five hundred years 

To the maid of Ise 
Of Ise 

(Of the divine wind), 
And until it is spent 
Let me attend 
With faithful service 
On the Great Lord. 
Let my life, too, 
Be as long, 
Said the carpenter, 
The poor carpenter ! ^ 

Hereupon the Emperor understood the voice of the lute, and 
pardoned the ofifence. 
A.D. 469. 13th year. Spring, 3rd month. Hadanc no Mikoto, great- 
great-grandson of Saho-hiko,'^ secretly seduced the Uneme 
Yamanobe no Koshimako. When this came to the Emperor's 
ears, he gave Hadane no Mikoto in charge to Mononobe no Me 
no Ohomuraji, and made him call him to account for it. 
Hadane no Mikoto purged his offence by the payment of eight 
horses and eight swords, and then made a song, saying : — 

For the sake of Koshimako, 
Of Yamanobe, 

* Sake is t@ rice-beer. This person was, perhaps, a descendant of the 
Corean Prince Chhyu mentioned above, a.J). 353, and whose name is written 
with the same character. The word Hada, however, points to a Chinese 
ancestry. Hada is the Japanese traditional rendering of the character for 
T*sin, the Chinese dynasty of that name. 

^ Some commentators explain part of this poem differently. The metre is 

' It is not clear why so remote a descendant of a Mikado should be called 


Some one boasts that 

The eight horses 

Are not even to be grudged. 


Me no Ohomuraji, hearing this, reported it to the Emperor, 
who made Hadane no Mikoto lay out his treasures on the 
ground at Tachibana moto * of Ichinobe in Yega. He ultimately 
took the village of Nagano in Yega, and gave it to Mononobe 
no Me no Ohomuraji. 

Autumn, 8th month. There was a man of Miwikuma in the XIV. 36. 
province of Harima called Ayashi no Womaro, who was strong 
of body and stout of heart, and did wanton outrage, committing 
robberies on the highways, and preventing traffic. He in- 
tercepted the boats of merchants and plundered them every 
one. He had also disobeyed the laws of the country by 
neglecting to pay his taxes. 

Hereupon the Emperor sent Ohoki, Kasuga no Wono no 
Omi, in command of one hundred soldiers who feared not 
death. They all together took torches, and having surrounded 
his house, set fire to it. Now from the midst of the flames 
there came forth furiously a white dog, which pursued Ohoki 
no Omi. This dog was as big as a horse. But the complexion of 
Ohoki no Omi's spirit did not change.' He drew his sword and 
slew it, whereupon it became changed into Ayashi no Womaro. 

Autumn, 9th month. The carpenter. Mane, of the Wina 
Be, planed timber with an axe,^ using a stone as ruler. All 
day long he planed, and never spoiled the edge by mistake. XIV. 37. 
The Emperor visited the place, and, wondering, asked of him, 
saying : — " Dost thou never make a mistake and strike the 
stone ? " Mane answered and said : — ** I never make a mis- 
take ! " Then the Emperor called together the Uneme, and 
made them strip off their clothing and wrestle in open view 
with only their waistcloths on. Hereupon Mane ceased for a 
while, and looked up at them, and then went on with his planing. 
But unawares he made a slip of the hand, and spoilt the edge 

* Tachibana moto means " orange-stem, or orange-bottom," and possibly 
is to be taken here in this sense, and not as the name of a place. 

- Here is the magician (world-wide) who can change himself into a beast, 
but on being wounded or killed is obliged to assume his natural form. 

* The plane was apparently unknown. 


62 NiHONGI. 

of his tool. The Emperor accordingly rebuked him, saying : — 
"Where does this fellow come from that, without respect to us, 
he gives such heedless answers with unchastened heart ? " So 
he handed him over to the Mononobe to be executed on the 

Now amongst his comrades there was a carpenter who 
lamented for Mane, and made a song, saying : — 

The much to be regretted 
Carpenter of Winabe — 
The ink-cord he applied, — 
When he is no more, 
Who will apply it ? 
Alas ! that ink-cord I ' 

When the Emperor heard this song, his feelings changed to 
remorse, and he said with a sigh of regret : — ** How many men 
I have destroyed ! ** So he mounted a messenger of mercy on 
a black horse of Kahi, and made him gallop to the place of 
execution to stop it and pardon him. The cords with which 
he was tied were unbound, and he, too, made a song, 
saying :— 

As the night ^ 

Black was the horse of Kahi — 
Had they but saddled him, 
XIV. 38. My life were lost — 

Ah I that horse of Kahi I 


Instead of *' My life were lost,'' one book has, ** He 
would not have arrived (in time)." 
A.I). 470. i^th year. Spring, ist month, 13th day. Awo, Musa no 
Sukuri, and the others, in company with envoys from the Land 

* The ink-cord is a contrivance for ruling lines on wood, used to this day 
by Japanese carpenters. A cord is passed through a pot of ink and then 
drawn taut, and let go so as to strike the wood. A chalked line is some- 
times used in the same way in this country. See illustration in "Trans- 
actions of Japan Society," Vol. II. p. 217. The metre of this poem is 
irregular, being a tanka with an additional line of seven syllables between 
the second and third. 

* This is one of many explanations of the conventional epithet nubatama, 
applied to dark or black things. 


of Wu, and bringing with them skilled workmen presented by 
Wu, viz. Aya weavers and Kure * weavers, as well as the 
seamstresses Ane-hime and Oto-hime, anchored in the harbour 
of Suminoye. In this month the Shihatsu highway was carried 
through as a road for the guests from Wu. It was called the 

3rd month. The Emperor commanded the Omi and Muraji 
to go to receive the envoys from Wu. The men of Wu were 
accordingly settled on the moor of Hinokuma, which was 
therefore called Kure-hara.' The seamstress Ane-hime was 
presented to the God of Oho-Miwa, and Oto-hime was 
appointed to the Be of Aya seamstresses. The Aya weavers, 
the Kure weavers and the seamstresses — these were the founders 
of the Asuka Seamstresses' Be and of the Ise Seamstresses* Be. 

Summer, 4th month, ist day. The Emperor, .wishing to 
make a feast for the men of Wu, asked the ministers, one after 
another, saying : — ** Who will be the best man to keep them 
company at table ? '* The ministers all said : — '* Ne no Omi will 
be the proper person.'' The Emperor accordingly gave command 
to Ne no Omi, and appointed him to keep them company in 
eating. Ultimately the men of Wu were entertained at Taka- 
nukuhara in Iso no Kami.** Now a Toneri was sent secretly XIV. 39. 
to observe the ornamentation. The Toneri reported to the 
Emperor, saying : — ** The jewel head-dress worn by Ne no Omi 
is very noble, and extremely lovely." Moreover, ever^'body 
said, ** He also wore it before when he went to receive the men 
of Wu." Hereupon the Emperor, wishing to see it himself, 
gave orders to the Omi and Muraji, and made them present 
themselves before the hall in the dress which they wore at the 
banquet. The Empress looked up to Heaven and, with sobs 
and tears, lamented bitterly. The Emperor inquired of her, 
saying: — ** Why weepest thou?" The Empress, leaving the 

^ For Aya and Kure the Chinese characters are ^ and ^f^, i.e. Han 
and Wu, the Chinese dynasties so called. But in this connection the 
Japanese render these names by Aya and Kure. 

The " Shukai " editor has a note here to the effect that Han is Chang-an 
and Loh-yang, formerly capitals of Han ; Wu is Chien-kang (Chien-yeh ?), 
the Wu capital, near the present Nanking. 

' Wu acclivity. ' The plain of Wu. It is in Yamato. 

** Yamato. * 

364 NinoNGi. 

couch, answered him, saying : — " This, jewel head-dress was 
presented on behalf of thy handmaiden by her elder brother. 
Prince Oho-kusaka, when, in obedience to the orders of the 
Emperor Anaho, he offered her to Your Majesty.* Therefore I 
conceived suspicion of Ne no Omi, and unawares shed tears 
and wept for grief." When the Emperor heard this he 
was astonished, and was very wroth. He pressed it sharply 
home to Ne no Omi, who replied, saying : — ** I have deserved 
to die ! I have deserved to die ! Truly it is thy servant's 
fault." The Emperor commanded, saying : — '* From this time 
forward let Ne no Omi, his children, his descendants, and his 
eighty connections have no concern with the order of Ministers 
of State." He was about to put Ne no Omi to death, but he 
ran away and hid himself. Arriving at Hine, he made a rice- 
castle, in which he stood on the defensive, but was ultimately 
slain by the Government forces. The Emperor ordered the 
officials to divide his descendants into two parts, one of which 
was constituted common people of the Oho-kusaka Be, and 

XIV. 40. was allotted in fief to the Empress ; the other part was given 
to the Chinu no Agata-nushi, and made sack-bearers. So 
having sought out a descendant of Hikaka, Naniha no Kishi,' a 
title was granted to him, and he was made Oho-kusaka Be no 

After matters had become quiet, Wone*' no Omi [Wone no 
Omi was the son of Xe no Omi], when lying down at night, 
said to some one : — ** The Emperor's castle is not strong ; my 
father's castle is strong." These words came to the Emperor's 
ears. He sent a man to see Ne no Omi's house. It was really 
as had been said. Therefore he seized him and put him to 
death. Ne no Omi's descendants were made Sakamoto no 
Omi. From this they had their beginning. 

A.D. 471. 15th year. The Hada House ^ was dispersed. The Omi 
and Muraji each enforced their services at pleasure, and would 
not allow the Hada no Miyakko to control them. Con- 
sequently Sake, Hada no Miyakko, made a great grievance of 

* See above, p. 330. - See above, p. 331. '* Wo means little. 

* Hada. Several families of this name are mentioned in the " Seishiroku." 
They were believed to be descended from She Hwang-Ti, ihc celebrated 
Chinese Emperor of the T'sin dynasty, who reigned r..c. 221 to 209. 

YURIAKU. ' 365 

this, and took office with the Emperor. The Emperor loved 

and favoured him, and commanded that the Hada House 

should be assembled and given to Lord Sake of Hada. * So 

this Lord, attended by excellent Be workmen of 180* kinds, XIV. 41. 

presented as industrial taxes fine silks, which were piled up so 

as to fill the Court. Therefore he was granted a title, viz. 

Udzu-masa. [Some say Ud^umori masa, the appearance of 

all being piled up so as to fill.^] 

i6th year, Autumn, 7th month. The Emperor ordered those a.d. 472. 
provinces and districts which were suitable for mulberry trees 
to plant mulberry trees. He again dispersed to other places 
the Hada House, and made them bring tribute of industrial 

Winter, loth month. The Emperor ordered the Aya Be to 
be brought together, and established their Tomo no Miyakko, 
granting him the title of Atahe. 

One book says : — " Granted the Aya no Omi the title of 

17th year, Spring, 3rd month, 2nd day. The Hanishi ' no a.d. 473. 
Muraji were made to present pure vessels suitable for serving 
the Emperor's morning and evening meals. Hereupon Ake, 
the ancestor^ of the Hanishi no Muraji, presented to the 
Emperor a Be of his private subjects of the village of Kusasa in 
the province of Settsu, of the villages of Uchi and Fushimi in 
the province of Yamashiro, of the village of Fuji-kata in the xiv. 42. 
province of Ise, and also from Tamba, Tajima and Inaba, and 
named them the Nihe * no Hanishi Be. 

i8th year. Autumn, 8th month, loth day. The Mononobe a.d. 474. 
Ushiro no Sukune and the Mononobe Me no Muraji were sent 
to smite Ise no Asahi no Iratsuko. Asahi no Iratsuko, hearing 
of the approach of the Government troops, opposed them in 
battle at Awohaka ^ in Iga. Priding himself on his skill in 
archery, he addressed the Government army, saying : — " Who 

* 180 is, of course, a fancy number. 

* This is an attempt to connect this name with tsumoru^ to be piled up. 
' Potters. 

^ Ancestor here cannot mean founder of the House. 

* Nihe means food ; these potters were for the supply of the Emperor's 
table utensils. 

" Green tumulus. 

366 NiiiONGi. 

is a match for the hand of Asahi no Iratsuko ? The arrow 
which he lets fly will pierce two thicknesses of armour." The 
Government troops were all afraid, and Ushiro no Sukune did 
not dare to advance to the combat. They awaited each other 
for two days and one night. Hereupon the Mononobe Me no 
Muraji armed himself with his sword, and making Oho-wono- 
te,* of the Mononobe of Kiku in Tsukushi, take his shield and 
call out in the midst of the army, advanced along with him. 
Asahi no Iratsuko saw them from afar off, and shot an arrow 
through Oho-wono-te's shield and two-fold armour which at 
the same time entered the flesh of his body to the depth of 

XIV. 43. an inch. Oho-wono-te screened with his shield the, Mononobe, 
Me no Muraji, and Me no Muraji caught Asahi no Iratsuko 
and slew him. Accordingly Ushiro no Sukune, beside himself 
with shame, for seven days did not make his report to the 
Emperor. But the Emperor inquired of his Ministers in 
attendance, saying : — ** Why does not Ushiro no Sukune make 
his report ? *' Now there was a man named Sanuki no Ta- 
mushi Wake who came forward and addressed the Emperor, 
saying : — ** Ushiro no Sukune is a coward. For the space of 
two days and one night he was unable to seize Asahi no 
Iratsuko. Then the Mononobe, Me no Muraji, taking with 
him Oho-wono-te, a Mononobe of Kiku in Tsukushi, caught 
and slew Asahi no Iratsuko." When the Emperor heard 
this he was angry, and promptly taking away from Ushiro 
no Sukune his Be of Wina," gave it to the Mononobe Me no 

A.D. ^yS' 19th year. Spring, 3rd month, 13th day. By Imperial 
command, the Anaho Be was established."* 

A.D. 476. 20th year,* Winter. The ** King of Koryo raised a great 
army and utterly smote Pekche. There was but a small 
remnant left, which assembled and occupied Chhang-ha. * 
Their victuals became exhausted, and deep was hereupon the 

^ Great-axe-hand. 

- The village of Wina-Be, in Ise, with its inhabitants. 

' In memor>' of the Emperor Anaho. 

* The " Tongkam " date is 475. We have now arrived at pretty exact 

;g y. The traditional Kana renders this Hesu-oto — perhaps an 
attempt to reproduce the native Corean name. 


weeping and lamentation. Upon this the Koryo generals 
addressed their King, saying : — ** There is something extra- 
ordinary in the temper of Pekche. Whenever thy servants 
observe them, they seem unaware of their own ruin. It 
is to be feared that they will again spread forth and revive. 
We pray that they may be at length got rid of." The King 
said : — " No ! I, the unworthy one, have heard that the Land ,XIV. 44. 
of Pekche is under the jurisdiction of the Country of Japan, 
and that this connection is of old standing. It is also known 
to all the neighbouring countries that their King repairs to 
Japan and serves the Emperor." Ultimately it (the proposal 
to exterminate the Pekchd people) was abandoned. 

The Pekche record says : — ** King K^ro, year Kinoto U 
(475), Winter. A large army from Koryo came and 
besieged the great castle for seven days and seven nights. 
The Royal castle surrendered, and at length they destroyed 
Wi-nye. The King, Queen, and Princes all fell into the 
hands of the enemy.*' 
2ist year. Spring, 3rd month. The Emperor, hearing that XI v. 45. 
Pekch6 had been conquered by Koryo, gave Kuma-nari to ^'^' ^^^' 
King Munchu, and so lent aid to his country. The men of 
that day all said : — ** The Land of Pfekch^, though their race 
was destroyed, assembled and lamented at Chhang-ha. They 
with true hearts appealed to the Emperor, who restored their 

King Munchu was King Kero's younger brother by the 
mother's side. An ancient Japanese record says: — ** The 
statement that Kumanari was given to King Mata* is 
probably an error. Kumanari is a separate village of the 
district of Lower Takori'^ in Imna." 

3R ^. The Coreans call him i^ ;^, i.e. Mu-te. He was Munchu's 
Accessor. The Traditional Kana has Arushi for T* , lower. The Corean for 
Lower is are. 

The syllable ko in this name is probably an error, as below (reign of 
Keidai), Upper Tari and Lower Tari are mentioned as districts. National 
vanity is a powerful stimulus to the mythopceic faculty, and the above 
narrative must be taken with a few grains of salt. But it is no doubt true 
in the main. The "Tongkam," which gives a short account of the war, 
says that Silla sent an army of 10,000 men to the assistance of P^kchd. 
Under the year 475 it records the removal of the Pekchd capital to Ung- 


68 NiHONGI. 

A.D. 478. 22nd year, Spring, ist month. Prince Shiraga was made 
Heir Apparent. 

Autumn, 7th month. A man of Tsutsukaha in the district 
of Yosa in the province of Tamba, the child of Urashima of 
Midzunoye, went fishing in a boat. At length he caught a 
large tortoise,* which straightway became changed into a 
woman. Hereupon Urashima's child fell in love with her, and 
made her his wife. They went down together into the sea and 
reached Horai San,' where they saw the genii. The story is 
in. another Book.'* 

A.D. 479. 23rd year, Summer, 4th month. King Munkeun * of Pfekchd 

^^^' ^^- died. 

chin. Now Ung-chin or Ung-chhon (]f| ^ or ]^ Jll) was a town in 
Kybng-syang-do, near the present Keumhe, and the meaning is Bear-port 
or Bear- river, evidently, therefore, the same with the Kuma-nari of the 
text. Kuma is for koma, the Corean word for bear, and nari is a dialectical 
or ancient form of nSi (pronounced ne), river. It occurs above in the name 
of the river which the King of Silla swears by at p. 231. Ung-chin or 
Kuma-nari was in the Imna territory, the capital of which was Keumhe, 
then controlled by Japan, and it is not at all improbable that it should be 
ceded to Pekch^ on this occasion. 

The " Tongkam " mentions a Japanese descent on the eastern coast of 
Silla in 476. They were driven off with a loss of 200 men. 

» Or turtle. 

- " Mount Horai is the P'eng- Lai-Shan of the Chinese, one of the Three 
Isles of the Genii, which were believed to lie in the Eastern Sea, opposite to 
the coast of China. This happy group was the paradise of the Genii, who 
there maintained a sempiternal vigour by quaffing the waters of the fountain 
of life which flowed for them in a perpetual stream. The pine, the plum, 
the peach-tree, and the sacred fungus grow for ever upon its rocky shores ; 
and the ancient crane builds its nest upon the giant limbs of its never- 
dying pine.*' Catalogue of Japanese paintings in the British Museum, 
Anderson, p. 224. See also Dickins' " Taketori-Monogatari," in the " R.A.S. 
Transactions." The " Manyoshiu," an ancient collection of Japanese poems, 
contains a beautiful version of this legend, which has been rendered into 
English verse by Mr. B. H. Chamberlain, in his " Classical Poetry of the 
Japanese,'* and of which a prose version may be found in my grammar of 
the Japanese written language. The Chinese and Japanese legendary lore 
associated with Horai San is of boundless extent. 

The Interlinear Kana renders Horai San by Tokoyo no Kuni, or Eternal 
Land, which is quite inadequate. 

^ The " Shukai " editor rejects this as an unauthorized addition. 

* There is no Pekch6 king of this name. King Sam-Keun (^ if"), who 
died in this year (the month differs), is doubtless meant. The first 


The Emperor summoned within the Palace Prince Mata 
(Mute), the second of Prince Konchi's five sons, who was young 
in years, but intelligent. He himself stroked the Prince's face 
and head, and made a gracious decree, appointing him to reign 
over that country. He also gave him weapons, and at the 
same time furnished him with 500 soldiers of the Land of 
Tsukushi to escort him to his country. He became King 

This year, tribute was sent from Pfekch^ in excess of the 
regular amount. 

Tsukushi no Achi no Omi and Umakahi no Omi, in com- 
mand of a naval force, attacked Koryo. 

Autumn, 7th month. The Emperor took to his sick-bed, 
and was ill at ease. By an Imperial decree he committed 
rewards and punishments, together with financial matters, great 
and small alike, to the charge of the Prince Imperial. 

8th month, 7th day. The Emperor's disease became more 
and more grave. He took leave of all the functionaries. He 
pressed all their hands with sobs and lamentations, and died 
in the Great Hall, having left command to Ohotomo no XIV. 48. 
Muruya no Ohomuraji and Yamato-Aya no Tsuka no Atahe, 
saying : — ** At the present time, the world is one household : 
smoke and fire are 10,000 ri distant : ^ the people are well- 
ordered : the four barbarians are submissive. This is by the 
will of Heaven, which desires to bestow peace throughout 

character %, came in somehow from the name of the preceding King 
(it W) Munchu. The following is from the " Tongkam," IV. 32, under 
the date a.d. 477. *' Summer, 4th month. The King of P^kch^ appointed 
his eldest son Samkeun to be Heir Apparent. H^ku of P^kch^ killed his 
Prince Munchu. The Heir Apparent Samkeun came to the throne. His 
age was thirteen. The military administration of the country was placed 
in entire charge of Hcku. Before this H6ku exercised authority in an 
arbitrary way, and corrupted the laws, cherishing feelings of disloyalty to 
his Prince. The King (Munchu) was unable to control him. Hereupon 
the King went hunting and stayed abroad for the night, and H^ku sent a 
robber who murdered him." Heku was put to death in the following year. 

In 479 we have the following: — "Winter, nth month. King Samkeun 
of P^kch^ died, and was succeeded by Mut^, son of King Munchu's younger 
brother Konchi. 

* East Castle, probably in allusion to the Eastern situation of Ungchin. 

' War is far off. 

B b 

3/0 NiHONGI. 

the land. Therefore with careful mind inciting myself, I have 
been every day watchful for that day, for the sake of the 
people. The Omi, the Muraji and the Tomo no Miyakko 
daily attend the court : the Governors of provinces and oi 
districts in due season assemble in court. How shall they notn:^ 
with their whole hearts diligently obser\'e the Imperial decrees P"^ 
In principle our relation is that of Prince and vassal, but in -^ 
feeling it is also that of father and child. It was my hope that ^ 

XIV. 49 by the help of the wisdom of the Omi and Muraji the hearts -^ 
of the people both in the capital and elsewhere might be — 
rejoiced, and I desired long to preserve peace throughout the - 
Empire. But unexpectedly disease has come upon me. It - 
has rooted itself deeper and deeper, and has greatly increased. 
This is the common lot of humanity, and is not worth wasting 
words over. 

But in the capital and in the country the clothing and caps 
have not yet attained to freshness and neatness : civilization 
and Government still remain short of perfection. When I 
begin to reflect on this, I am simply lost in chagrin. But 
it is now many years since I could be described as in the 
vigour of youth. My strength of body and of mind have 
together become worn out. What I now do is of course not 
for my own benefit, but solely from a desire to facilitate the 
nourishment of the people. Therefore is it that I do this. 
What one of the descendants of mankind is absent from my 
thought ? For the sake of the Empire, private feelings 
should be severed. At the present time * Prince Hoshikaha 
cherishes treason in his heart. His conduct is wanting in 
friendliness towards (his brethren)." It has been said by a 
man of old : — * There is no one who knows the rninister so 
well as his Lord : there is no one who knows the child so well 
as his father.' Even supposing that Hoshikaha should make 
up his mind to unite (with his brethren) in ruling the State, 
certain disgrace would come universally upon the Omi and 
Muraji, and a cruel poison overflow the nation. Now a bad 

XIV. 50. descendant is to be dreaded for the people's sake : a good 

* See p. 337. 

' " His brethren " is not in the original, but there is an allusion to the 
Shooking (Lcgge, Vol. Ill.Pt. II. p. 535), where the complete phrase is 


descendant is sufficient to sustain the burden of the Great 
Task.^ Although this is a matter concerning Our House, in 
principle it does not admit of concealment. The Ohomuraji 
and the officials of the Home Department are widespread and 
pervade the whole country : the Prince Imperial, who is in the 
position of becoming my successor, is known to the world for 
his benevolence and filial piety. His conduct is such that he 
is a sufficient person to carry out Our ideas. If along with 
him ye administer the Empire, even although Our eyes are 
closed, what room is there for repining ? '* * 

In one book it is said: — ** It is known to all the world 
that Prince Hoshikaha is of an evil disposition and of a 
violent heart. If unfortunately after Our death he should 
attempt to harm the Prince Imperial, ye and the officials 
of the Home Department are very numerous. Strive your 
utmost to render each other mutual aid, and let there be 
no contemptuousness." 
At this time Oshiro, Kibi no Omi, General of the expedition 
against Silla, arrived at the province of Kibi, and passed by xiv. 51. 
his house. Afterwards 500 Yemishi under his command, 
hearing of the Emperor's death, spoke to one another, 
saying: — '*The Emperor who controls our country is dead. 
The opportunity should not be lost." So assembling them- 
selves into a band, they invaded the neighbouring districts. 
Hereupon Oshiro came from his house, and meeting the 
Yemishi at Port Saba,^ fought with them, and shot at the 
Yemishi. But some skipped and others lay down, thereby 
succeeding in avoiding the arrows. In the end he was unable 
to shoot them. Therewith Oshiro twanged his empty bow by 
the sea-shore, and of the skippers and skulkers two companies 
were shot to death.** Two cases of arrows were all used up. 
So he called to boatmen and asked them for arrows. But 
they were afraid, and of their own accord retired. Then 

* The sovereignty. 

2 This speech is copied, with some unimportant changes, from a passage 
in a Chinese History of the Sui dynasty, where it is assigned to the Emperor 
Kaotsu, who died A.D. 604, i.e. 125 years after the death of Yuriaku. 

' In Suwo. 

^ Chinese legend mentions archers so skilful that they could shoot birds 
and beasts without any arrows whatever. 

B b 2 


72 NiHONGI. 

Oshiro set up his bow, and taking it by the end, made a song^ 
saying : — 

On the way he met them, 
The Boy of Oshiro ! 
It is in Heaven only that 
Unheard of he will be, 
For on Earth at least 
He will be heard of. 

Having finished this song, he slew many men with his own- 
hand and pursued them on as far as Port Uragake in the Land 
XIV. 52. of Tamba, where they were all massacred. 

One book says : — '* He pursued them as far as Uragake, 
and then sent men who slew them all/' 





The Emperor Shiraga-take-hiro-kuni-oshi-waka-Yamato-neko 
was the third child of the Emperor Ohohatsuse-waka-take. 
His mother's name was Katsuraki no Kara-hime. The 
Emperor's hair was white ' from his birth. When he grew up 
to manhood, he loved the people. The Emperor Ohohatsuse 
had a special admiration for him amongst all his children, and 
in the 22nd year of his reign appointed him Prince Imperial. 
The Emperor Ohohatsuse died in the 8th month of the 23rd 
year of his reign. Then Kibi no Waka-hime secretly addressed 
the Imperial Prince, the younger son Hoshikaha, saying : — 
** If thou dost desire to ascend to the Imperial rank, do thou 
first of all take the office of the Treasury.** The eldest son, 
the Imperial Prince Ihaki, hearing this advice of the Lady his 
mother to her younger son, said: — ** Although the Prince 
Imperial is my younger brother, why should he be betrayed ? 
This thing should not be done.'* But Prince Hoshikaha 
would not give ear. He rashly followed the advice of the 
Lady his mother. Finally he took possession of the Treasury, 
and locked the outer door, therewith making provision against XV. 2. 

* Shiraga means while hair. The " Kojiki " gives his name as Shiraga 
no oho-Yamato-neko. 

' Seinei, pure and tranquil. 

^ The same thing is related of the Chinese philosopher Laotze and other 
Chinese worthies. 

374 NiHONGi. 

disaster. He exercised arbitrary authority, and squandered 
the official property. Hereupon Ohotomo no Muruya no Oho- 
muraji spake to Yamato no Aya no Tsuka no Atahe, saying :— 
'* The time has now come when the dying injunctions of th€ 
Emperor Ohohatsuse are to be fulfilled. It is meet that w 
should comply with them and do service to the Princ 
Imperial." So they raised an armed force and besieged th 
Treasury. They blockaded it from without, and setting fir^ 
to it, roasted to death the Imperial Prince Hoshikaha. A 
this time Kibi no Waka-hime, the Imperial Prince Ihaki, Ani 
kimi,* his elder brother by a different father, and Ki no Okazak 
no Kume ^ were roasted to death along with him. Then 
Wone, the Agata-nushi of Mino in Kahachi, in trepidation 
and alarm, burst away from the fire and made his escape. He 
embraced the legs of Ayahiko, Kishi of Kusakabe, and through 
him begged his life of the Ohomuraji, Ohotomo no Muruya, 
saying : — *' Thy slave Wone, the Agata-nushi, was the faithful 
servant of the Imperial Prince Hoshikaha, but yet he was not 
rebellious towards the Prince Imperial. He prays that a 
generous mercy be accorded him, and a human life spared. 
Accordingly Ayahiko represented this fully to Ohotomo, the 
Ohomuraji, on his behalf, and he was not entered in the rank 
of those who were executed. Wone thereupon made repre- 
sentation to the Ohomuraji through Ayahiko, saying: — ** My 
Lord jDhotomo the Ohomuraji, owing to thy great mercy 
bestowed on me, my life, which was in imminent danger, has 
been continued and lengthened so that I can see the light of 
day.'* So he hastened to present to the Ohomuraji ten cho of 
XV. 3. rice-land at Ohowido in the village of Kume in Naniha. He 
also presented rice-land to Ayahiko as a return for the favour 
shown him. 

In this month, the Omi of the upper province of Kibi, 
hearing of the disturbances at the Court, wished to aid their 
uterine brother, the Imperial Prince Hoshikaha, and came 
floating over the sea with a fleet of forty war vessels. When 
they arrived they heard of the roasting to death, and went 
away again without landing. The Emperor straightway sent 

* Or Ye-kimi. This name means elder Lord. 
^ Probably for Kume no Muraji. 

Seinei. 375 

messengers to call the Omi * of Upper Kibi to an account, and 
to deprive them of the mountain Be of which they had 

Winter, loth month, 4th day. The Ohomuraji, Ohotomo 
no Muruya, attended by the Omi and Muraji, delivered to the 
Prince Imperial the Seal. 

1st year, Spring, ist month, 15th day. The Emperor, by a.d. 480 
command to the officials, prepared an arena at Mikakuri in 
Ihare, and there assumed the Imperial Dignity. He at length 
established his Palace, and honoured Katsuraki no Kara-hime 
with the title of Grand Consort.' The Ohomuraji, Ohotomo 
no Muruya, was made Ohomuraji, and the Oho-omi of Matori 
in Heguri was made Oho-omi, so that both were continued in 
their former positions. The Omi, Muraji, and.Tomo no 
Miyakko each took the rank belonging to their several offices. 

Winter, loth month, 9th day. The Emperor Ohohatsuse 
w^as buried in the misasagi on the Takawashi plain in Tajihi. 
At this time the Hayato lamented night and day beside the 
misasagi, and refused the food which was offered them. Seven 
days passed, and then they died. The officials constructed a 
mound to the north of the tumulus, where they were buried 
with due ceremony. This was the year Kanoye Saru (57th) of XV. 4. 
the Cycle. 

2nd year, Spring, 2nd month. The Emperor, vexed that he a.d. 481, 
had no children, sent the Ohomuraji, Ohotomo no Muruya, to 
the provinces, and established the Be of Shiraga no Toneri,^ 
the Be of Shiraga no Kashihade,^ and the Be of Shiraga no 
Yugehi,"' in the hope of leaving a trace which might be seen of 

Winter, nth month. For the purpose of the offerings of 
the feast of first-fruits, Wodate, of the Be of Kume of lyo, 
ancestor of the Yamabe no Muraji and Governor of Harima, 
was sent thither. In the new muro of Hosome, Miyakko 

* No doubt the Yamamori Be or Mountain wardens mentioned in the 
reign of Ojin 

■ Kara-hime, not having been Empress, could not be appointed Grand 
■ Empress like other Imperial relicts. 

•' Attendants. "* Stewards. 

'* Lit. quiver-bearers, or archers, a part of the Imperial Guard. The 
** Kojiki '' mentions only a Shiraga Be. 

37^ NiHONGI. 

of the Oshinomi Be and Obito of the granary of Shijimi in the 
district of Akashi, he saw Ohoke and Woke, sons of the 
Imperial Prince Oshiha of Ichinobe. He took them together 
reverently to his bosom, recognized them as his lords, and 
attended to their nurture with extreme care. From his own 
private income he arranged for the construction of a palace of 
brushwood, in which he lodged them temporarily, and 
XV. 5. mounting a swift steed, hastened to inform the Emperor. 
The Emperor was astonished, and after exclaiming for a good 
while, he said with emotion : — ** Admirable ! Delightful ! 
Heaven in its bountiful love has bestowed on us two children." 
In this month he sent Wodate with a token of authority, and 
some of the Toneri in attendance on him, to Akashi to meet 
them (and escort them back). 

The story ^ is given in the history of the Emperor Woke. 
A.i>. 482. 3rd year, ist month, ist day. Wodate and his companions 
arrived in the province of Settsu, escorting Ohoke and Woke. 
Then Omi and Muraji were sent, with emblems of authority 
and a royal green-canopied carriage,' to meet them and bring 
them into the Palace. 

Summer, 4th month, 7th day. Prince Ohoke was appointed 
Prince Imperial, and Prince Woke was made an Imperial 

Autumn, 7th month. Regina (princess) Ihitoyo primum 
coivit cum marito in Palatio Tsunuzashi, Dixit alicui : — " Nunc 
aliquantum cognovi viam feminarum. Quid habet mirum in se ? 
Non sum cupida unquam rursus coeundi cum viro." [It is not 
clear that she had a husband at this time.] 

-gth month, 2nd day. The Omi and Muraji were sent on 
circuit to inspect the manners and customs. 

Winter, loth month, 4th day. An edict was made pro- 
hibiting dogs, horses, and playthings from being offered to the 
XV. 6. nth month, i8th day. The Omi and Muraji were feasted in 
the Great Court, and received presents of floss-silk. They 

* See below, XV. 8, also Ch. K., p. 328. 

- This is purely Chinese. Motowori says that no such vehicles were ever 
known in Japan. 

' These same words arc found in a Histor>' of the Chinese Sui Dynasty^ 
under the year 581 a.d. 

Kenzo. 377 

were all allowed to take as much as they pleased themselves, 
and they went forth exerting their utmost strength. 

In this month, the various outlying provinces beyond the 
sea all sent envoys with tribute. 

4th year, Spring, ist month, 7th day. The envoys of the a.d. 483 
various outlying provinces beyond the sea were feasted in the 
Audience Hall, and received presents of various values. 

Summer, Intercalary 5th month. There was a national 
drinking festival, which lasted five days.* 

Autumn, 8th month, 7th day. The Emperor personally 
held an inspection " of prisoners. On this day the Yemishi 
and Hayato together rendered homage. 

9th month, 1st day. The Emperor was present in the Hall 
of Archery. He invited the functionaries and the envoys from 
beyond the sea to join in the shooting. Each received presents 
var\'ing in value. 

5th year, ist month, i6th day. The Emperor died in the a.d. 4S4 
Palace. His years were many.' 

Winter, nth month, gth day. He was buried in the misasagi 
on the Sakato plain in Kahachi. 



The Emperor Woke (otherwise called Kume no Wakako) 
was the grandchild of the Emperor Ohoye* no Izaho-wake and 
son of the Imperial Prince Ichinobe no Oshiha. His mother's 
name was Hayehime. 

' The History of the Chinese Emperor Ming Ti (58—75 A.D.) has mention 
of a great drinking festival lasting five days. 

* Williams says that ^ in this phrase means *' to release." No doubt 
the object was to release such as were deserving of pardon. 

' His age is reckoned variously by other authorities at thirty-nine and 

* Illustrious ancestry. 

* His name is not given elsewhere with the prefix Ohoye, which means 
** great elder brother." 

^yS NiHONGi. 

In the * Genealogy' it is said: — "The Imperial Prince 
Oshiha of Ichinobe took to wife Hayehime, daughter of 
Ari no Omi, and at length had by her three sons and two 
daughters. The first was named Winatsu hime, the second 
Prince Ohoke, also called Shima no Wakako, also called 
Ohoshi no Mikoto, the third was named Prince Woke, also 
called Kume no Wakako, the fourth was named Princess 
Ihitoyo, also called Princess Oshinomibe, and the fifth 
Prince Tachibana. In one book Princess Ihitoyo is 
ranked above Prince Ohoke. Ari no Omi was the son of 
Hada no Sukune.*' 
The Emperor, having lived for a long time on the borders, 
was thoroughly acquainted with the miseries of the people, and 
whenever he saw them oppressed, he felt as if his own four 
members were plunged in a ditch. He dispensed virtuous in- 
fluence, he bestowed blessings ; the regulations of government 
were everywhere enforced ; charity was shown to the poor, and 
the husbandless were supported. The Empire rendered him 
cordial allegiance. 

In the lOth month of the 3rd year of the Emperor Anaho, 
the Emperor's father,* the Imperial Prince Ichinobe no Oshiha 
was slain, together with the Toneri, Saheki be no Nakachiko, 
XV. 8. by the Emperor Ohohatsuse on the moor of Kaya." They were 
accordingly buried in the same grave. Thereupon the Emperor ' 
and Prince Ohoke, hearing that their father had been shot to 
death, were afraid, and both escaped and hid themselves. The 
Toneri, Omi, Kusakabe no Muraji [Omi is the personal name of 
Kusakabe no Muraji], with his son Adahiko, secretly served the 
Emperor and Prince Woke, so that they avoided disaster by 
fleeing to the district of Yosa in the province of Tamba. Omi 
at length changed his name and called himself Tatoku, but 
being still afraid of being put to death, he fled from this place 
to a cave in Mount Shijimi in the province of Harima. There 
he strangled himself. The Emperor, being still ignorant 
whither Omi had gone, urged his elder brother, Prince Ohoke, 
to turn his steps towards the district of Akashi in the province 
of Harima. There they both changed their names to Tamba 

^ i.e. Emperor Woke's father. * See above, p. 336. 

' Woke is meant. 

Kenzo. 379 

no Waraha/ and entered the service of the Obito of the Shijimi 

The Obito of the Shijimi granaries was Hosome Oshi- 
nomi Be no Miyakko. 
Adahiko at this time did not leave them, but remained constant 
to his duty as their vassal. 

In Winter, the nth month of the 2nd year of the reign of 
the Emperor Shiraga, the Governor of the province of Harima, 
Wodate lyo no Kumebe, ancestor of the Yamabe no Muraji, 
went to the district of Akashi to make arrangements in person 
for the offerings of the festival of first-fruits. 

One writing says : — ** Went on a circuit to the kohori 
and agata' to collect the land tax.*' 

It so happened that he arrived just when the Obito of the XV. 9. 
granaries of Shijimi was holding a house-warming for a new 
muro and was extending the day by adding to it the night. 
Hereupon the Emperor spake to his elder brother, Prince 
Ohoke, saying: — ** Many years have passed since we fled 
hither to escape ruin. It belongs to this very evening to reveal 
our names and to disclose our high rank." Prince Ohoke 
exclaimed with pity : — " To make such an announcement our- 
selves would be fatal. Which of us could keep safe his person 
and avoid danger ? " The Emperor said : — " We, the grand- 
sons of the Emperor Izahowake, are a man's drudges, and feed 
his horses and kine. What better can we do than make known 
our names and be slain ? '* At length he and Prince Ohoke fell 
into each other's arms and wept, being unable to contain their 
emotion. Prince Ohoke said : — ** In that case who else but 
thou, my younger brother, is capable of making a heroic effort, 
and is therefore fit to make this disclosure ? " The Emperor 
refused firmly, saying: — ** Thy servant has no ability. How 
can he make so bold as to display virtuous action ? " Prince 
Ohoke said : — ** There are here none to excel my younger 
brother in ability and wisdom." And in this way they mutu- 
ally held back each in favour of the other for two or three 
times. It was ultimately arranged, with the Emperor's con- 
sent, that he should make the announcement. Together they xv. 10. 
went to the outside of the muro and sat down in the lowest 

* The boys of Tamba. * Districts. 


80 NlHONGI. 

place. The Obito of the granary ordered them to sit beside the 
cooking-place and hold lights to right and left. When the 
night had become profound, and the revel was at its height^ 
and every one had danced in turn, the Obito of the granary 
addressed Wodate, saying: — **Thy servant observes that these 
light-holders honour others, and abase themselves ; they put 
others before, and themselves behind. By their respectfulness 
they show their observance of just principles ; by their retiring 
behaviour they illustrate courtesy. They are worthy of the 
name of gentlemen.'* Upon this Wodate played on the lute 
and gave orders to the light-holders, saying : — " Get up and 
dance." Then the elder and younger brothers declined in each 
other's favour for a good while and did not get up. Wodate 
urged them, saying: — ''Wherefore all this delay? Get up 
quickly and dance.'' Prince Ohoke got up and danced. When 
he had done, the Emperor stood up in his turn, and having 
adjusted his dress and girdle, proposed a health for the Mure, 
saying :— 

The Dolichos roots* of the new muro which he has upbuilt ; 

The pillars which he has upbuilt — 

These are ^ the calm of the august heart of the master of the hotise : 

The ridge-poles which he has raised'aloft — 

These are the grove ^ of the august heart of the master of the house : 

The rafters which he has set — 

These are the perfect order of the august heart of the master of the house : 

The laths which he has placed — 

These are the fairness of the august heart of the master of the house : 

' The Dolichos roots present a difficulty. They are better known for 
yielding a starchy food like arrowroot than as material for house-building. 
The stems are mentioned below. Another objection is that their introduc- 
tion here spoils the symmetry of the composition, which though not exactly 
poetry, is something closely verging on it. I would prefer to omit the words 
" Katsura ne tsuki-tatsuru '' of the original, so that the first two lines would 
become only one, viz. — 

" The pillars of the new muro which he has upbuilt.'' 

* i.e. represent. 

' Grove. The commentators say this means shigeki, thick, which in 
Japanese is a metaphor for cordial, hearty, kind. 

Kenzo. 3S1 

The Uolichos cords which he has tied — * 

These are the endurance of the august life of the master of the house : 
The reed-leaves it is thatched with — 

These are the superabundance of the august wealth of the master of the XV. i 
house : 

On all sides ^ (of it) there are fields of fresh culture : 

With the ten-span rice-ears, 

Of these fresh fields, 

In a shallow pan 

We have brewed sake. 

W^ith gusto let us drink it, 

O my boys ! 

Whenever we dance 

Uplifting the horns of a buck ' 

Of these secluded hills 

(Weary to the foot) 

Sweet sake from Yega market-town 

Not buying with a price, 

To the clear ring of hand-palms 

Ye will revel,* 

Oh I my immortal ones I * 

When he had ended proposing this health, he sang to the 
accompaniment of music, saying : — 

* • * «6 

The willow that grows by the river — 

* i.e. tied the laths (of sedge) to the uprights of the walls, which were then 
plastered with a mixture of mud and straw. The firmness with which they 
were tied represents the endurance of the master's life. 

^ In this passage, as in the well-known poem attributed to Susa no wo, I 
have ventured to render idzumo as equal to idzukumo, on all sides, although 
without native authority. 

' Animal dances, in which the performer represented a deer, wild boar, 
butterfly, bird, etc., were common in ancient Japan. The Shishi mai, or 
lion-dance, danced by two boys, one of whom wears a grotesque mask sup- 
posed to represent a lion, and the other supports the body, made of cotton 
stuff, may still be seen in the streets. 

* The word for " revel " is uchi-age, which means literally to strike up. 
But the uchi (strike) must also be taken with "hand-palms" in the sense 
of "clapping." 

* A way of saying, " May you live for ever ! " In this passage the author 
had in mind a speech in Japanese, the original language of which, although 
mainly expressed by Chinese ideographs, can be conjectured with some 
degree of certainty. 

* The first line of this poem contains the single word Ina-mushiro, ** sleep- 

3^2 NiHONGI. 

When the water has gone, 

It raises up (its stem that was) bent down, 

And its roots perish not. 

Wodate addressed him, saying : — *' Capital ! Pray let us 
hear something more/' 

The Emperor at length made a special dance, 

This is what was anciently called a Tatsutsu (stand out) 
dance. The manner of it was that it w^is danced while 
standing up and sitting down, 
and striking an attitude, said : — 

Of Yamato, 

Soso chihara 

The younger Prince am I. 

XV. 12. Hereupon Wodate thought this profoundly strange, and 
asked him to say more. The Emperor, striking an attitude, 
said : — 

The sacred cedar ^ 

Of Furu in Isonokami — ^ 

Its stem is severed, 

Its branches are stripped off. 

Of him who in the Palace of Ichinobc 

(jovcrned all under Heaven,'' 

The myriad Heavens, 

The myriad lands — 

Of Oshiha no Mikoto 

The august children are we.* 

ing-mat" (a rice straw mat), a conventional epithet or makura-kotoba of 
kaha, skin, perhaps because the Japanese used skins for sleeping on at one 
lime. It has, properly speaking, nothing to do with kaha, river, but the un- 
expected conjunction is witty — from a Japanese point of view. The allusion 
to the position of the two Princes is plain. 

* Chihara, or as it maybe read Ashihara, means reed plain, a poetical term 
for Japan. So so is interpreted as an onomatope representing the rustling 
of reeds. Astj is shallow, and asachihara is said to be a plain on which the 
reeds grow short. The speech (or poem) is a (no doubt with intention) 
mysteriously worded announcement of Woke's rank as an Imperial Prince. 

^ The sugi or Cryptomeria Japonica. 

' In Yamato. ** He never reigned. See above, p. 336. 

* There is hardly any metre here. This passage is just on the border 
line between poetr>' and prose. 

Kenz5. 383 

Wodate was greatly astonished. He left his seat, and, vexed 
with himself,* made repeated obeisance to them. He under- 
took to provide for them, and brought his people to prostrate 
themselves reverently. Then he levied all the inhabitants of 
that district, and in a few days built a palace, in which the 
Princes were temporarily lodged. Going up to the capital, he 
asked that some one should be sent to meet the two Princes. 
The Emperor Shiraga was rejoiced to hear this, and exclaimed, 
saying: — ** We have no children; we must make them our 
successors." Along with the Oho-omi and the Ohomuraji, 
he settled on a plan within the forbidden precinct.' So 
Kumebe no Wodate, the Governor of Harima, was sent with 
emblems of authority, and accompanied by personal attendants 
of the Emperor, to go to meet them at Akashi. In Spring, 
the 1st month of the third year of the Emperor Shiraga, the 
Emperor,^ with Prince Ohoke, arrived at the province of Settsu, 
where Omi and Muraji were sent with emblems of authority xv. 13. 
and a Royal green-canopied carriage to meet them and bring 
them into the Palace. In Summer, the 4th month. Prince Ohoke 
was appointed Prince Imperial, and the Emperor was raised to 
the rank of Imperial Prince. 

In Spring, the ist month of the 5th year of his reign, the 
Emperor Shiraga died. In this month the Prince Imperial 
Ohoke and the Emperor ceded to each other the Dignity, and 
for a long time did not occupy it. Therefore the Emperor's 
elder sister,^ the Imperial Princess Awo of Ihi-toyo, held a Court 
and carried on the Government in the Palace of Tsunuzashi in 
Oshinomi, styling herself Oshinomi no Ihitoyo no Awo no 
Mikoto. A poet of that day made a song, saying : — 

In Yamato 

What I long to see 

Is the Tsunuzashi Palace 

In this Takaki ^ 

Of Oshinomi. 

Winter, i ith month. Ihitoyo, Awo no Mikoto died. She was 
buried in the misasagi on the Hill of Haniguchi in Katsuraki. 

* For the neglect shown to the Princes. 

■^ A Chinese term for the Palace. ' Viz. Woke. 

The " Kojiki " makes her his maternal aunt. 

Takaki means high castle, but is here the name of a place. 

384 NiHONGI. 

I2th month. There was a great assembly of the officials, at 
which the Prince Imperial Ohoke took the Imperial Seal, and 
placing it on the seat occupied by the Emperor, did him 
repeated obeisance. He then took his place among the 
Ministers, and said : — ** This rank of Emperor should be occu- 
pied by a man possessed of merit. The disclosure of our rank, 
and our being sent for by the late Emperor, is all a result of 
the policy of my younger brother, I resign the Empire in his 
favour." The Emperor, on the other hand, resigned it on the 
grounds that as a younger brother he might not presume to 
assume the Dignity, and also because he was aware that the 
Emperor Shiraga had appointed his elder brother Prince 
Imperial with the previous purpose of transmitting it to him. 
XV. 14. For these two reasons he firmly declined, saying : — ** When the 
sun and moon appear, is it not impossible that a candle should 
not give way before their radiance ? When a seasonable rain 
falls, is it not superfluous trouble to go on watering from a 
pond ? * The conduct which should be esteemed by him who 
is in the position of a younger brother is to serve his elder 
brother by devising methods of averting from him disaster, to 
illustrate virtue, and to unravel complications without putting 
himself forward. For if he puts himself forw^ard, he will be 
wanting in the reverence which is due from a younger brother. 
Woke cannot bear to put himself forward.^ It is in immutable 
law that the elder brother should be affectionate and the 
younger brother reverent. So I have heard from our elders. 
How can I of myself alone make light of it ? " The Prince 
Imperial Ohoke said : — *'The Emperor Shiraga, by reason of 
my being the elder brother, at first assigned to me all the 
affairs of the Empire. But I am ashamed to accept it. Now 
the great Prince's conduct is established in beneficial retire- 
ment,'* so that those who hear him utter sighs of admiration. 

^ From " When " to "pond" is taken from a Chinese book. 

' From "The conduct" to "forward" is imitated from a passage in the 

" Liki." 

^ He probably makes allusion to the Yih-king, Diagram xxxiii. Sect. 6, 
which is thus translated by Legge : "The sixth line, undivided, shows its 
subject retiring in a noble way. It will be advantageous in every respect.'' 
This means, perhaps, that his modest behaviour proves that his reign will be 
beneficial to the people. 

Kenzo. 385 

He has displayed the qualities of an Imperial scion, so that all 
who see him let fall tears. The pitiable gentry will rejoice to 
bear the gladness of sustaining the Heavens : the wretched 
black-haired people will be delighted to enjoy the happiness of 
treading the earth. Therewith the four corners of the earth 
will be made solid, so as to flourish perpetually to ten thousand 
ages. His meritorious work will approach that of creation; XV. 15 
his honest policy will illuminate the age. How pre-eminent I 
How recondite ! Words fail me to describe. How shall 
I, albeit his elder, put myself forward before him ? If, having 
no merit, I should accept the throne, self-reproach would 
surely be the result. I have heard that the office of Emperor 
ought not to remain long vacant, and that the will of Heaven 
should not be evaded out of humilitv. Let the Great Prince 
make the Temples of the Earth and of Grain his thought, and 
let him make the people his heart.** As he uttered these 
words, his earnest emotion led him to shed tears. Upon this 
the Emperor saw that if he persisted in his refusal to come 
forward, he would be* acting contrary to his elder brother's 
wishes, and gave his consent. But he would not take his place 
on the Imperial throne. The world was rejoiced to see how 
well they sincerely yielded in each other's favour, and said : — 
** Excellent ! With such good feeling between elder and 
younger brother, the Empire will tend to virtue : with such 
love between relations, the people will stimulate benevolence." 

1st year, Spring, ist month, ist day. The Oho-omi and the a.d. 485. 
Ohomuraji made a representation to the Emperor, saying: — 
'* The Prince Imperial Ohoke, out of the abundance of his XV. 16. 
wisdom, has delivered over the Empire. Your Majesty, in his 
rightful governance, ought to accept the vast inheritance, and 
thus becomin*^ the Lord of the Temple of Heaven, to continue 
the infinite line of his ancestors, so as, above, to correspond to 
the mind of Heaven, and, below, to satisfy the hopes of the 
people. To refuse to enter upon the Dignity would be to cause 
the destruction of the hopes of all the Gold and Silver" frontier 
lands, and of all the functionaries both far and near. It belongs 

» The " Nihongi" introduces a /f^ (not) here. The " Kiujiki " reading 
seems preferable, and I have followed it in the translation. 
• Corea is called the ^old and silver country at p» 221. 

c c 

386 NiHONGi. 

to you by the will of Heaven, and has been ceded to you by 
the Prince Imperial. Your wisdom is abundant, and your good 
fortune conspicuous. While young you were diligent, humble, 
respectful, affectionate and docile. May it please you to 
comply with the command of your elder brother, and take 
over the conduct of the great undertaking." The Emperor 
made an order, saying : — •'* Be it so.'* Accordingly he summoned 
the Ministers of State and the functionaries to the Yatsuri 
Palace in Hither Asuka, and there assumed the Imperial 
Dignity, and the functionaries entered upon office, to the great 
delight of all. 
XV. 17. One book says the Emperor Woke had two palaces, one 

at Wono, the other at Ikeno. Another book says that he 

made his palace at Mikakuri. 
In this month, Princess Wono of Naniha was appointed 
Empress, and a general amnesty was made. 

Princess Wono of Naniha was the daughter of Prince 

Wakugo of Oka, grandson of Prince Ihaki, who was the 

great-grandson of the Emperor Wo-asatsuma-wakugo no 

2nd month, 5th day. The Emperor spoke, saying: — ** The 
late Prince, having met with much misfortune, lost his life on 
a desert moor. We were then a child, and fled away and 
concealed Ourselves. Then, by a piece of undeserved good 
fortune, We were sought out and sent for, and were raised up 
to continue the Great Work. We have searched for his 
honoured bones far and wide, but there is no one who can tell 
where they are." Having finished speaking, the Emperor and 
the Prince Imperial Ohokc burst into tears of passionate 
emotion, which they could not control. 

In this month the Emperor summoned together the old 
people, and in person made inquiry of them one after another. 
Now there was one old woman who came forward and said : — 
** Okime knows where the honoured bones were buried, and 
begs permission to point out the place to the Emperor.'* 

Okime was the old woman's name. It is stated below 

that the younger sister of Yamato-bukuro no Sukune, 

ancestor of the Kim i of Mount Sasaki in the province of 

Ohomi, was called Okime. 
Thereupon the Emperor and the Prince Imperial Ohoke, 

Kenzo. 387 

taking with them the old woman, made a progress to the moor 
of Kaya in Kutawata in the province of Ohomi, where they dug 
them up, and found that it was really as the old woman had .. 
said. Looking down into the grave, they made lament, and 
their words showed deep and passionate feeling. From 
antiquity until now never was there anything so cruel. The XV. 18. 
body of Nakachiko * lay across the honoured bones, and were 
mixed with them so that it was impossible to distinguish them 
from one another. Then there appeared the nurse of the 
Imperial Prince Ihazaka, who made representation to the 
Emperor, saying : — '* The upper teeth of Nakachiko had fallen 
out, so that by this they can be distinguished.*' But although 
they were able, in accordance with the nurse's words, to dis- 
tinguish the skulls, they never succeeded in separating the 
bones of the four members. Accordingly a pair of misasagi 
were erected on the moor of Kaya resembling each other, so 
that they seemed but one. The funeral rites also were alike. 
The Emperor ordered the old woman, Okime, to live in the 
neighbourhood of the palace, where he treated her with respect 
and showed her kindness, not allowing her to be in want. 

In this month he made an order, saying : — ** Old woman! 
thou art desolate and infirm, and walking is not convenient for 
thee. Let there be a rope stretched across to support thee 
when thou goest out and comest in. And let there be a bell 
attached to the end of the rope, so that there may be no need 
for any one to announce thee. When thou comest, ring this 
bell, and we shall know that thou art coming." Herewith the 
old woman, in obedience to the Imperial order, rang the bell 
before she came forward. The Emperor, hearing from afar the 
sound of the bell, made a song, saying : — 

Past Wosone, 
In Asajihara, 

The far-extending | j]|^^°^ ' 

There the bell tinkles I 
Okime must be coming I ' 

^ See above, XI\'. 5. 

' The point of this poem is not to be expressed in English. It rests on 
the similarity of the first syllable of nute, bell, with nu, a moor, which must 
be read twice in diflfercnt senses. The first half of the poem takes nu in the 
latter sense. With ihc latter half it is only the first syllabic olnute. 

C c 2 

388 NiHONGi. 

3rd month, 1st day of the Serpent * (the 2nd). The Emperor 
went to the Park, and there held revel by the winding streams. 
XV. 19. Summer, 4th month, nth day. The Emperor made an 
order, saying: — **The means by which a sovereign encourages 
the people is no other than the granting of office : that by 
which a country is exalted is naught else but the granting of 
rewards for merit. Now the former Governor of Harima, 
Kumebe no Wodate [his other name was Ihadate], sought Us 
out, came to meet Us, and raised Us up. His merit is 
manifold. Let him not hesitate to express his wishes." 
Wodate thanked the Emperor, saying : — ** The mountain 
office^ has always been my desire.'* He was appointed to the 
mountain office, and a new title was granted him, viz. the 
House of the Yamabe no Muraji.^ Kibi no Omi was associated 
with him, and the Yamamori Be were made their serfs. The 
Emperor praised his good qualities, made conspicuous his 
deserts, showed gratitude for his services, requited his kindness, 
and treated him with the utmost affection. His prosperity was 

5th month. Karabukuro no Sukune, Kimi of Mount Sasaki, 
who was implicated in the assassination of the Imperial Prince 
Oshiha, when about to be executed, bowed down his head to 
the ground, and his words expressed extreme sorrow. The 
Emperor could not bear to put him to death, so he added 
him to the misasagi guardians, making him at the same time 
mountain-warden,^ and erasing his name from the census 
registers. He was then handed over to the jurisdiction of the 
Yamabe no Muraji.^ 

^ This unusual way of designating the day of the month suggests that a 
different document is here quoted from. ^ 

* i.e , Warden of the Mountains, or, as we should say, ** Woods and 
Forests." It included the charge of game. 

^ Murajiofthe Mountain He. ^ (iame-kecpcr 

* The erasure of his name from the register was on account of his being 
attached to the service of the misasagi; the mountain wardenship placed 
him under the jurisdiction of the Yamabe no Muraji. 

May not these guardians of the Imperial tombs have been among the 
ancestors of the Eta or Hinin, a pariah caste (abolished by the revolution of 
1868), who lived in villages by themselves, and did not intermarry with 
or have any social intercourse with other Japanese '1 They followed 
the occupations of leather-dressers, shoemakers, buriers of dead animals, 

Kenzo. 389 

But Yamato-bukuro no Sukune, by reason of the good ser- 
vices of his younger sister, Okime, was granted his original 
title, namely, the House of the Kimi of Mount Sasaki. 

6th month. The Emperor visited the Hall of Avoidance XV. 20. 
of the heat, and had music there. The Ministers were as- 
sembled, and a banquet was prepared for them. 

This year was the year Kinoto Ushi (2nd) of the Cycle. 

2nd year. Spring, 3rd month, ist day of the Serpent (2nd). a.d. 486. 
The Emperor went to the Park, where he held revel by the 
winding streams. At this time he assembled in great numbers 
the Ministers, the High Officials, the Omi, the Muraji, the 
Kuni no Miyakko, and the Tomo no Miyakko, and made revel. 
The Ministers uttered reiterated cries of ** Long live the 
Emperor." * 

Autumn, 8th month, ist day. The Emperor addressed the 
Prince Imperial Ohoke, saying : — " Our father the late 
Prince was, for no crime, slain with an arrow shot by the 
Emperor Oho-hatsuse, and his bones cast away on a moor. 
Even until now, I have been unable to get hold of him, and 
my bosom is filled with indignation. I lie down to weep, and 
as I walk abroad I cry aloud. It is my desire to wash away 
the disgrace cast on us by our enemy. Now, I have heard 
that no one should live under the same Heaven as his father's 
enemy, that no one should lay aside arms against the enemy 
of his brother, that no one should dwell in the same country 
with the enemy of his comrade. Even the son of a common 
man, rather than serve with the enemy of his parents, sleeps 
on a coarse mat, and making a pillow of his buckler, refuses 
office. He will not dwell in the same country as his enemy, but 
whenever he meets him, in market or in Court, will not lay 
aside his weapon until he has encountered him in combat. 
Much more I who, two years ago, was raised to the rank of XV. 21. 
Son of Heaven ! It is my desire to demolish his misasagi, 

executioners, and watchmen of cemeteries. The name Hinin (nol-man) 
accords well with the circumstance mentioned here of their names being 
erased from the census registers. They were supposed to belong to the 
service of the dead, and no longer to be reckoned with the living. 

Most of the misasagi had from one to five guardians'- houses allotted to 

* Ban-zai or Man-zai, lit. 10,000 years. This term is still in use. 

390 NiHONGI. 

^ to crush his bones, and fling them broadcast. Would it not 

^19 be a filial act to take revenge in this way ? " The Prince 
Imperial Ohoke could hardly answer for sighing and sobbing. 
He remqnstrated with the Emperor, saying : — " It is not well 
to do so. The Emperor Oho-hatsuse presided over the 
Empire as the rightful director of the myriad machinery of 
Government. Court and country looked up to him with joy. 
He was an Emperor, whereas the late Prince our father^ 
although an Emperor's son, met with obstacles in his career^ 
and never rose to the Imperial Dignity. Looking on the 
matter in this light, there is the difference of exalted and base. 
And if thou hadst the heart to demolish the misasagi, who 
would recognize as Lord and do service to the Soul of Heaven ? 
This is one reason why the tomb should not be destroyed. 
Moreover, had it not been for the warm affection and special 
favour bestowed on the Emperor and Ohoke by the Emperor 
Shiraga, wouldst thou ever have attained to the precious Dignity? 
But the Emperor Oho-hatsuse was the father of the Emperor 
Shiraga. Ohoke has heard that it has been said by all the 
ancient sages, * Without words there can be no response ; 
without virtue there is no requital.* * If there is cause for 
gratitude, and no return is made, this is profoundly prejudicial 
to good morals. Your Majesty feasts the Country, and his 
virtuous conduct is felt far and wide over the Empire. But 
if he pulls down the misasagi, and shows himself in an oppo- 
site light to Court and Country, Ohoke fears that it will become 
impossible to govern the land and to bring up the people as 
XV. 22. his children. This is a second reason why it should not be 
destroyed.'* The Emperor said, ** It is well," and counter- 
manded the work.^ 

^ Virtue is in Chinese active, not merely the negation of vice. 

' The " Kojiki " tells a somewhat different story. / 'it/e Ch. K., p. 336. This 
misasagi (which I have visited) is at the present day a round single mound, 
encircled by a moat, but there are sufficient remains of the second mound 
and of the original moat to show that it was once a double-topped misasagi 
of the ordinary' type. Sec above, p. 136. A large quantity of earth must 
have been removed in order thus to deprive this tomb of its distinctive 
character as an Imperial tumulus, and to give it the appearance of the tomb 
of a mere subject. It appears as if both the "Nihongi" and "Kojiki" 
regarded the demolition of a misasagi as an impious action, and tried to 
minimize it. 

Kenzo. 391 

gth month. Okime, being decrepit from old age, asked 
leave to return to her home, saying: — " My vigour has 
decayed. I am old, infirm, and emaciated. Even with the 
help of the rope I am unable to walk. I pray thee let me 
return to my native place,* so that there I may spend my last 
days." When the Emperor heard this he was moved with 
pity. He gave her a present of a thousand pieces, and 
grieving in anticipation at the divergence of their paths, he 
repeatedly lamented that they could no longer meet. So he 
gave her a song, saying : — 

Oh : Okime I 

Okime of Afumi ! 

From to-morrow, 

Hidden by the deep mountains, 

Thou wilt no more be seen ! 

Winter, loth month, 6th day. The Emperor entertained 
his Ministers. At this time the Empire was at peace ; the 
people were not subjected to forced labour, the crops reached 
maturity, and the peasantry were prosperous. A measure of 
rice was sold for one piece of silver,* and horses and kine 
covered the moors. 

3rd year, Spring, 2nd month, ist day. Kotoshiro Ahe no ^'^' ^'^' 
Omi, acting by Imperial command, went on a mission to Imna. 
Hereupon the Moon-God, by the mouth of a certain man, ^^' ^3- 
addressed him, saying : — ** My ancestor Taka-mimusubi had 
the merit in conjunction (with other Deities) of creating 
Heaven and Earth. Let him be worshipped by dedicating to 
him people and land. I am the Moon -God, and I shall be 
pleased if an offering is made according to his desire.'' Koto- 
shiro accordingly returned to the capital, and reported these 

* Lit., The Mulberry and Euphorbia trees. There is an allusion to a 
verse in the ** Chinese liook of Odes " (Legge, Vol. IV. p. ^^7) : — 

" Even the mulberry trees and the tsze (of one's home) 
Must be regarded with reverence." 

' This is the first mention of coin in the " Nihongi." It is impossible to 
say what the measure of rice was, or what the value of the coin. Indeed, 
I take the whole passage to be a flight of the author's fancy, stimulated by 
his recollections of Chinese literature. It contains several phrases borrowed 
from Chinese works. See Index — Currency. 

392 NiHONGI. 

things fully to the Emperor. The Utaarasu rice-fields were 
dedicated to the God, and Oshimi no Sukune, the ancestor of 
the Agatanushi of Yuki, was appointed to attend upon his 

3rd month, 1st day of the Serpent (8th). The Emperor 
went to the Park, where he held revel by the winding 

Summer, 4th month, 5th day. The Sun-Goddess, by the 
mouth of a certain man, addressed Kotoshiro, Ahe no Omi, 
saying : — ** Let the Ihare rice-fields be dedicated to my 
ancestor Taka-mimusubi.'* Kotoshiro accordingly reported 
the matter to the Emperor, and in compliance with the 
Goddess's request, fourteen cho ' of rice-land were dedicated to 
him. The Atahe of Shimo no agata in Tsushima was ap- 
pointed to attend upon his shrine. 
XV. 24. 13th day. The Saki-kusa Be * was estabhshed. 

25th day. The Emperor died in the palace of Yatsuri. 

In this year, Ki no Ohiha no Sukune, bestriding and 
making a base of Imna, held communication with Koryo. In 
order to rule the three Han on the west, he established a 
government, and styled himself a Deity. By means of a plan 
laid by Cha-ro-na-kwi and Tha-kap-syo of Imna he slew 
Mak-ni-ke, the heir to the throne of Pekche, at Irin.'* [This is 
a place in Koryo.] He built the castle of Tc-san,^ and then 
stood on the defensive as regards the Eastern province, cutting 
off the harbour by which supplies were transported, and caus- 
ing the army to suffer from famine. The King of Pekche was 
greatly enraged, and despatched General Ko-ni-kc and an 
officer of the military store department, named Mak-ko-ke, in 
command of troops to Tcsan, to lay siege to it. Upon this, 
Ohiha no Sukune moved forward his army, and attacked them 

' See below, XXV, 18. 

^ Saki-kusa is literally the herb of happiness. It is also called man-nen- 
gusa, or the ** herb of 10,000 years.'* It was said to grow in the Court of the 
Temple to the sovereign's ancestors. The " Seishiroku " says : — " In the 
reign of the Emperor Kenzo, the officials were summoned to a banquet. 
At this time, a herb of three stems was growing in the courtyard of the 
palace. One of these was plucked up and presented to the Emperor, who 
thereupon conferred on the donor the title of Saki Be no Miyakko.'' 

' Irin is called in Ojin's reign, year 16, a place in Imna. 

* The Kana rendering is Shitoromo or Shitoromure. 

,NlNKEN. 393 

with continually growing valour. All that opposed him were 
put to the rout. But he was but one against a hundred. 
Suddenly his weapons ran short, and his power became ex- 
hausted. He saw that he could not bring matters to a con- 
clusion, and returned from Imna. Consequently the Land of 
Pekch^ slew Cha-ro-na-kwi, Tha-kap-syo, and their people — 
more than three hundred men.* 



The Emperor Ohoke's personal name was Ohoshi.* 

Otherwise Ohosu. This is the only instance of an 
Emperor's personal name* or designation being stated. 
It is taken from an old manuscript. 
His designation was Shima no Iratsuko.* He was the elder 
brother by the same mother of the Emperor Woke. In his 
childhood he was intelligent, of quick parts and great attain- 
ments. When he grew to man's estate, he was kind, indulgent 
and gentle. 

At the death of the Emperor Anaho, he took refuge in the 

* The "Tongkam " does not mention this affair, but there is no reason to 
doubt that the "Nihongi" narrative is substantially true. 

The "Kojiki"' practically ends here. Nominally, it is carried down to 
the death of Suiko in a.d. 628, but all after this is mere genealogy. 

* Also read Oke. Ohoke is the " Kojiki " reading. 
' Benevolent-talented. 

* Big-leg or big-foot. The name is written above, XV. 7, with characters 
which mean big-stone. 

* Or taboo name. In China the use of the personal name is not thought 
respectful except by a chief or parent. Instead of it the designation (^) 
is used. The latter was assumed at the age of fifteen (or twenty), when the 
ceremony of capping took place. In writing the personal names of the 
Emperors of the reigning dynasty, the Chinese are careful to alter one or 
iwo strokes of the character. 

® Shima no Wakako, above, XV. 7. 

394 NinoNGi. 

district of Yosa in the province of Tamba. In the first year of 
the reign of the Emperor Shiraga, Winter, nth month, Wodate, 
Yamabe no Muraji, Governor of Harima, went to the Capital 
and requested permission to go to fetch him. The Emperor 
Shiraga accordingly caused Wodate, provided with symbols of 
authority, and accompanied by his own personal attendants, to 
proceed to Akashi, and respectfully to go to meet him. Ulti- 
mately, in the third year of his reign, Summer, the 4th month, 
the Emperor Ohoke was appointed Prince Imperial.* In his 
fifth year, the Emperor Shiraga died, and the Emperor abdi- 
cated the Empire in favour of the Emperor Woke, becoming 
Prince Imperial as before. In the third year of his reign, 
Summer, the 4th month, the Emperor Woke died. 
\.v. 488. 1st year, Spring, ist month, 5th day. The Prince Imperial 
assumed the Imperial rank in the Palace of Hirotaka in Isono- 

One book says : — ** There were two palaces of the 

Emperor Ohoke, the first at Kahamura,' the second at 

Takano in Shijimi. The pillars of the Hall remain un- 

decayed until this day.'' 
XV. 26. 2nd month, 2nd day. His former consort, the Imperial 
Princess Kasuga no Oho-iratsume,** was appointed Empress. 

The Princess Kasuga no Oho-iratsume was the daughter 

of the Emperor Oho-hatsuse by Woguna Kimi, daughter 

of Fukame, Wani no Omi. 
She at length bore to him one son and six daughters. The 
first was called the Imperial Princess Takahashi no Oho- 
iratsume ; the second was called the Imperial Princess Asat- 
suma ; the third was called the Imperial Princess Tashiraga ; 
the fourth was called the%Jmperial Princess Kusuhi ; the fifth 
was called the Imperial Princess Tachibana ; the sixth was 
called the Emperor Wo-hatsuse no Waka sazaki. When he 
came to possess the Empire, he made his capital at Namiki in 
Hatsuse. The seventh was called the Imperial Princess 

* This is a curious way of putting it, but the original is so. 

2 This is the temporary palace built by Wodate. See above, XV. 5. 
' See above, XIV. 7, for an account of her birth. 

* The " Kojiki" makes Mawaka a Prince. 

NiNKEN. 395 

One book has a different arrangement, the Imperial 

Princess Kusuhi taking the third place and the Imperial 

Princess Tashiraga the fourth. 

Next there was Nuka-kimi no Iratsume, daughter of Hiuri, 

Wani no Omi, who bore one daughter who was made the 

Imperial Princess Kasuga no Yamada. 

One book says : — **Ohonuka no Iratsume, daughter of 
Hifure, Wani no Omi, bore one daughter who was made 
the Imperial Princess Yamada no Oho-iratsume, also 
called the Imperial Princess Akami." Notwithstanding 
the trifling difference of the documents, the facts are the 
Winter, loth month, 3rd day. The Emperor Woke was 
buried in the misasagi on the hill of Ihatsuki at Kataoka. 
This year was the year Tsuchinoye Tatsu (5th) of the Cycle. 
2nd year, Autumn, gth month. The Empress Naniha no a.d. 489. 
Wono, fearful on account of her long-standing want of respect 
(for the Emperor), died by her own hand. XV. 27. 

One authority says: — ** In the time of the Emperor 
Woke, the Prince Imperial Ohoke was present at a 
banquet. He took up a melon to eat, but there was no 
knife. The Emperor Woke himself took a knife and com- 
manded his wife Wono to carry it and present it to the 
Prince Imperial. She came before him, and, in a standing 
position, laid the knife on the melon tray. Moreover, 
on the same day, she poured out sake, and, in a standing 
position, gave it to the Prince Imperial to drink. In con- 
sequence of this disrespect, she feared to be put to death, 
and died by her own hand." 
3rd year, Spring, 2nd month, ist day. The Isonokami Be a.d. 490. 
of palace attendants ^ was established. 

4th year. Summer, 5th month. Kashima Ikuba no Omi and a.d. 491. 
Hohe no Kimi, being guilty of crimes, were both thrown into 
prison, where they died. 

5th year. Spring, 2nd month, 5th day. General search was a.d. 492 
made in the provinces and districts for the dispersed Saheki Be, 
and a descendant of Nakachiko of the Saheki Be was made 
Saheki no Miyakko. 

* Toneri. 

39^ NiHONGI. 

Nakachiko of the Saheki Be is mentioned in the history 

of the reign of Woke Tenno. 

A.D. 493. 6th year, Autumn, gth month, 4th day. Hitaka no Kishi 

was sent to Corea to fetch skilled artizans. This autumn, after 

XV. 28. Hitaka no Kishi was despatched, there was a woman dwelling 

at Mitsu ' in Naniha who made lament, saying : — 

Woes me, my youthful ' spouse ! 

For to me he is an elder brother, 

And to my mother too an elder brother. 

The sound of her lament was exceeding pathetic, even to the 
rending of men's bowels.'* A man of the village of Hishiki, 
named Kaso, hearing it, came in front of her, and said : — 
** Why is thy lamentation so exceedingly sorrowful ? " The 
woman answered and said : — ** Think of the autumn garlic's 
ever clustering growth.*' * Kaso said : — ** Thou art right. 
Now I understand what thou hast said." But a companion of 
his, not comprehending her meaning, inquired, saying: — "By 
what dost thou understand ? " He answered and said : — 
XV. 29. ** Funame of the Naniha Jewellers* Be was wedded to Karama 
no Hataye * and bore to him Nakume," who was wedded to a 
man of Sumuchi named Yamaki and bore to him Akitame. 
Karama no Hataye and his daughter Nakume having both died, 
Yamaki, the man of Sumuchi, had illicit intercourse with 
Funame ' of the Jewellers' Be, and had by her a son named 
Araki, who took to wife Akitame. Upon this Araki set out for 
Koryo in the suite of Hitaka no Kishi. Therefore his wife 
Akitame, restless and full of longing, has lost her wits and 
become distraught, and the sound of her lamentation is very 
touching, even to the rending of men's bowels." 

Funame of the Jewellers* Be and Karama no Hataye 
became husband and wife, and had a daughter named 

* The august harbour. ■" Literally young herb or grass. 
^ Cf. the Biblical expression *' bowels of compassion." 

* By the clusters of the garlic bulbs in autumn she indicates the some- 
what complicated family relations described below. 

'" Kara-fisher's-field. '^ The (professional) weeping woman. 

His wife's mother. This union was regarded as incestuous. 

. NiNKEN. 397 

Nakume. Yamaki, a man of Sumuchi, married Nakume, 
and had a daughter named Akitame' Yamaki's wife's 
father Karama no Hat aye and the latter's child Nakume 
having both died, Yamaki, the man of Sumuchi, had an 
amour with his wife's mother, Funame of the Jewellers' 
Be, the fruit of which was Araki. Araki took to wife 
Akitame. One book says : — ** Funame of the Jewellers' 
Be bore Nakume to her first husband Karama no Hataye ; 
again to her second husband Yamaki, a man of Sumuchi, 
she bore Araki, so that Nakume and Araki were sister and 
brother by a different father. Consequently Nakume's 
daughter Akitame called Araki * her mother's elder brother. 
Nakume having married Yamaki, bore Akitame. More- 
over,. Yamaki having had illicit intercourse with Funame 
had by her Araki, so that Akitame and Araki were sister 
and brother by a different mother. Consequently Akitame 
called Araki her elder brother. In ancient times women 
called their brothers se - (elder brother), without distinction 
of age ; while men called their sisters imo (younger sister). 
Hence the expression, * To my mother an elder brother, to 
me an elder brother.' " ' 
In this year Hitaka no Kishi returned from Koryo, and 
delivered to the Emperor the artizans Sunyuki and Nonyuki.^ 
They were the ancestors of the Koryo tanners of the village 
of Nukada in the district of Yamabe in the province of 

7th year. Spring, ist month, 3rd day. Wo-hatsuse Waka- ^Jl* ^^^* 
sazaki no Mikoto was appointed Prince Imperial. 

8th year, Winter, loth month. The people said : — ** At this a.d. 495. 
time there is peace throughout the land ; the officials fill their 
offices worthily. Everywhere within the seas there is a move- 
ment towards good feeling; the subjects pursue peacefully 
their avocations." This year the five grains were produced in 
abundance, the silkworm and wheat afforded a rich harvest. 

' In the speech above quoted. 

' Se and imo also mean respectively husband and wife. 

* This note is from the " Shiki " or *' Scholiast." 

* Possibly the Japanese reading of the characters is preferable, viz. 
Suruki, Toruki. 

398 NiHONGi. 

V^T and near there was purity and calm, and the population 
A.D. 498. nth year, Autumn, 8th month, 8th day. The Emperor 
died in the Chief Bedchamber. 

Winter, loth month, 5th day. He was buried in the misa- 
sagi at the foot of the Hanifu acclivity. 




The Emperor Wohatsuse waka-sazaki was the eldest son of 
the Emperor Ohoke. His mother was called the Empress 
Kasuga no Iratsiime. He was made Prince Imperial in the 
seventh year of the Emperor Ohoke. When he grew to man- 
hood, he was fond of criminal law, and was well versed in the 
statutes. He would remain in Court until the sun went down, 
so that hidden wrong was surely penetrated. In deciding 
Cases he attained to the facts.'* But he worked much evil, and 
accomplished no good thing. He never omitted to witness in 
person cruel punishments of all kinds, and the people of the 
vvhole land were all in terror of him. 

In the nth year, the 8th month of his reign, the Emperor 

Ohoke died. The Minister of State Heguri no Matori no Omi 

Vasurped the government of the country and tried to reign over 

J apan. Pretending that it was for the Emperor's eldest son, he 

t^uilt a palace, and ultimately dwelt in it himself On all occa- 

^ ions he was arrogant, and was utterly devoid of loyal principle. 

^ow the eldest son wished to betroth to himself Kagehime, the 

slaughter of Mononobe no Arakahi no Ohomuraji, and sent a 

^middleman to Kagehime's house to arrange for their union. 

X^ut Kagehime had already formed an illicit connection with xvr. 2. 

Shibi, son of Matori, the Minister of State. Fearing, however, 

to offer opposition to the eldest son's proposal, she answered 

* Wo, little ; hatsuse, name of place ; waka-sazaki, young-wren. 
- MurctsLi, martial ardour. 

' This description from ** When" down to "facts " is taken from the history 
of the Chinese Emperor Mingti of the Later Han Dynasty. 

400 NiHONGI. 

him, saying: — **Thy handmaiden wishes to wait upon thee on 

the street of Tsubaki-ichi." Accordingly the eldest son, in 

order to go to the place of assignation, sent one of his personal 

attendants to the house of the Oho-omi Heguri to ask for 

official horses, saying that he did so by his command. The 

Oho-omi mocked him, pretending that he would send them, 

and said : — ** For whom (else) are official horses kept ? Of 

course his orders shall be obeyed." But for a long time he 

did not send them. The eldest son cherished resentment at 

this, but controlled himself, and did not let it appear on his 

countenance. Ultimately he went to the place of assignation, 

and taking a place among the song-makers,* took hold of Kage- 

hime's sleeve, and was loitering about unconcernedly, when 

suddenly Shibi no Omi came, and pushing away the eldest son 

from Kagehime, got between them. Hereupon the eldest son 

let go Kagehime's sleeve, and turning round, confronted Shibi 

no Omi, and addressing him straight in the face, made a song, 

saying :— 

Of the briny current,' 
XVI. 3. The breakers as I view, 

By the fin of the Tunny 
That comes sportinj^ 
I see my spouse standing. 

[One book has ** harbour ** instead of ** briny current."] 
Shibi no Om answered with a song, saying : — 

Dost thou tell me, O Prince I to yield to thee 
The eight-fold bamboo fence ^ 
Of the Omi's child? 

' In Japanese uta-gaki, i.e. poetry-hedge. The utagaki seems to have 
been a sort of poetical tournament. The " Kojiki" (Ch. K., p. 330) gives a 
different and not very intelligible account of this war of verses. That work 
places it at the beginning of an earlier reign, and makes the Emperor Woke 
the hero. The whole story is no doubt the work of some romancist. It 
would be a mere waste of time to tr>' to sift out what grains of truth it may 
contain. It indicates, however, very different and much more unrestricted 
social relations between the sexes than that which prevailed in China and 
other Eastern countries. Of this there is abundant other evidence. 

* Shibi means tunny-fish. This suggests the introduction of the " briny 
current " of the first line. 

* The fence in this and the following verses is the enclosure of the bridal 
chamber. See above, pp. 13, 54. 


The eldest son made a song, saying : — 

My great sword 

Hung at my girdle I will stand ; 

Though I may not draw it, 

Yet in the last resort 

I am resolved to be united to her. 

Shibi no Omi answered with a song, saying : — 

The great Lord's 
Eight-fold retiring-fence 
He may try to build, 
Still for want of strict care,* 
The retiring-fence is not built. 

The eldest son made a song, saying : — 

The eight-fold fastening fence 

Of the Omi's child 

Should an earthquake come, shaking. 

Reverberating below, 

'Twill be a ruined fastening fence. 

[A various version of the first line is " eight-fold Kara 
The eldest son gave Kagehime a song, saying : — 

If Kagehime, who comes and stays 

At the head of the lute,* 

Were a jewel. 

She would be a white sea-ear^ pearl — 

The pearl that I love. 

Shibi no Omi answered on behalf of Kagehime, and made a 
song, saying : — 

The great Lord's 

Girdle of Japanese loom XVL 4. 

* *• For want of strict care " is in the original Ama-shimi. This word con- 
tams an allusion to the Omi's name Shibi. Mi and bi are often interchanged 
in Japanese. 

- i.e. on my right hand. 

^ The sea-car is in Japanese ahabi, which may be intended to suggest 
ahazu, *' not to become united to." 

D d 

402 NlHONGI. 

Hangs down in a bow.* 
Whosoever it may be — 
There is no one (but me) whose love she requites. 

The eldest son then for the first time saw that Shibi had 
already possessed Kagehime, and became conscious of all the 
disrespect shown him by the father and the son. He blazed 
out into a great rage, and forthwith, on that same night, pro- 
ceeded to the house of Ohotomo no Kanamura no Muraji, 
where he levied troops and concerted his plans. Ohotomo no 
Muraji waylaid Shibi no Omi with a force of several thousand 
men. He slew him at Mount Nara. 

One book says : — " Shibi was spending the night in 
Kagehime's house, and that same night he was slain." 

At this time Kagehime followed on to the place where he 
had been slain, and seeing that he had already been put to 
death, was shocked, so that she did not know what she was 
doing, and tears of sorrow filled her eyes. At length she made 
a song, saying : — 

Passing Furu 
In I so no Kami, 
Passing Takahashi 
In Komo-makura, 
Passing Oho-yake 
Where things are in plenty 
Passing Kasuga 
Of the spring-day, 
Passing Wosaho 
XVI. 5. The spouse-retiring, 

In a precious casket, 
Placing boiled rice, 
In a precious vase, 
Placing water also, 
She lets fall tears as she goes. 
Alas I for Kagehime.^ 

* The sole reason why the second and third lines are introduced is to 
bring in tare, ** to hang down." The same word is repeated in the fourth line 
with the meaning "who," thus producing a word-play, of which Japanese 
poets are fond. 

* This poem contains a succession of plays on words, some of which are 
very obscure, and all are lost in an English version. Konno-"^^^^r<'^ means 
a matting pillow, i.e. a roll of matting used as a pillow. Ua^^^^ ^^ frequently 
followed by takaku, high, in the phrase makura takaku surU, "^^ "^ake high 


404 NiHONGI. 

not curse. Therefore the Emperor eats salt from Tsunoga, 
and avoids eating the salt of other seas." * 

I2th month. Ohotomo no Kanamura no Muraji having 
completely suppressed the insurrection, and restored the 
Government to the eldest son, asked permission to offer him 
the August Title, saying: — ** Now there are no sons left of the 
Emperor Ohoke but Your Majesty, nor is there any second 
person to whom the people can give allegiance. Moreover, 
relying on the support of Supreme Heaven,' thou hast cleared 
away the wicked bands. By thy wise counsels and thy manly 
determination thou hast made the Celestial authority and the 
Celestial revenues to flourish. Japan must have a ruler, and 
who is there but thee to rule over Japan ? T humbly pray 

XVI. 7. Your Majesty reverently to respond to the Divine Spirit of 
Earth by giving development to the luminous commands, 
casting a lustre on Japan, and widely taking over charge of 
the silver region.'*^ 

Hereupon the eldest son commanded the functionaries to 
prepare a sacred terrace at Namiki * in Hatsuse, where he 
ascended to the Imperial Dignity, and at length established 
his capital. On this day, Ohotomo no Kanamura no Muraji 
was made Ohomuraji. 

A.D. 499. 1st year, Spring, 3rd month, 2nd day. Kasuga no Iratsume 
was appointed Empress. [It is not clear who her father was.] 
This year was the year Tsuchinoto U (i6th) of the Cycle. 

A.I). 500. 2nd year. Autumn, gth month. The Emperor ripped up 
the belly of a pregnant woman and inspected the pregnant 

A.D. 501. 3rd year. Winter, loth month. He plucked out men's nails, 
and made them dig up yams.® 

nth month. He commanded Ohotomo no Muruya " no 

' Compare above, p. 237* where the water of a well was cursed. 

- Motoori objects to this phrase as Chinese. •' Viz. Corea. 

* Namiki means a row of trees, an avenue lined with trees. 

* This is a charge made against Show, King^ of Shang, in the " Shoc- 
king." See Legge's ** Chinese Classics," Vol. III. p. 285. 

* Dioscorea Japonica. 

' There is something wrong here. Ohotomo no Muruya was Prime 
Minister (see p. 322) in the 7th year of Inijio Tenno (^a.d. 418). - Muruya 
is no doubt a slip for Kanamura. 


Ohomuraji to make a levy of labourers of the province of 
Shinano, in order to build a castle in the village of Minomata. 
It was called Kinouhe. 

In this month, Wi-ta-nang * of Pekch6 died and was buried 
on the top of the hill of Takada. 

4th year, Summer, 4th month. He pulled out the hair of xvi.^8?' 
men's heads, made them climb to the tops of trees, and then 
cut down the trees, so that the men who had climbed were 
killed by the fall. This he took a delight in. 

In this year. King Malta ' of P6kchfe, for his lawless oppres- 
sion of his subjects, was at length deposed by the people of 
that country and King Shima raised to the throne. He was 
made King Munyong. 

The Pekch^ ** Shinsen" says: — ** King Malta lawlessly 
oppressed the subjects, and the people united to remove 
him. Munyong was set up. His sobriquet was King 
Shima. He was the son of Prince Konchi, and therefore the 
elder brother of King Malta by a different mother. When 
Konchi went to Wa, he arrived at an island in Tsukushi 
where King Shima was born to him. He was sent back 
from the island, and did not reach the capital (of Japan). 
Owing to his having been born on an island, he received 
the name of Shima. There is now in the sea of Kawara ^ 
an island called Nirim Shima* which is the King's birth- 
place. Therefore the Pekch6 people call this island Nirim 
Shima. Considering that King Shima was King Kero's 
son, and King Malta King Konchi's son, the expression 
* elder brother by a different mother ' is not clear." * 

* This is the Corean pronunciation of the characters given, but very 
likely these are not the proper characters for his name, and are only a 
phonetic Japanese rendering of the sound. The traditional Kana rendering 
is Otara. 

' Or Mata if the Japanese pronunciation is taken. His real name was Mut^. 

* The traditional Kana pronunciation. 

* The traditional Kana has sema, for the Corean syom, island. Nirim 
means Lord. 

* The '* Tongkam '' (Vol. V. 4) account of these events is as follows :— 
*' Autumn, 8th month (a.d. 501). Pekch^ built the Castle of Karim (in 
Chollado), which was occupied by a garrison under a military officer named 
Chak Ka. 

Winter, nth month. Chak Ka of Pekch^ slew' his Lord Mut^. Before 

406 NiHONGI. 

A.D. 503. 5th year, Summer, 6th month. The Emperor made men 
lie down on their faces in the sluice of a dam and caused them 
to be washed away : with a three-bladed lance he stabbed 
them. In this he took delight. 

A.D. 504. 6th year, Autumn, gth month, ist day. The Emperor made 
a decree, saying : — ** As a measure for transmitting a kingdom, 
a son is raised up to honour.* But we have no successor: 
XVI. 9. wherewithal shall we hand down our name to posterity? 
In accordance, therefore, with old Imperial precedents, we 
establish the Wohatsuse Toneri and make them assume the 
designation of this reign, so that it may not be forgotten 
for ten thousand years." 

Winter, loth month. The Land of Pekchd sent Lord Mana 
with tribute. The Emperor, considering that for many years 
Pekch^ had not sent tribute, detained him, and would not let 
him go. 

A.D. 505. 7th year. Spring, 2nd month. He made men climb up trees 
and then shot them down with a bow, upon which he laughed. 
Summer, 4th month. The King of Pekche sent Lord Shika 
with tribute, and a separate memorial, saying: — *' Mana, the 
previous tribute-messenger, was no relation of the Sovereigns 
of Pekch6. Therefore I humbly send Shika to wait upon the 
Court." He eventually had a son named Lord Pop-sa. He 
was the ancestor of the Kimi of Yamato. 

A.D. 506. 8th year, Spring, 3rd month. Nudas fcminas super latas 

this when the King appointed Chak Ka commandant of the garrison of 
Karim, he did not wish to go, and declined on the score of ill-health. The 
King would not listen to his excuse, and he therefore hated the King. 
Upon this the King went a-hunting on the plain east of Sachha. Again he 
hunted in the plain north of Ung-chhon. Again he hunted in the plain west 
of S.'ichha. Being prevented fiom returning by a great fall of snow, he 
stayed for the night at the village of Mapho, where Chak Ka sent a man to 
assassinate him. A month later he was buried and received the name of 
Tong-syong. His son Shima, otherwise called Yoryung, came to the 

Spring, 1st month (A.D. 502). Chak Ka of Pekchd was executed. He 
had taken position in the castle of Karim and rebelled. The King proceeded 
with an army to the city of Utu and ordered an attack upon him. Chak Ka 
came out and surrendered. He was put to death and his body flung into 
the River Pek-Kang." 

* Is made Prince Imperial. 


tabulas imposuit et, equis adhibitis, fecit ut coirent cum eis. 
Turn, examinatione habitd, quarum pudenda madida erant, eas 
interfecit, quarum autem madida non erant, eas fecit servas 
publicas. These things he took a pleasure in. 

At this time he dug a pond and made a park which he filled ^vi. 10, 
with birds and beasts. Here he was fond of hunting, and of 
racing dogs and trying horses. He went out and in at all 
times, taking no care to avoid storms and torrents of rain. 
Being warmly clad himself, he forgot that the people were 
starving from cold ; eating dainty food, he forgot that the Em- 
pire was famishing. He gave great encouragement to dwarfs and 
performers, making them execute riotous music. He prepared 
strange diversions, and gave licence to lewd voices. Night 
and day he constantly indulged to excess in sake in the 
company of the women of the Palace. His cushions were of 
brocade, and many of his garments were of damask and fine 
white silk. 

Winter, 12th month, 8th day. The Emperor died in the 
Palace of Namiki. 





a. _ i^ 


^ rsij m^ 4^ 






The Japan Society, London 



Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to a.d. 697. 



W. G. ASTON, C.M.G., 

Honorary Member of the Japan Society ^ S(c. 

LONDON, 1896. 



{All Rights Reserved^ 



Accession A.D. 



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ET Addenda 

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The Emperor Wohodo [otherwise called Hiko-futo no Mikoto] 
was the son of Prince Hiko nushi-bito, a descendant in the 
fifth generation of the Emperor Homuda. His mother's name 
was Furuhime. She was a descendant in the seventh genera- 
tion of the Emperor Ikume. The Emperor's father, hearing 
at his countr}^-house at Miwo, in the district of Takashima, in 
the province of Ohomi, of the extreme and resplendent beauty 
of Furuhime's countenance, sent a messenger to Sakanawi in 
Mikuni to ask for her in marriage. He took her to him as his 
consort, and she eventually gave birth to the Emperor. 

The Prince, the Emperor's father, died while the Emperor 
was yet a child. Furuhime thereupon made lament, saying : — 
** I am now far removed from my native place : how could I 
bring him up (here) ? I will return to my parents at Takamuku XVII. 2. 
[Takamuku is a village in Echizen], and there respectfully 
bring up the Emperor." 

When the Emperor attained to manhood, he loved the 
people, and was courteous to men of worth. He was of a 
generous disposition. 

The Emperor Wohatsuse died in the 8th year of his reign, in 
Winter, the 12th month, 8th day, at the age of fifty-seven. 
He had never had any children, either sons or daughters, and 
there was no one to succeed him. 

* Succeed-body. 
VOL, i> B 


On the 2ist day, the Ohomuraji, Ohotomo no Kanamura^ 
counselled, saying : — ** At this moment there is no successor 
whatever to the throne.* Where shall the Empire bestow its 
allegiance ? From ancient times even until now this has been 
a cause of disaster. Now there is in the district of Kuhada, in 
the province of Tamba, Prince Yamato-hiko, a descendant in 
the fifth generation of the Emperor Tarashi-nakatsu-hiko. 
Let us make the experiment of preparing an armed force to 
surround his carriage as a guard, and sending to meet him, 
establish him as our sovereign.*' The Oho-omi and Ohomuraji 
ull assented, and sent to meet him in the manner proposed. 
Upon this. Prince Yamato-hiko, viewing from a distance the 
troops which were sent to meet him, was alarmed and changed 
countenance. Accordingly he took refuge in a mountain-valley, 
and no one could learn whither he had gone. 

A.D. 507 1st year, Spring, ist month, 4th day. The Ohomuraji, 
Ohotomo no Kanamura, again counselled, saying : — " Prince 
Wohodo is of an affectionate and dutiful disposition. He is a 

XVII 3. lit person to take over the Celestial succession. Let us, there- 
fore, courteously offer it to him, and thus continue the 
prosperity of the Imperial institution." Mononobe noArakahi 
no Ohomuraji, with Kose no Wobito no Oho-omi and others, 
all said : — ** On a careful review of the branch descendants, 
there is no other worthy person but Prince Wohodo." 

6th day. Omi and Muraji were sent to Mikuni with 
emblems of rank, and provided with a palanquin of state to 
fetch him. The troops to form his guard arrived suddenly in 

XVII. 4. awe-inspiring array, clearing the way before him. Upon this, 
the Emperor Wohodo remained calm and self-possessed,* 
seated on a chair, with his retainers in order by him, just as if 
he already occupied the Imperial throne. The envoys, there- 
fore, bearing the emblems of rank, with respect and reverence 
bowed their hearts, and committed to him the Imperial 
authority, asking permission to devote to him their loyal 
service. In the Emperor's mind, however, doubts still 

* It seems clear, from the fact thai on Uiis and a previous similar occasion 
adoption was not resorted to, that this practice had not yet been introduced 
from China. 

- Unlike the other prince, who ran away when he saw the troops 

Keidai. 3 

remained, and for a good while he did not consent. Just then 
he chanced to learn that Arako, Kahachi no Miimakahi no 
Obito had sent a messenger secretly to inform him minutely of 
the real intentions of the Oho-omi and Ohomuraji in sending 
to escort him. After a delay of two days and three nights, he 
at length set out. Then he exclaimed, admiringly : — " Well 
done, MGmakahi no Obito ! Had it not been for the informa- 
tion given by thy messenger, I ran a great risk of being made a 
laughing-stock to the Empire. The proverbial saying, * Be not 
a respecter of rank, but value the heart,' was doubtless meant 
for men like Arako." When he came to the throne, he treated 
Arako with special favour. 

I2th day. The Emperor arrived at the Palace of Kusuba. 

2nd month, 4th day. The Ohomuraji, Ohotomo no Kana- 
mura, went on his knees, and, with repeated obeisances, pre- 
sented the Mirror, the Sword, and the Imperial Signet. The XVII. 5. 
Emperor Wohodo declined them, saying: — '* It is no light 
matter to be a father to the people and to rule the State. I, 
the unworthy one, am deficient in ability, and do not deserve 
to be thought fit for it. I pray thee, alter thy purpose, and 
select some wise person, for I, the unworthy one, do not dare to 
accept." Ohotomo no Ohomuraji, bowing down to the ground, 
persisted in his request. Then the Emperor Wohodo, facing 
the west, declined three times, and facing the south,^ declined 
twice. Ohotomo no Ohomuraji and the rest all said : — *' In the 
humble judgment of thy servants, the Great Prince is excel- 
lently fitted to be a father to the people and to rule the State. 
On behalf of the ancestral temples and the temples of the 
Earth and of Grain, thy servants' judgment dares not be hasty. 
Availing ourselves of the general desire, we pray that thou wilt 
graciously be pleased to grant thy acceptance." The Emperor 
Wohodo said : — ** Ye Oho-omi and Ohomuraji, and all ye high 
officials ! Since you all urge me, the unworthy one, I, the 
unworthy one, do not presume to oppose you." So he accepted 
the Imperial Signet.' 

On this day he assumed the Imperial dignity. Ohotomo, 

* The Imperial position. 

' Was this Signet the Signet given the Japanese Emperor by China 
("Early Japanese History," p. 70)? Or is it merely a Chinese expression 
for the gem ^, which was one of the three regalia ? 

B 2 


Kanamura no Ohomuraji was appointed Ohomuraji, Kose no 
Wobito no Oho-omi was made Oho-omi, and Mononobe no 
Arakahi no Ohomuraji was made Ohomuraji, all being con- 
firmed in their previous offices. Thereupon the Oho-omi and 
Ohomuraji each entered on their respective offices and ranks. 

loth day. Ohotomo no Ohomuraji petitioned the Emperor, 
saying : — '* Thy servant has been informed that it was a prin- 
ciple of government with former sovereigns that without the 
confirmation of an heir to the throne, it is impossible to give 
security to heaven and earth. Without the intimacy of the 
XVII. 6. side-courts, it is impossible to continue the calices.* For this 
reason, the Emperor Shiraga, having no heir, sent thy servant's 
grandfather, Ohomuraji Muruya, to all the provinces to esta- 
bHsh three kinds of Shiraga Be [These three kinds were, first, 
Shiraga Be no Toneri ; second, Shiraga Be no Kashihade ; 
third, Shiraga Be no Yugehi" , by which his name might remain 
to after ages. Alas ! was not this painful ? I pray thee,, 
therefore, to establish the Imperial Princess Tashiraka * and 
take her to thee as Empress. Then send the officials charged 
with the worship of the Gods of Heaven and Earth to make 
reverent sacrifice to them, and ask of them an Imperial scion, 
who shall fully respond to the hopes of thy people." The 
Emperor said : — " Be it so." 

3rd month, 1st day. The Emperor made a decree, saying : 
— '* The Gods of Heaven and Earth must not want a master of 
their worship ; the universe must not fail of a Lord. Heaven 
produces the nation, and establishes it by means of a 
supreme ruler, whom it causes to superintend its supply of 
food, so that each man*s life may be preserved. The 
Ohomuraji, grieving for Our childlessness, has displayed his 
loyalty towards the State, showing generation after generation 
a devoted fidelity. Is this simply for the sake of Our own 
reign ? 

Let the Imperial Princess Tashiraka be brought to meet me 
with all due ceremony." 

5th day. The Imperial Princess Tashiraka was made 
Empress, and took the government of the interior (of the 

* The calyx is that which supports the flower. Hence it is put for an heir 
to the throne. 

- Daughter of the Emperor Ninken. 

Keidai. 5 

Palace). She eventually gave birth to a son, who became 
Ame-kuni-oshi-harani '-hiro-niha no Mikoto." He was the 
rightful heir, but as he was young in years, he held the Empire 
after his two elder brothers [The two elder brothers were Hiro- 
kuni-oshi-take-kanahi no Mikoto and Take-o-hiro-kuni-oshi- xvil. 7. 
tate no Mikoto. See below.] had ruled it. 

gth day. The Emperor made a decree, saying : — ** We have 
heard that if men are of fit age and do not cultivate, the 
Empire may suffer famine ; if women are of fit age and do not 
spin, the Empire may suffer cold. Therefore is it that the 
sovereigns cultivate with their own hands, so as to give 
encouragement to agriculture, while their consorts rear silk- 
worms themselves, so as to encourage the mulberry season. 
How, then, shall there be prosperity if all, from the function- 
aries down to the ten thousand families, neglect agriculture and 
spinning ? Let the officials publish this to all the Empire, so 
that our sentiments may be made known." 

14th day. The Emperor took to him eight concubines. 

Some of the eight concubines whom he took to him 

were earlier, others later. When it is said that they were 

taken on this day (the 14th), it is meant that then for the 

first time they were lodged in the after palace, a lucky day 

having been selected by divination, in consequence of the 

accession to the Imperial Dignity. Thus the facts are 

glossed over. Other cases are to be understood similarly. 

The senior concubine's name was Menoko [otherwise called 

Irohe], daughter of Kusaka, Wohari no Muraji. She gave 

birth to two children, both of whom possessed the Empire. 

The first was called the Imperial Prince Magari no Ohine,' 

who became Oshi-kuni-oshi-take-kanahi no Mikoto.* The 

second was called the Imperial Prince Hinokuma Takada, who 

became Take-wo-hiro-kuni-oshi-tate no Mikoto.* The next 

concubine was Wakugohime, younger sister of MihonoTsuno- 

wori no Kimi. She gave birth to the Imperial Prince Oho- 

iratsuko and the Imperial Princess Idzumo. The next was called XVII. 8. 

Hirohime, the daughter of Prince Ohomata of Sakata. She 

gave birth to three daughters, the eldest of whom was called 

' The " Kojiki " has haruki. Another rendering is hiraki. 

' The Emperor Kimmci. • Or Ohoye. 

-♦ Ankan Tenno. * Senkwa Tenno. 


the Imperial Princess Kanzaki, the middle one the Imperial 
Princess Mamuta, and the youngest the Imperial Princess 
Miimakuta. The next was called Womi no Iratsume, daughter 
of Prince Mate of Okinaga. She was the mother of the 
Imperial Princess Sasage, who was in attendance on the shrine 
of the Great Deity of Ise. The next was Sekihime, daughter 
[some say younger sister] of Womochi, Mamuta no Muraji. 
She had three daughters, the eldest called the Imperial Princess 
Mamuta no Oho-iratsume, the middle one the Imperial Princess 
Shirazaka no Ikuhihime, and the youngest the Imperial 
Princess Wono no iratsume [otherwise called Nagashihime]^ 
The next was Yamatohime, daughter of Katahi, Miwo no 
Kimi. She bore two sons and two daughters. The first was 
named the Imperial Princess Oho-iratsume/ and the second 
the Imperial Prince Mariko. He was the ancestor of the 
Kimi of Mikuni. The third was called the Imperial Prince 
Mimi, and the fourth the Imperial Princess Akahime. The 
next was Hayehime, daughter of Kahachi, Wani no Omi. She 
bore one son and two daughters. The first was called the 

XVII. 9. Imperial Princess Wakayahime, the second the Imperial 
Princess Tsubura no Iratsume, and the third the Imperial 
Prince Atsu. The next was Hirohime, daughter of Prince 
Ne. She had two sons, the elder of whom was called the 
Imperial Prince Usagi. He was the ancestor of the Kimi of 
the Sake-makers. The younger was called the Imperial Prince 
Naka. He was the ancestor of the Kimi of Sakada.' 
This year was the year Hinoto I (24th) of the Cycle. 

A.D. 508. 2nd year, Winter, loth month, 3rd day. The Emperor 
Wohatsuse waka-sazaki was buried in the misasagi on the hill 
of Ihatsuki at Katawoka. 

I2th month. The people of Tamna ^ in the midst of the 

^ Some give iratsuko for the Kana of this and similar names. 

* The " Kojiki '' and " Kiujiki " present some trifling variations in the 
accounts of these concubines and children. 

' Tamna is the island now called Ch^chu by the Corcans and known to- 
us as Quelpaert. The statement here made is utterly improbable in itself^ 
as Quelpaert is in sight of the Corean mainland. It is contradicted by the 
following passages of the " Tongkam." 

" King Munchiu of P^kchd, 2nd year (a.d. 476), Summer, 4th month. 
The land of Tamna presented tribute of their national productions to 
P^kch^. The king was rejoiced, and appointed the ambassadors EunsoL 

Keidai. 7 

Southern Sea first had communication with the Land of 

3rd year, Spring, 2nd month. Envoys were sent to a.d. 509. 

The statement in the Pekch^ " Original Record " that 
Lord Kuramachi came from Japan (Nippon) is unclear. 

The subjects of P^kch^, who during three or four generations 
had made their escape and were living as refugees in the xvil. lo. 
villages of the Japanese domain of Imna, having lost their place 
in the register of population, were all removed to Pekch^ and 
replaced on the registers. 

5th year, Winter, loth month. The capital was transferred a.d. 511. 
to Tsutsuki in Yamashiro. 

6th year, Summer, 4th month, 6th day. Oshiyama, Hod- a.d. 512. 
zumi no Omi, was sent on a mission to Pekch^ with a present 
of 44 horses of the Land of Tsukushi. 

Winter, 12th month. Pekch^ sent an envoy with tribute. 
In a separate memorial P^kch6 asked for four districts of the 
Land of Imna, viz. Upper Tari, Lower Tari, Syata, and Muro. 
Oshiyama, Hodzumi no Omi, Governor of the Land of Tari, 
made a representation to the Emperor, saying r — ** These four 
districts border on Pekche and are far separated from the 
Japanese Residency. Morning and evening they (i.e. Pekch6 
and Tari) exchange communications : their fowls and dogs 
cannot be kept apart. If they are now ceded to Pekch6 and 

Tamna is in the midst of the Southern Sea. In ancient times there were 
no inhabitants. Then there were three divine men who bubbled up from 
the earth. The eldest was called Nang-eul-la, the next was called Ko-eul-la, 
and the third Pu-eul-la. One day these three, having gone out to hunt by 
the sea-side, found a stone coffer. On opening it, they discovered three 
women, with cattle of various sorts and seeds of the five kinds of grain. 
They eventually shared between them, taking the women as wives. Then 
each betook himself to a well-watered fertile spot and selected by divination 
a residence. Nang-eulla's dwelling was called First City, Ko-eul-la's 
Second City, and Pu-eulla's Third City Then they sowed the five grains 
and pastured the cattle, and prospered and multiplied from day to day. 
Tamna is also called Tam-mu-ra." — "Tongkam,'' IV. 31. 

" A.D. 498. The Kin^ of Pekche, because Tamna did not pay tribute, set 
out himself on an expedition against it. He got as far as Muchinchiu, when 
the Tamna people heard of it and sent messengers to beg for pardon. So 
they were let off."—" Tongkam," V. 3. 

There is no mention of Tamna in the ** Tongkam" under the year 508. 


united to it so as to form one country, no better measure of 
conservation can be adopted. It is true, no doubt, that even if 
ceded and united to Pekch6 there will still be a danger for 
future generations. Much more how many years could they 
be defended if they became foreign territory ? " ^ 

Kanamura, Ohotomo no Ohomuraji, having thoroughly com- 
prehended this report, adopted this policy and laid it before 
the Emperor. Accordingly Arakahi, Mononobe no Ohomu- 
raji, was appointed Imperial envoy. Mononobe no Ohomuraji 
was on the point of leaving for the official inn at Naniha in 
order to make known the Emperor's commands to the Pekch6 
guests, when his wife expostulated with him, saying : — 
** Originally the Deities "of Sumiyoshi bestowed on the Em- 
peror Homuda while in the womb the gold and silver lands 
beyond the sea, namely Koryo, Pekch^, Silla, and Imna. 
Therefore did the Great Empress'^ Okinaga-tarashihime no 

XVII. II. Mikoto and the Oho-omi Takechi no Sukune first establish 
Government Houses* in each of these countries and constitute 
them our screen territory beyond the sea. So that this has 
not come to pass without reason. If now we were to divide 
off (a part) and grant it to others, we should be acting contrary 
to the interests of our own land. How, in that case, during 
the long ages should reproach be sundered from men's 
mouths ? " The Ohomuraji answered and said : — ** Thy advice 
is reasonable, but I fear to disobey the Celestial command." 
His wife remonstrated with him earnestly, saying : — ** Pretend 
that thou art ill, and do not make communication.'* The 
Ohomuraji was guided by this remonstrance, and therefore 
another envoy was appointed to make known the Imperial 

' will. Presents were given, and an Imperial decree granting 

four districts of Imna in accordance with the petition. The 
Imperial Prince Ohine, owing to certain business, had not 
heard of the cession of territory. When it was too late he 
learnt that the decree had been issued. He was surprised and 
dissatisfied, and endeavoured to have it altered, saying: — 

' The meaning is that P^kch^ will be better able to prevent these pro- 
vinces from falling into the hands of Silla than Japan. All Imna was 
conquered by Silla in A.D. 562. See below, XIX. 51. 

- See above, Vol. I. pp. 233-235, and " Satow's Handbook," p. 192. 

* The word used does not mean a reigning Empress. "* Miyake. 

Keidai. 9 

** Since the days of the Emperor in the womb ^ there has been 
established the land of our Government House. Shall we 
lightly yield to the request of a frontier land and grant it away 
without difficulty ? *' Accordingly he sent Hiwashi ' no Kishi 
to make a fresh intimation to the Pekch6 guests. The Erivoys, 
however, replied, saying: — "The Emperor, the father, has 
already, for considerations of expediency, consummated a grant 
by Imperial decree. How can the Imperial Prince, his son, act 
contrary to the Emperor's expressed will, and unauthorizedly 
make to us a different intimation ? Surely he cannot be in 
earnest. But granting that it were true, which is the more 
painful — to be beaten with the large end of a staff or with the 
small one ? " At length they took their departure. Upon this 
it was rumoured that Ohotomo no Ohomuraji and Oshiyama, 
Hodzumi no Omi, Governor of the Land of Tari, had received 
bribes from Pekche. 

7th year. Summer, 6th month. Pekche sent General Chya- ad. 513. 
mi Mun-kwi and General Chyu-ri Cheung-ni along with Oshi- 
yama, Hodzumi no Omi [the Pekche ** Original Record " says, 
** Commissioning Lord Oshiyama"], to bring as tribute a 
scholar of the five classics named Tan Yang-ni. They XVII. 12. 
separately addressed the Emperor, saying : — ** The land of 
Pan-phi " has seized thy servants' territory of I-mun.^ I humbly 
pray that the Celestial favour may decide that it be restored to 
its original jurisdiction." 

Autumn, 8th month, 26th day. Syun-ta, the eldest son of 
the King of Pekche, died.* 

9th month. The Imperial Prince Magari no Ohine in per- 
son* betrothed, to himself the Imperial Princess Kasuga. 
Thereupon all through the moonlit night they held sweet con- 

Ojin Tenno. 

' This name means sun-eagle. There is a ^od called Ama-no Hiwashi 
mentioned in the *' Kogojiui." 

' The traditional Kana is Hahe. It is doubtful here which rendering to 

* It seems to have been Japanese at this time. The "Seishiroku" says 
that in the reign of Mimaki-irihiko the Imna people asked Japan to annex 
I-mun, as the inhabitants were in constant strife with Silla. I*mun was a 
district on the north-cast frontier of Imna. 

* The " Tongkam " says nothing of this. 

* i.e. without a middle-man. She was Ninken's daughter. 


verse till the dawn came on them unawares. Of a sudden the 
grace of elegant style was embodied in his speech, and he broke 
into song, saying : — 

In the eight-island land ' 
Vainly a wife I sought 
Until in Kasuga 
(Of Spring weather) 
Hearing that there was 
A fair maiden, 
Hearing that there was 
A good maiden. 
Pushing open 
The spruce-fir plank door 
(Of right- wood ^ cleavage) 
Hither have I come. 
Taking it by the foot end 
I laid hold of the hem * (of her garment), 
Taking it by the pillow-end 
I laid hold of the hem (of her garment) ; 
Then my beloved's * arm 
Was wound around me 
And my arm too 
Was wound round my beloved. 
XVII. 13. Like a luxuriant vine, 

Arm embraced and twined with arm ; 

As the armlet fits the elbow," 

In sweet slumber we lay. 

'Tis the bird of the courtyard, 

The cock that is crowing : 

'Tis the bird of the moor, 

The pheasant that is clamourin>,^ 

Ere I have uttered 

All my mind fully 

The dawn has come. Oh my beloved one I 

Then his consort replied in song, saying : — 

* i.e. Japan. See above. Vol. I. p. 15. 

^ Maki, lit. " right-wood," is here a mere honorific epithet applied to the 
wood of the Chamaecyparis obtusa, which has an even grain, adapting it 
well for making planks at a time when saws were unknown and the axe 
was used for that purpose. 

* Tsuma, " hem," also means " spouse." 

* Lit. younger sister, which was used much like our '* my dear." 

* The interpretation of this line is very doubtful. 

Keidai. 1 I 

Down the river of Hatsuse 
(The secluded) 
A bamboo comes floating — 
Close-jointed, long-jointed ; ^ 
The bottom part 
Making into a lute, 
The upper part 
Making into a flute, 

Blowing into it (the flute), playing on it (the lute), 
Were I to ascend and stand 
On the top of Mimoro, 
And publish it - there. 
The very flshes 
That pass under the water 
Of the pond of I hare 
(The creeper-clad) ^ 

Would come to the surface and lament : 
The august girdle of small pattern,* 

Girded on XVII. 14 

By our Great Lord 
Who rules peacefully. 
Hangs down in a knot- 
Not a man is there whoever he may be 
But would come up and lament. 

Winter, nth month, 5th day. General Chya-mi Mun-kwi 
of Pekche, Mun-tok-chi of Silla, Sin-i-hy^ and Pun-pha-wi-sa 
of Ara and Kwi-chon-hye and Chyung-mun-chi of Pan-phi were 
sent for-to attend Court in a body, and received communica- 
tion of a gracious Imperial order, giving I-mun and Te-sa to 
the Land of Pekche. 

In this month the Land of Pan-phi sent Cheup-chi with 

* Close-jointed at the bottom, long-jointed at the top. At least so one 
commentator. There are other equally unsatisfactory explanations of this 

* Viz. the sadness of the coming of the dawn under the circumstances 
above described. 

' Iha means " rock." Therefore the epithet in parentheses. 

* This and the next four lines are introduced solely because tare, "to 
hang down," also means " who." I have endeavoured to imitate this by 
" knot " and " not." See above, Vol. I. p. 402. 

This poem amounts to this : — 

" If to the accompaniment of music I were to express the sadness of our 
parting, the very fishes would lament, and all men who heard me would 

12 NiHONGI. 

presents of rare and valuable objects, asking for the Land of 
I-mun. Eventually it was refused them. 

1 2th month, 8th day. An Imperial decree was made, 
saying : — " We, having taken over the Celestial succession, 
have been watchful to preserve the Ancestral Temples, and 
have been wary and fearful. For a while the Empire has been 
at peace ; within the seas there has been serenity and calm. 
Years of abundance have been frequent, redounding to the 
prosperity of the Land. Admirable ! Maroko,* thou hast 
made known our sentiments to the eight quarters. Magnifi- 
cent ! Magari no Ohine ! thou hast cast a lustre on our 
authority amongst all countries. Japan* is harmonious, and 
each man may do as he pleases in the Empire. Akitsu is 
glorified, and the Royal territory raised to high honour. Thou 
prizest nought but wisdom : in nothing dost thou take greater 
pleasure than in doing good. . Depending on this, the sagely 
XVII. 15. influences undulate afar : leaning upon this, the profound 
virtue is permanently supported. Truly, such is thy virtue 
that thou art fit to occupy the Spring Palace,^ to aid Us in 
dispensing benevolence, and to assist Us by supplementing our 
A.D. 514. 8th year, ist month. The eldest Prince's Consort, the 
Imperial Princess Kasuga, was late in coming out one morning, 
and was not in her ordinary state. The eldest Prince's sus- 
picions were aroused. He w^ent into the Palace, and found 
his Consort lying on her couch weeping and sobbing. Her 
passion was such that she could not control it. The eldest 
Prince, thinking it strange, inquired of her, saying : — " What 
cause of grief hast thou, that thou sobbest and weepest this 
morning ? " His Consort said : — ** Thy handmaiden's sorrow 
hath no other cause but this. The heaven-soaring birds, in 
order lovingly to nurture their young, build nests on the tree- 
tops, so deep is their affection for them. The creeping things 
that crawl upon the ground, in order to guard their offspring, 
make holes in the ground, so careful is their guardianship of 
them. How then should mankind be wanting in foresight ? 


* Ankan Tenno. 

* " Japan " is probably ati anachronism. The whole speech has every 
appearance of being an invention of later times. 

' The Palace of the Heir to the Throne. 

Keidai. 13 

The grief of childlessness having befallen the eldest Prince, 
thy handmaiden's name also becomes extinct." The Heir 
Apparent sympathized with her in her sorrow, and informed the 
Emperor, who made a decree, saying: — ** Our son, Maroko ! ^ 
thy Consort's words are in profound accordance with reason. 
It is impossible that they should remain void, and without 
a consolatory response. Let her be granted the granary* 
of Saho, to bear her name for ten thousand generations." 

3rd month. Panphi built castles at Cha-than * and Tfe-sa, 
thus bringing itself in line with Manhy^. They also estab- 
lished beacon -towers, as a defensive measure against Japan, xvil. 16 
Moreover, they built castles at Ni-nyol-pi and Masupi, and so 
connected with Ma-cho-hy6 and Chhyu-pu; they brought 
together troops and weapons, wherewith they harassed Silla, 
making booty of women and children, and fleecing the villages. 
Their violence increasing, scarce any inhabitants remained. 
Their deeds of outrage, profligacy, injury, oppression, and 
murder were too numerous to set down in detail. 

9th year, Spring, 2nd month, 4th day. General Mun-kwi, a.d. 515, 

the Pekch6 envoy, and his party asked leave to go away. By an 

Imperial decree Mononobe no Muraji [his personal name is not 

given] was attached to them, and they were allowed to go back. 

The Pekch6 *' Original Record " says : — ** Mononobe no 

chichi * no Muraji." 

In this month they came to the Island of Sa-to,' where they 
learned by report that men of Pan-phi, with hate in their . 
bosoms and venom in their mouths, were committing wanton 
outrage, trusting in brute force. Therefore Mononobe no 
Muraji, in command of a fleet of five hundred war-ships, made 
straight for the estuary of T^-sa, and General Mun-kwi departed 
by way of Silla. 

Summer, 4th month. Mononobe no Muraji remained at 
anchor in the estuary of Te-sa. 

* I should like to find some authority for omitting " our son " and trans- 
lating maro-ko thus. See above, V'ol. I. p. 264, where maro ga chi is 
rendered " our father." 

^ Miyake. 

* -p ^. See below, XVII . 18, where EL ^ (Kwithan) is probably this 
place, one of the two being a mistake. 

* i.e. " the father." * Sand-island. 

14 NiHONGI. 

6th day. The Pan-phi people raised an army and came to 

attack them. They stripped them of their clothing, plundered 

them of their property, and burnt all their tents.* Mononobe 

no Muraji and his men were frightened, and took to flight, 

XVII. 17. saving their lives with difficulty. They anchored at Mun-mo-ra 

[the name of an island] . 
A.D. 516. 10th year, Summer, 5th month. Pekche sent Mok-hiop, of 
the former division,' and thePu-ma' Kap-he to entertain Mono- 
nobe no Muraji and his men at I-mun, and to escort them into 
that country. All the (Pikche) officials brought forth clothing, 
axe-iron, and woven stuffs, assisting them by presents of their 
national products, which they piled up in the court. Kind 
visits of inquiry were made to them, and unusually abundant 
presents were bestowed on them. 

Autumn, 9th month. Pekche sent General Chyuri Cheuk- 
chha,* along with Mononobe no Muraji, to come and give 
thanks for the grant of the territory of I-mun. They also 
offered tribute of a scholar acquainted with the five classics, 
named Ko An-mu, of Han,* and asked that he should be 
exchanged for Tan Yang-ni.*' He was exchanged in accordance 
with this request. 

14th day. Pekche sent General Chyang-mak-ko and two 

Japanese, named Shinato and Ahita, to accompany Anchyong, 

the Koryo envoy, and his party, who came to our Court to 

cement amicable relations. 

A.D. 518, i2th year. Spring, 3rd month, 9th day. The capital was 

removed to Otokuni.^ 
A.D. 523. 17th year. Summer, 5th month. King Mu-nyong of Pekche 

^ Or rather screens of cloth to hide off an encampment. 

' Sec below, XX VII. 12. 

^ Puma is possibly the modern Corean Puma, i.e. King's son-in-law, but it 
is perhaps more likely to be a man's name too, thus making three Chytin-pu, 
or officials of the former division. 

* Probably the person called Cheung ni above, XV'II. 11, the difference 
being owing to a copyist's error. 

* The Chinese dynasty of that name. It seems here to form part of the 

^ • See above, XVII. 12. ' In Yamashiro. 

=* This agrees with the " Tongkam " date, even to the month. 

Keidai. 15 

18th year, Spring, ist month. The Pckche Heir Apparent, a.d. 524. 
Myong/ assumed the (Royal) dignity. 

20th year, Autumn, 9th month, 13th day. The capital was a.d. 526 
removed to Tamaho in Ihare.' [In one book it says 7th year.] * ' " 

2ist year, Summer, 6th month, 3rd day. Afumi no Kena no a.d. 527. 
Omi, in command of an army of 60,000 men, was about to 
proceed to Imna, in order to re-establish and unite to Imna 
South Kara and T6k-sa-than, which had been conquered by 
Silla, when Ihawi, Tsukushi no Kuni no Miyakko, secretly 
plotted rebellion, so that there was a delay of several years. 
Fearing that the matter would be hard to accomplish, he was 
constantly watching a favourable opportunity. Silla, knowing 
this, secretly practised bribery with Ihawi, and encouraged 
him to oppose the passage of Kena no Omi's army. Hereupon 
Ihawi occupied the two provinces of Hi' and Toyo,^ and would 
not allow the taxes to be paid. Abroad he intercepted the 
route by sea, and led astray the yearly tribute ships from the 
countries of Koryo, Pekche, Silla, and Imna, while at home 
he blocked the way for Kena no Omrs army which was being 
sent to Imna. He lifted up his voice in abusive language, 
saying : — " Thou who hast now become an envoy wast for- 
merly my companion. We rubbed shoulders and touched 
elbows ; we ate the same food from the same vessels. How 
canst thou lightly be made an envoy, and make me come freely XVII. 15 
and prostrate myself before thee ? '* He at length fought and 
would not receive him ; he was haughty and self-conceited. 
For this reason Kena no Omi was prevented midways from 
proceeding on his journey, and was detained. The Emperor 
addressed Kanamura, Ohotomo no Ohomuraji, Arakahi, Mono- 
nobe no Ohomuraji, and Wobito, Kose no Oho-omi, saying : — 
" Ihawi of Tsukushi has rebelled, and has occupied the terri- 
tory of the western wilds. Whom shall we now make general ? " 
Ohotomo no Ohomuraji and the others all said : — " For 
uprightness, humane bravery, and acquaintance with military 
matters there is at present no one who goes out to the right of* 
Arakahi." The Emperor said : — ** Be it so.'* 

' His name was Myongnye |^ Jj^- 2 ij^^j^ ^^^j^ ^^ Yamato. 

• Now Hizen and Higo. * Buzen and Bungo. 

* i.e. excels. This is a Chinese phrase. The left is now the honourable 
side ; at one time the right was so. 

1 6 NiHONGI. 

Autumn, 8th month, ist day. The Emperor made a decree, 
saying : — ** Ah, Ohomuraji ! * here is this Ihawi who will not 
obey us. Do thou go and chastise him." The Ohomuraji, 
Mononobe no Arakahi, with repeated obeisances, said : — " Ah 5 
Ihawi, that unprincipled knave of the western wilds, relies on 
the impediments of rivers, and does not appear at Court. He 
trusts to the steepness of the mountains, and stirs up disorder. 
He subverts virtue and acts contrary to principle; he is 
insolent and wise in his own conceit. From Michi no Omi 
in ancient times down to Muruya ' at present (there have been 
ministers who) have fought at the same time both for their 
Emperor and to rescue the people from misery. This is 

XVII. 20. simply owing to the help of Heaven, and thy servant has 
always been impressed with its importance. How should he 
fail reverently to smite them ? " 

The Emperor charged him, saying : — ** The generalship of a 
good commander consists in dispensing kindness and exercising' 
forbearance : he rules others with the leniency he shows to 
himself. In attack he is like the bursting forth of a river; in 
combat he resembles the rising of the. storm." Again he 
charged him, saying : — ** On a great commander depends the 
lives of the people and the existence of the State. Be earnest,, 
and reverently execute the Celestial punishment." The Em- 
peror took up the battle-axe * in his own hands, and delivered it 
to the Ohomuraji, saying : — ** We will control the country 
from Anato eastward ; do thou hold sway over the land from 
Tsukushi westwards. Dispense rewards and punishments 
absolutely, and trouble not thyself to make frequent reference 
to Us." 

A.I). 528. 22nd year, Winter, nth month, nth day. The Commander- 
in-chief Arakahi, Mononobe no Ohomuraji, taking personal 
command, engaged battle with the rebel leader, Ihawi, in the 
district of Miwi in Tsukushi. The flags and drums approached 
close to each other, the dust (from both armies) became 
mingled. The critical moment for the two armies arrived^ 
and the position was such that ten thousand deaths seemed 

' i.e. Arakahi. - See above. Vol. I. p. 117. 

' Muruya was Kanamura's father. 
* An emblem of authority. 

Keidai. 17 

unavoidable. At length he slew Ihawi, and eventually subdued 
the frontier land/ 

I2tb month. Kuzu, Kimi of Tsukushi, fearing to be involved 
in his father's execution, offered to the Emperor the Granary' 
of Kasuya, asking to be allowed to ransom his life. 

23rd year, Spring, 3rd month. The King of Pdkch6 ad- 
dressed Oshiyama, Hodzumi no Omi, Governor of Lower Tari, 
saying : — " Now our tribute envoys have always to avoid the 
headlands and expose themselves to the winds and waves. In 
consequence of this the goods they bear become wet and 
wholly spoiled and unsightly. I pray that thou wilt make the 
Port of Tasa in Kara the crossing route by which to send thy 
servant's tribute." Oshiyama no Omi made application to 
the Emperor accordingly. 

This month Kasone, Mononobe no Ise no Muraji, Kishi no 
Okina,' and others were sent to make over the Port to the 
King of Pekch6. Hereupon the King of Kara spoke to the 
Imperial Envoys, saying : — '* This Port ever since the esta- 
blishment of the (Japanese) Government House has been the 
port of passage for your servant's tribute. How can you with- 
out grave reason change this state of things and grant it to a 
neighbouring country, contrary to the original definitive en- 
feoffment of this territory } " The Imperial Envoy Kasone and 
his colleagues were accordingly unable to make the grant 

* According to the ** Tsukushi Fudoki," the tomb of Ihawi was, at the time 
of writing, to be seen two ri to the south of Kami-tsuma no agata " The 
height of the mound was seven rods (of ten feet, no doubt measured along 
'the slope), and its circuit six rods (something wrong here). The ground 
belonging to the tomb was sixty rods from north to south, and forty from 
east to west. (This looks like a double mound ) On all four sides there 
are sixty stone men, with stone shields, arrayed against each other in order 
of battle. At the north-east comer there is a separate plot of ground, 
called the kitchen. In this there is one stone man, in a standing position, 
who is called * the carver,' and in front of him a naked figure prostrate on 
the ground, called * the thief.' On the side there are four stone pigs, called 
• the plunder.' In that place, moreover, there are three stone horses, three 
stone halls, and two stone warehouses. The oldest inhabitants say that 
Ihawi had this place constructed in his lifetime." 

Some of these remains are still in existence, and I rather think that it is 
one of the stone figures which is now in the Uyeno Museum at Tokio. 

' Miyake. 

' Kishi was originally a Corcan rank ; Okina means old 


1 8 NiHONGI. 

XVII. 22. openly. They retired to Ohoshima and sent a clerk specially, 
by whom the grant to Pu-yo ' was effected. Owing to this, 
Kara allied itself to Silla ' and bred hatred against Japan. The 
King of Kara married the King of Silla's daughter, who 
eventually had issue by him. When Silla first sent a daughter, 
100 men were sent away with her as her escort. When they, 
were received, they were dispersed throughout the districts of 
the country, and allowed to wear the Silla costume. But 
Arasateung ^ railed at their strange * garments and sent 
messengers to return them secretly. Silla felt greatly insulted. 
He changed his mind and tried to get his daughter back, 
saying : — " Formerly, when I received thy marriage proposals, 
I sanctioned the alliance. But since matters are now so, I 
request that the Princess may be restored to me." Kwi-pu-ri 
Chika of Kara [unclear] answered and said : — '* How can 
husband and wife be sundered again when they have once 
become united ? Moreover there are children. What will 
become of them if they are abandoned ? " In the end it came 
to pass that (Silla) captured the three castles of To-ka, Ko-phi, 
and Phona mura.* He also took five castles on the northern 

In this month Afumi no Kena no Omi was sent to Ara* to 
urge Silla, in the Emperor's name, to re-establish Southern 

^ Puyo or Fuyu is an ancient name of PMcch^. It is properly the name 
of a region north of Corea whence the Pokchd royal family derived their 
origin. Southern Puyo was adopted as the official name of Pekchd in A.D. 
538, according to the "Tongkam," V. 14. 

^ The "Tongkam " (a.d. 522) speaks of Silla giving a lady of royal blood 
{though not the king's daughter) in marriage to Kaya. The two kings had 
a friendly meeting in 527. 

' A note to the **Shukai" says that Arishito (or Arasateung, according to the 
Corean pronunciation of the characters) was the King of Kara. No doubt 
some high official is intended. See Vo\. 1 p. 166. 

* Silla, according to the " Tongkam,' first regulated official costume, no 
doubt on the Chinese model, in A.D. 520. It was apparently these garments 
that excited the reprobation of Kara. 

* Mura is apparently the same as the Japanese word mura, village. There 
is a Corean word muri, assemblage, which seems to be the same root. An 
old Chinese author says that the Silla word for castle or city is kien-mu-la. 
Kien, I imagine, is kheun, great, and mula is for mura. Sec below, XVH. 24. 

® One of the ten provinces of Imna, says the " Shukai " editor. 

Keidai. 19 

Kara^ and Tok-sa-than. P^kch6 sent the Lord-General 

Yun-kwi Ma-na, Kap-pe Ma-ro and others to Ara respectfully 

to hear the Emperor's decree. Silla, fearing lest the Govern- xvii. 23, 

ment which he had established in the frontier provinces should 

be destroyed, did not send a grandee. He only sent Pu-chi- 

na-ma-ny^ and Hy^-na-ma-ny6 to Ara respectfully to listen to 

the Imperial decree. Hereupon Ara built a new High-Hall, 

into which the Imperial Ambassador was led up, the ruler of 

the country ascending the staircase behind him. One or two 

of the local grandees had already ascended the Hall, but the 

P^kch^ envoys, the Lord-General, and the others remained 

below. The consultations were repeated for many months * in 

the Hall above, until the Lord-General and the others grew 

angry at having to remain in the Courtyard. 

Summer, 4th month, 7th day. Kwi-neung-ma-ta * Kanki, 
King of Imna,* came to Court. [Kwi-neung-ma-ta was doubt- 
less the Arasateung.] He addressed Kanamura, Ohotomo no 
Ohomuraji, saying: — "The several frontier provinces beyond 
the sea, ever since the time of the Emperor in the womb, have 
had Interior Government Houses placed in them. My land 
has not been abandoned, but the territory has been enfeoffed 
to me, not without good reason. But now Silla, in defiance of 
this original definitive enfeoffment, has frequently crossed the 
borders and invaded us. I pray, therefore, that thou wilt 
represent this to the Emperor, so that he may come to the 
assistance of his servant's country." The Ohomuraji, Oho- 
tomo, in accordance with his request, laid the matter before 
the Emperor. 

In this month an envoy was sent to escort Kwi-neung-ma-ta 
Kanki, and at the same time to convey to Afumi no Kena no 
Omi, who was resident in Imna, the instructions of the 
Emperor to investigate thoroughly the matter represented to 
him, and in a friendly way to dissipate their mutual suspicions. 
Hereupon Kena no Omi lodged at Kumanare' [one book 

* See above, p. 1 5. - The " Shukai " corrects this to *' days." 

* The traditional Kana is Konomatta. 

* The "Shukai" has a note that Imna is Kara. The name given here is 
not that of the King of Kara at this time. He may have been only a 

* Or Eung-chon, i.e. Bear-river. See Vol. I. pp. 232, 368. 

C 2 

20 NiHONCI. 

XVII. 24. says he lodged at Kusa-mura in Imna], whither he summoned 
together the kings of the two countries, Silla and Pekch6^ 
Cha-ri-chi,* King of Silla, sent Ku-chi-pu-ny^ ' [one book says 
Ku-nye-ni-sa-chi and (?) U-na-sa-ma-ri], and Pekch6 the 
Eunsol* Mi-teung-ni, to proceed to meet together at the 
place where Kena no Omi was. But the two kings did not 
attend in person. Kena no Omi was much incensed, and 
called the two envoys to an account for it, saying : — " It is the 
law of Heaven that the Small should wait upon the Great. 
[One book says : — * To the end of a great tree, you join a 
great tree ; to the end of a small tree, you join a small 
tree.'] Why do the kings of the two countries send envoys ii> 
this disrespectful way instead of coming in person to ' the 
meeting and receiving the Emperor's commands ? But now^ 
even if your kings came themselves to hear the Imperial com- 
mands, I would not consent to deliver them, but would surely 
drive them away.'' Ku-chi-pu-ny6 and the Eunsol Mi-teung- 
ni, with dread in their hearts, returned each to his own country 
to call his king. Accordingly, Silla sent another envoy, the 
Chief Minister, I-cheul-pu-nye-chi Kanki, with a following of 
three thousand men, to come and ask leave to hear the Imperial 
commands. Kena no Omi, seeing from afar that he was being 
encompassed by several thousand armed men, left Kumanare 
and entered the castle of Kwi-cheul-kvvi-ri^ in Imna. I-cheul- 
pu-ny^-chi Kanki took up his lodging on the plain of Tatara, 

XVII. 25. and, not daring to go back, waited for three months, requesting^ 
leave repeatedly to hear the Imperial message. But to the last 
its communication was not vouchsafed him. Some men under 
I-cheul-pu-nye-chi's command were begging for food in the 
villages when they passed Mikari, Kahachi Mumakahi no> 
Obito, a retainer of Kena no Omi. Mikari went in and hid 
behind somebody's gate, and, waiting till the beggars w^ere 
passing, clenched his fists and struck at them from afar. The 
beggars, seeing this, said : — ** We have waited patiently for 

* The ^Tongkam" calls the King of Silla at this time Pop-hung. This is 
the posthumous name. His name in life was Wun-chong. Neither 
agrees with the name given here. 

- Ku-chi-pu-ny^. The Japanese pronunciation is Kuchi-fure. 
' The Eunchol were the third class of Pekcht> dignitaries. 

* Koshikori is the traditional Kana pronunciation. 

Keidai. 21 

three months in hopes of hearing the Emperor's will. But 
you still refuse to communicate it, and harass the envoys who 
have been sent to listen to the Imperial message. Hence, we 
see that your object is to befool and put to death the Chief 
Minister." So they reported to the Chief Minister all that 
they had seen, and he thereupon seized four villages, Keum- 
kwan,* He-mu, A-ta, and Wi-tha [one book says Tatara, 
Sunara, A-ta, and Pi-chi were the four villages] , took possession 
of all the people and their goods, and withdrew to his own 
country. Some said that it was the fault of Kena no Omi that 
these four villages, Tatara and the rest, were plundered. 

Autumn, 9th month. The Oho-omi, Kose no Obito, died. ^^^ 
24th year. Spring, 2nd month, istday. The Emperor made /d. 530. 
an edict, saying : — *' From the Emperor Ihare-hiko " until (• 
King Mimaki,' all (the sovereigns) put their trust in learned 
Ministers and enlightened assistants. Therefore Michi * no 
Omi propounded the policy, and divine Japan* flourished. 
Ohohiko enounced plans, and Inihe * was exalted. Among those 
Princes of succeeding generations who were successful in re- xvii. 26. 
establishing what had fallen into decay, what one has there 
ever been who did not rely upon wise counsels ? Now, coming 
down to the time when the Emperor Wohatsuse ruled the 
Empire, auspiciously receiving it over from the previous sages, 
there was long peace and prosperity, during which morals 
became gradually deteriorated, and there was no awakening, 
while the Government became gradually steeped in decay, and 
there was no reform. But he looked out for (proper) men, 
and each had advancement after his kind. If a man had great 
capacity, his shortcomings were not inquired into ; if he had 
high abilities, his failures were not found fault with. It was 
for this reason that this Emperor was enabled to serve the 
ancestral shrines, and not to endanger the Temples of the 
Land and of Grain. Judging from this, could he have been 
wanting in enlightened assistants ? 

* The present Keumhe, then capital of Kara. - Jimmu Tenno. 

* Sujin Tenno. There seems no particular reason why one should be 
called a King 3E, and the other an Emperor ^» 

^ Michi means " path," "moral principle." Vide Vol. I. p. 117. 

* Or Yamato. 

* i.e. Sujin Tenno, says the " Tsu-sh5 "' commentary. 

2 2 NiHONGI. 

During the twenty-four years which have elapsed since we 
took over the Imperial office, the Empire has enjoyed prosperity, 
and there have been no anxieties at home or abroad. The 
veins of the earth have been fertile and the crops have reached 
maturity. Our secret fear is that the masses may in conse- 
quence of this acquire a habit, and that depending on it they 
may become proud. Therefore let men be made to practise 
honest thrift, and let the Great Morality be inculcated, so that a 
mighty progress may be diffused abroad. From of old it has 
been hard to appoint the right men to office. Now that this* 
duty has devolved upon Ourselves, ought we not to be 
watchful ? " 

Autumn, gth month. An envoy from Imna made represen- 
XVII. 27. tation to the Emperor, saying : — " It is now two years since 
Kena no Omi proceeded to Kusamura, where he built a house 
and took up his residence. 

The statement in one book that it was three years 
includes the year of going and coming. 
But he is remiss in the discharge of his Governmental duties.. 
Now there are frequent disputes between the people of Japan 
and the people of Imna respecting children,* which are difficult 
to settle. None of these has ever been decided. Kena rio Omi 
is fond of setting (the caldrons for) the ordeal by boiling water,, 
and saying : — * Those who are in the right will not be scalded : 
those who are false will certainly be scalded.' Owing to this 
many persons have been scalded to death by plunging into the 
hot water. Moreover he has put to death N atari and Sapuri, 
Corean children of Kibi. 

The children born of Japanese marriages with barbarian 
women were accounted Kara-ko.' 
He constantly harasses the people, and there is never any 
amicable solution of difficulties.'' Hereupon the Emperor,, 
hearing of this conduct, sent a man to recall him. But he 
would not come. He took the trouble, however, to send 
Mikari, Kahachi no Muma-kahi no Obito up to the capital with 
a message for the Emperor, saying : — *' If thy servant returned 
to the capital before carrying out the Imperial instructions, his 
toil of travel would come to nothing. How should he get over 

* The progeny of mixed unions. ■ i.e. Corean or Kara children- 

• Keidai. 23 

his mortification ? He humbly beseeches Your Majesty to 

await the execution of the national instructions. He will then 

proceed to Court and confess his faults." After sending off 

this messenger, he further took counsel with himself, saying : — 

" That Mitsugi ^ no Kishi is also an Imperial envoy. If he 

arrives back before me, and represents my offences to the 

Emperor as they really are, they will certainly be aggravated.'* 

So he sent Mitsugi no Kishi at the head of a force to guard the 

Castle of Isachi mura. Hereupon the Arisateung, seeing that 

a trivial matter was being made of great importance, would 

not apply himself to what was expected of him, but repeatedly 

urged his ' returning to Court. But he persisted in his refusal 

to let him return. By this all his conduct was understood, and 

in their hearts a spirit of revolt was begotten. So he ' sent *^VII. 28 

Kuny^sakwimo to Silla to ask for troops, and Nosukuri to Pekchc 

to ask for troops. Kena no Omi, hearing of the arrival of the 

Pekche forces, went out against them and attacked P&-phyong. 

[P^-phyong is the name of a place — also called Ung-pi-kwi-pu- 

ri.*] Half were killed or wounded. Pekche accordingly seized 

Nosukuri, punished him with handcuffs, and put him in the 

cangue and chains. Then, along with Silla they laid siege to 

the castle, and demanded of the Arisateung with imprecations 

that Kena no Omi should be produced. But Kena no Omi 

clung to his castle and made a vigorous defence. His strength 

was such that he could not be taken prisoner. Upon this the 

two countries measured out a suitable piece of ground, where 

they settled down for a month and built a castle. They then 

retired. This castle was called Kunye mura. On their way 

home they captured the five fortified places of Teung-ni-ki- 

mura, Puna-mura, Mu-cha-ki-mura, A-pu-ra-mura, and Ku-chi- 


Winter, loth month. Mitsugi no Kishi arrived from Imna 

* Mitsugi means tribute or taxes. Kishi is a title, originally Corean. 
- Mitsugi no Kishi's. ' The Arisateung. 

* Perhaps the last three syllables are meant for the Corean word Ko euly 
a district, the Japanese k6ri. The first syllable Ung means bear. 

* These names are written with Chinese characters, used phonetically in 
a way which conveys the idea that the author of the '* Nihongi " considered 
them to be Corean words. But mura is unmistakably the Japanese word 
for village, and the names too are probably Japanese, viz. Toriki-mura» 
Funa-mura, Mushiki-mura, Abura-mura, and Kqchihataki. 

^►4 NiHONGI. 

auJ uifonnevl the Emperor of Kena no Omi's arrogant and 

ivi^cisc dis|K>sition. ** He was inexperienced (he said) in the 

utiiiuusttution of government, and never brought about 

uiiK able s«.>Iutions. He disturbed Kara. Moreover he followed 

l>4}vv.>\vn impulses in a high-handed manner, while he at the 

-vinic time put up with evils and did not prevent them." 

I hvMvK»iv Mt\lifurako was sent to recall him. 

\u ihim war, Kena no Omi, having received the summons, 

V\ n. 1^ |>uKv\\k\l as far as Tsushima, where he fell ill, and died. His 

luactal K>Uv>wt\l up the course of the river,* and so entered 

Hkx wttv^ made a song, saying : — 

To Hirakata 

With the music of flutes he goes up — 

The youth of Kena 

()f Afumi, 

With the music of flutes goes up.' 

\\ h\ u Mal/urako first arrived in Imna his^ people who 
iv im^mkhI in that country sent a song, saying : - 

The land of Kara, 
How should it be called so? 
Mcdzurako has come I 
]\y the crossing of Iki — 
Opposite and afar, 
Medzurako has come ! * 

\ «• X i' 

•>th \\\u» v^pring, 2nd month. The Emperor took very ill. 
\\\ vU\ . rhr ICmperor died in the Tamaho Palace at Ihare, at 

' Uk' Tm Kwvi. 
Uiiakat.i »H tho name of a place in the province of Afumi or Omi. The 
vwuvl \\.vkuv^*» youth, has here a suffix ;, which is now wholly obsolete. It 
I . u^in^L hv^wcvrr, occasionally in the *' Manyoshiu," and may be identical 
xviih ihc Voivau ^urtix /, a sort of definite article. 

hvnuiaU wiMV accompanied by the music of flutes, as appears from other 

* » v\ Kvhi4 uv» t^mi's. 

• K U'k u\v<*u^ ** acrid, cruel, hard," as well as the country. In Medzurako 
vUvu'U uu alluMon to the adjective Medzurashiki, "strange, rare.'" The 
»v'»»^ v-M^ivv^t* the satisfaction of the people of Kena no Omi's household in 
Uw^m MvvUuvako set over them instead of their own master. 

' \ Kv ** Kvyiki " has forty-three, no doulDt wronj?ly. 

Keidai. 25 

Winter, 12th month, 5th day. He was buried in the 
misasagi on the Awi plain.* 

A certain book says : — ** The Emperor died in the 28th 
year of his reign, namely the year Kinoye Tora. The state- 
ment in the text that he died in the 25th year of his reign, 
viz. the year Kanoto I, is taken from a passage in the 
* Original Record ' of Pekch6. This passage runs as 
follows : * In the year Kanoto I of the Cycle, the 3rd 
month, an army advanced to Ara and constructed the 
fortified place of Kwi-tok. In this month Koryo slew 
their king An. It is said, moreover, that the Emperor of 
Japan with the Prince Imperial died at the same time and 
were buried.' This was the authority on which the state- 
ment was made. The year Kanoto I corresponds to the 
25th year of the reign. Later inquirers may ascertain 
which is correct." ^ 

* In Settsii. This misasagi is visible from the railway, on the left as one 
goes from Osaka to Kioto. 

* The uncertainty about this date shows how imperfect the chronological 
records must have been even at this late period. 

There is this difficulty about making Keidai die in the 28th year of his 
reign. He was then 82, and his son died the following year, aged 70, which 
would make him bom when his father was only 13. One chronological 
work suggests that there was an interregnum. But this is contrary to the 
positive statement in the " Nihongi." 





The Emperor Magari no Ohoye Hiro-kuni Oshi-take was the 
eldest child of the Emperor Wohodo. His mother's name was 
Menoko-hime. As to the Emperor's character, the walls were 
lofty, so that one could not peep in.' He was brave and 
generous, and had the capacity of a ruler of men. 

In the 25th year of his reign, Spring, the 2nd month, the 7th 
day, the Emperor Wohodo established Ohoye as Emperor, and 
on the same day he died.^ 

In this month Ohotomo no Kanamura no Ohomuraji .and 
Mononobe no Arakahi no Ohomuraji were made Ohomuraji, 
both being continued in their previous offices. 
A.D. 534. 1st year. Spring, ist month. The capital was removed ta 
Magari no Kanahashi, in the province of Yamato, by which 
name the palace " was called. 

3rd month, 6th day. On behalf of the Emperor, functionaries 

took wedding presents to the Imperial Princess Kasuga no 

XVIII. 2. Yamada, daughter of the Emperor Ohoke," and made her 

Empress "' [otherwise called the Imperial Princess Yamada no 

^ Magari is the name of a place. Ohoye or Ohine means the elder of a 
family. The rest is literally '* wide-country-push-valiant-metal-sun." 

* Ankan, "easy-space." 

* An allusion to a passage in the " Analects of Confucius." See Legge's 
edition, p. 211. The meaning is that he was of a reserved disposition, and 
not easy to understand and appreciate. 

* The 25th year of Keidai's reign is A D. 531. Ankan succeeds him at 
once, yet his ist year is a.d. 534. See above, p. 25. 

* i.e. the Kanahashi Palace. * Ninkcn Tenno. 

^ This was only a formal installation. The real marriage took place in the 
7th year of Keidai's reign. 

Ankan. 27 

Akami] . There were, besides, three consorts appointed, viz., 
Satehime, daughter of Kose no Wobito no Oho-omi, Sate- 
hime's younger sister, Kagarihime, and Yakahime, daughter 
of Mononobe no Itahi no Ohomuraji. 

Summer, 4th month, ist day. The High Steward, Oho* 
maro Kashihade no Omi,^ by command of the Emperor, sent a 
messenger to Ishimi ' to get pearls. The Kuni no Miyakko of 
Ishimi delayed coming to the capital, and the time passed 
without their delivering them. Ohomaro Kashihade no Omi 
was greatly incensed, and, having seized and bound the Kuni 
no Miyakko, interrogated them as to the reason. Wakugo no 
Atahe and the other Kuni no Miyakko were afraid, and ran 
away, and concealed themselves in an inner chamber of the 
hinder-palace.' The Empress Kasuga, unaware that they had 
come straight in,* was startled, and fell down deeply ashamed. 
Wakugo no Atahe and the others, being already convicted of 
the crime of intrusion, and having become liable to severe 
punishment, humbly oifered the Empress the Miyake ' of 
Ishimi to be her absolute property, praying her to accept it by 
way of atonement for their oifence of intrusion. A settlement 
was therefore made of the Miyake of Ishimi. It was now xvili. 3. 
divided and. made into districts, which were attached to the 
province of Kadzusa. 

* Kashihade no Omi means " steward minister," so that here the name 
and the office coincided, as they frequently did at this time. 

'In Kadzusa. 

' i.e. the Empresses' apartments. 

* Without warning or introduction. 

* The Miyake are frequently mentioned below. The word is defined in 
Yamada's Dictionary as follows ; — " Mi means august ; yake, house. The 
Miyake were granaries, in which was stored the rice which the peasants 
were made to cultivate on lands belonging to the government in the various 
provinces. The term was also applied to the government buildings belong- 
ing to them." 

This word is written in two ways in Chinese. One rendering means 
store-house or granary, the other government house. The Miyake has two 
aspects corresponding to this distinction. They were primarily granaries 
to which were attached cultivated lands and serfs, and they were also local 
centres of government. But the present and other passages show that they 
were frequently private property. The Japanese Residency in Imna is called 
a Miyake, and even the kingdoms of Pekch^ and Silla are so termed. The 
Miyake are evidently the older Be somewhat modified. Cf. Vol. I. p. 214. 

28 NiHONGI. 

5th month. Pekche sent the Ha-pu Syu-tok, Tyok Tok-son, 
and the Syang-pu * To-tok, Kwi Chyukwiru, to come and render 
the Imperial tribute, and separately to present a memorial. 

Autumn, 7th month, ist day. The Emperor made a decree, 
saying: — "The Empress, it is true, is of one body with the 
Emperor, but their designations, one being outer and the other 
inner, are quite distinct. Moreover let there be assigned a 
tract of Miyake land from (the revenues of) which to erect 
a Pepper* Court, so that after generations may hand down 
its memory." Imperial Commissioners were accordingly 
appointed to select good rice-land. The Imperial Com- 
missioners, having received this charge, addressed Ajihari 
[otherwise called Satohi], Ohoshi Kahachi no Atah6, saying : — 
** Thou shouldst now offer to the Emperor the fat rice-land of 
Kiji." Ajihari conceived a sudden grudging, and deceived 
the Imperial Commissioners, saying : — ** This rice-land is 
subject to drought, and hard to irrigate. The surface water 
percolates readily, so that the expenditure of labour would be 
enormous, and the harvest very small." The Imperial Com- 
missioners, in accordance with these words, made their report 
to the Emperor without reserve. 

Winter, loth month, 15th day. The Emperor commanded 
Kanamura, Ohotomo no Ohomuraji, saying : — *' Although we 
have taken to us four wives there has been up till now no heir. 
When ten thousand years have passed,"* Our name will be extinct. 
What dost thou propose should now be done. Our uncle * of Oho- 
tomo ? Whenever we think of this, Our anxiety knows no rest." 

Kanamura, Ohotomo no Muraji, addressed the Emperor, 

XVIII. 4. saying : — ** This is also a subject of anxiety to thy servant. It 

is necessary that all the sovereigns of this country who rule the 

Empire, whether they have heirs or not, should have something 

* Official ranks. Ha-pu and Syang-pu mean respectively Lower and Upper 

' "The private apartments of the Empress, so called because ( i) an "Empress 
ol the Han had the walls of her palace smeared with pepper in order to 
generate warmth, or (2) because she always had a supply of pepper flowers 
about her, hoping to be fruitful them." — Giles. 

^ i.e. when I am dead. 

* Uncle, like cousin or brother in the mouths of European sovereigns, is 
only a term of friendly greeting. 

Ankan. 29 

by which they should have a name. I pray, therefore, that on 
behalf of the Empress and thy other consorts Miyake lands 
may be established, and made to remain unto future genera- 
tions, so that relics of the past may be manifested." 

The Emperor commanded, saying : — " Be it so ; let them be 
speedily established." Kanamura, Ohotomo no Ohomuraji, 
recommended to the Emperor that the Miyake of Oharida 
with serfs * from every province should be granted to Satehime, 
that the Miyake of Sakurawi [one book says, " And in addition 
the Miyake of Chinuyama "] with serfs from every province 
should be granted to Kagarihime, and that the Miyake of 
Naniha with spade-labourers from every district should be 
granted to Yakahime as an indication to posterity, and an 
example by which to view the past. The Emperor com- 
manded, saying: — ** Let it be done as proposed." 

Intercalary 12th month, 4th day. The Emperor made a 
progress to Mishima. Kanamura, Ohotomo no Ohomuraji, 
was in attendance. 

The Emperor, through Ohotomo no Ohomuraji, made in- 
quiry as to good rice-land of the Agata-nushi ' Ihi-bo. The 
Agata-nushi Ihi-bo was delighted beyond measure, and with 
the utmost reverence and loyalty offered as a present Upper 
Mino and Lower Mino, Upper Kuhabara and Lower Kuha- 
bara, as well as land in Takefu, 40 cho in all. Ohotomo no xvill. 5. 
Ohomuraji, by command of the Emperor, addressed him,' 
saying: — ** Of the entire surface of the soil, there is no part 
which is not a Royal grant in fee; under the wide Heavens 
there is no place which is not royal territory. The previous 
Emperors therefore * established an illustrious designation and 
handed down a vast fame : in magnanimity they were a match 
with Heaven and Earth : in glory they resembled the sun and 
moon. They rode afar and dispensed their mollifying influence 
to a distance; in breadth it extended beyond the bounds of the 
capital and cast a bright reflection throughout the boundaries 
of the land, pervading everywhere without a limit. Above they 

' Tana-be. See above, Vol. I. p. 214. 

* District-lord. •* i.e. Ajihari. 

* From this point to the end of the paragraph is taken from the monu- 
ment of a personage named f^fl ^ lE, of the Liang Dynasty of China. 

30 NiHONGI. 

were the crown of the nine heavens: they passed abroad 
through all the eight points of the compass : they declared 
their efficiency by the framing of ceremonial observances : they 
instituted music/ thereby manifesting order. The resulting 
happiness was truly complete: there was gladness which 
tallied with that of past years.' 

Now thou, Ajihari, being an obscure and insignificant subject 
of the realm, didst suddenly entertain a grudging as regards the 
lands of the Crown, and hast lightly disregarded the messenger. 
It is the Imperial will that thou, Ajihari, shalt henceforth cease to 
hold the office of Local Governor." Hereupon, the Agata-nushi 
XVIII. 6. Ihibo's heart was filled with mingled joy and awe. He took his 
son Toriki and presented him to the Ohomuraji as a servant. 
Then Ajihari, Ohoshi Kahachi no Atahe, was afraid, and had 
lasting regret. Prostrating himself on the ground, with the 
perspiration streaming from him, he addressed the Ohomuraji, 
saying : — ** I am an ignorant subject, and my crime deserves 
ten thousand deaths. I pray humbly that I may be allowed 
to furnish from each district in spring-time five hundred spade- 
labourers, and in the time of autumn five hundred, for the 
Emperor's service. My descendants to all ages will pray for 
their lives in dependence on this,' and they will keep it before 
them for ever as an exemplary punishment." He separately 
presented to Ohotomo no Ohomuraji six cho of rice-land in 
Savvida. This seems to have been the origin of the labourers 
of the Agata of Kahachi being attached to the Miyake of 
Takefu in Mishima as serfs. 

This month Hatahime, daughter of Kikoyu, Ihoki be no 
Muraji, stole a necklace belonging to Okoshi, Ohotomo no 
Ohomuraji, and presented it to the Empress Kasuga. The 
matter was at length discovered, and Kikoyu gave his daughter, 
Hatahime, to be a servant of the Uneme. [The Kasuga Be 

* The importance of music as a means of government is often insisted on 
in the ancient Chinese literature. The interlinear version has here uta-mai^ 
*' song and dancing," which latter was no doubt included. Ceremony and 
music are pat generally for the pomp and circumstance which are the life of 
an Imperial Court. 

* Here w^e have the Imperial theory formulated in terms, be it noted, 
which are borrowed entirely from Chinese writings. 

' i.e. this will be a perpetual ransom for the lives of my descendants. 

Ankan, 31 

Uneme.*] He also presented (to the Emperor) the Miyake of 
Ihokibe in Koshibe in the province of Aki, and therewith 
redeemed his daughter's crime. Okoshi, Mononobe no Oho- xvill. 7 
murajiy fearing that he might become implicated in the matter, 
•could not feel secure, and presented to the Emperor Towochi 
Be, with Kusasa, Toi [Kusasa and Toi are names of two 
villages], and Nihe no Hasebe, in the province of Ise, and also 
Wisayamabe, in the Land of Tsukushi. 

The Kuni no Miyakko of the province of Musashi, Omi, 
Kasahara no Atahe, had a dispute with a relation named Wogi 
as to who should be Kuni no Miyakko. This went on for 
years and could not be settled. Wogi was of an obstructive 
and rebellious disposition ; he had a high spirit, unapt for com- 
pliance. He secretly sought support from Wokuma, the Kuni 
of Kamitsukenu,^ and conspired with him to kill Omi. Omi 
became aware of this, and made his escape to the capital, 
where he informed the Court. When the matter came to be 
-decided, Omi was made Kuni no Miyakko, and Wogi was 
executed. Omi, Kuni no Miyakko, his breast filled with 
mingled awe and gladness, could not restrain himself, but 
reverently offered to the State the four Miyake of Yokonu, 
Tachibana, Ohohi, and Kurasu. 

This was the year Kinoye Tora (51st) of the Cycle. 

2nd year. Spring, ist Month, 5th day. The Emperor made a.d. 535. 
a decree, saying : — ** Of late, for several successive years, the 
crops have produced well ; there have been no frontier anxieties : 
the people take pleasure in their husbandry : my black-headed 
subjects of every calling are free from famine : benign influences 
-extend agreeably over the universe : cries of admiration fill 
Heaven and Earth : within and without serenity is every- 
where diffused : the commonwealth is flourishing : Our joy is 
-extreme : let there be a Great Revel for five days, to the delight 
of the Empire." 

Summer, 4th month, ist day. The Be of the Toneri of XVIII. 8, 
Magari was established, and the Be of the Yuki of Magari.^ 

5th month, gth day. There were established the Miyake of 

' i.e. The Empress's waiting-women. * i.e. Kodzuke. 

* These Be were evidently intended to commemorate the Emperor's name. 
The Yuki were archers. 

32 NiHONGI. 

Funami and Kama in Tsukushi, the Miyake of Tosa, Kuha-- 
bara, Kato, Ohonuku and Aka in the province of Toyo, the 
Miyake of Kasuga be, in the province of Hi, the Miyake of 
Koshibe and Ushika in the province of Harima, the Miyake of 
Shidzuki, Tane, Kukutsu, Hawaka, and Kaha-oto, in the further 
province of Kibi, the Miyake of lye and Itoshibe in the 
province of Ata,* the Miyake of Kasuga be in the province of 
Aha, the Miyake of Fuse and Kahabe in the province of Ki, 
the Miyake of Soshiki in the province of Tamba, the Mi3rake 
of Ashiura in the province of Afumi, the Miyake of Mashiki 
and Iruka in the province of Wohari, the Miyake of Midono 
XVIII. y. in the province of Kamitsukenu, and the Miyake of Wakanihe 
in the province of Suruga." 

Autumn, 8th month, ist day. By Imperial command Be of 
dog-keepers * were established in every province. 

gth month, 3rd day. The Emperor appointed Sakurawi 
Tanabe no Muraji, Agata no Inukahi no Muraji, and Naniha na 
Kishi, to the charge of the revenues from the Miyake. 

13th day. The Emperor specially commanded the Oho« 
muraji, saying: — ** Let cattle be let loose on Ohosumi-jima, 
and in the fir-plain of Hime-jima at Naniha. By this we hope 
that a name will be handed down to after times.'' * 

Winter, 12th month, 17th day. The Emperor died in the 
palace of Kanabashi at Magari, at the age of seventy. 

In this month the Emperor was buried in the misasagi on 
the hill of Takaya at Furuichi in the province of Kahachi. In 
this misasagi there were buried along with the Emperor the 
Empress, who was the Imperial Princess Kasuga no Yamada,. 
and the Emperor's younger sister, the Princess Kamisaki.' 

' Now part of Satsuma. 

2 This institution of Miyake seems to show that the Central Government 
was vigorously extending its power in the provinces. The Imperial theory 
was being translated into practice. 

•* Inukahi, a frequent surname in old Japan. The " Shukai " says: — 
" They had probably charge of the dogs to guard the Miyake against 

* In 717 A. D. an order was given to discontinue the cattle-breeding estab> 
lishments of Ohosumi-jima and Hime-jima, and to allow the peasantry to. 
till the land. 

* Or Kanzaki. 

Senkvva. 33 

the emperor take-wo hiro-kuni oshitate.^ 

The Emperor Take-wo Hiro-kuni Oshitate was the second 
child of the Emperor Wohodo, and the younger brother by 
the same mother of the Emperor Magari no Ohoye Hiro-kuni 
Oshitake Kanahi. 

The Emperor Magari no Ohoye Hirokuni Oshitake Kanahi 
died in the 12th month of the second year of his reign, 
leaving no heir. The Ministers in a body delivered up 
the sword and mirror' to Takewo Hirokuni Oshitate no 
Mikoto, and made him assume the Imperial Dignity. As to 
his character, his capacity was unalloyed throughout, his 
intelligence surpassingly bright, and he did not play the ruler, 
making a boast to people of his abilities. Superior men gave 
him their allegiance. 

1st year. Spring, ist month. The capital was transferred to a.d. 536. 
Ihorino in Hinokuma,^ whence the palace took its name. 

2nd month, ist day. Ohotomo no Kanamura no Oho- 
muraji and Mononobe no Arakahi no Ohomuraji were ap- 
pointed Ohomuraji, both as before. Moreover, Sogano Iname 
no Sukune was made Oho-omi and Abe no Ohomaro no Omi 

3rd month, 1st day. The functionaries petitioned that an 
Empress might be appointed. 

8th day. The Emperor commanded, saying: — ** Let her 
who is already my proper ' consort, viz. the Imperial Princess 
Tachibana no Nakatsu, daughter of the Emperor Ohoke, be 
appointed Empress.'' She bore to him one son and three 
daughters. The eldest was called the Imperial Princess Ishi 
hime,® the next was called the Imperial Princess Koishi hime,' 
the next was called the Imperial Princess Kura no Wakaya 
hime, and the next the Imperial Prince Kamu-uye-ha [other- XViii.n. 

' The elements of this Emperor's name are literally " valiant-small-wide- 
- Senkwa means " dififusc- civilization." ^ The Regalia. 

* In Yamato. '' i.e. not a concubine ® Stone-princess. 

• Little-stone-princess. 

VOL. n. D 

34 NinoNGi. 

wise Mariko]. He was the ancestor of the two families^ of 
the Tajihi no Kimi and the Ina no Kimi. The concubine 
whom he already had, viz. Ohoshi Kahachi no Wakugo hime, 
bore to him one son, named the Imperial Prince Honowo.' 
He was the ancestor of the Kimi of Shihida. 

Summer, 5th month, ist day. The Emperor made an edict, 
saying : — *' Food is the basis of the Empire. Yellow gold and 
ten thousand strings of cash cannot cure hunger."* What 
avails a thousand boxes of pearls to him who is starving of 
cold? Now the province of Tsukushi is a place reached by 
visitors to our Court from far and near ; it is a barrier passed 
by travellers going and coming. Therefore the countries 
beyond the sea, awaiting the water of the ocean,* come as our 
guests: looking up to the clouds of Heaven, they bring us 
tribute. From the days of the Emperor in the womb ' down to 
XVIII. 12. Ourselves, grain has been stored up and hoards of provisions 
accumulated as a distant preparation for evil years, and for the 
cordial entertainment of our good guests. For the peace of 
our country there is nothing better than this. We therefore 
send Asomo no Kimi to transport thither a further supply of 
grain from the Miyake of the district of Mamuta in Kahachi. 
Let Soga no Oho-omi and Iname no Sukune send Wohari no 
Muraji to transport grain of the Miyake of the province of 
Wohari. Let Arakahi, Mononobe no Ohomuraji send Nihinomi 
no Muraji to transport grain from the Miyake of Nihinomi. 
Let Abe no Omi send Iga no Omi to transport grain from the 
Miyake of the province of Iga. Let there be built a Govern- 
ment House at Nanotsu no Kuchi.* Moreover, the Miyake of 
the three provinces of Tsukushi, Hi, and Toyo are dispersed 
and remote : transport is therefore impeded by distance. In 
the case of an emergency it would be difficult to provide for 
sudden needs. Let the various districts therefore be charged 
each severally to transfer (the Miyake), and to erect one jointly 
at Nanotsu no Kuchi, thus making provision against extra- 
ordinary occasions, and long preserving the lives of the people. 

' Lit. surnames. - Flame of fire. 

^ It must not be inferred from this that the Japanese had coin at this 
time. It is simply a phrase borrowed from the Chinese. 

* The tides. * Ojin Tenno. *' In Chikuzen. 

Senkwa. 35 

Speedily go down to the districts (in question) and make known 
to them Our behests." 

Autumn, 7th month. Mononobe no Arakahi no Ohomuraji 

This year was the year Hinoye Tatsu (S3rd) of the Cycle. 
2nd year, Winter, loth month, ist day. By reason of Silla's a.d. 537. 
hostility towards Imna, the Emperor commanded Ohotomo no 
Kanamura no Ohomuraji to send his sons Iha and Sadehiko XVIII.13. 
to the assistance of Imna. At this time Iha staid in Tsukushi, 
where he took charge of the local Government, and made pre- 
parations against the three Han.* Sadehiko went to Imna and 
restored peace there. He also lent aid to Pekch6. 

4th year, Spring, 2nd month, loth day. The Emperor died a.d. 539. 
in the Palace of Ihorino in Hinokuma at the age of seventy- 

Winter, nth month, 17th day. The Emperor was buried 
in the misasagi at the top of the acclivity of Tsukijima, in 
Musa, in the province of Yamato. 

There were buried with him in the same misasagi the 
Empress, viz. the Imperial Princess Tachibana and her infant 

There is no mention in the records of the year of the 
Empress's death. Probably the infant child had died 
before reaching manhood. 

^ i.e. Silla, PMcch^, and Koryo. 

'In Japanese wakugo. This word is also found as a proper name, which 
"would account for the strange remark of the ** Original Commentary." 

J) 2 




The Emperor Ame-kuni Oshi-hiraki Hiro-niha was the right- 
ful heir of the Emperor Wohodo. His mother's name was: 
the Empress Tashiraka. The Emperor loved him, and kept 
him constantly at his side. When the Emperor was young 
he had a dream, in which a man appeared to him, saying: — 
** If thou makest a favourite of a man called Hada no Ohotsuchi, 
thou wilt surely possess the -Empire when thou dost attain to- 
manhood." When he awoke, he sent messengers to search' 
everywhere. They got from the province of Yamashiro, the- 
district of Kii and the township of Fukakusa, a man whose 
name and surname were actually as in the dream. Upon this 
joy pervaded his whole frame. ** A dream without precedent ! " 
he exclaimed, and addressed him, saying: — *' Has anything 
happened thee ? " He answered and said : — *' Nothing. Only 
when thy servant was on his way back from Ise, whither he 
had gone to trade, he fell in with two wolves ^ on a mountain,, 
who were fighting with one another, and were defiled with 
blood. Thy servant got down from his horse, and, having 
rinsed his mouth and hands, made prayer to them, saying: — 
' Ye are august deities, and yet ye take delight in violence^ 

* Heaven-land push-open wide-court. 

- Kimmei. Legge renders this by *' reverential, intelligent." Vide 
** Shocking," p. 15. 

^ •* No true wolf exists in Japan, but Canis hodophylax is a sort of lame 
counterfeit of the European beast." — Dickins, in Satow and Hawes' " Hand- 
book of Japan," p. [40]. Of the Ohokami, lit. " (ireat God,'' by which the 
Chinese character for wolf is rendered, Dickins says, " If it exists, nothing 
is known of it to science." 

KlMMEI. 37 

If ye were to fall in with a hunter, very speedily ye should be 
taken.' So thy servant restrained them from fighting together, 
and having wiped them and cleansed their blood-stained hair, 
eventually let them go, thus saving both their lives." The 
Emperor said : — **This is undoubtedly your reward." * So he 
made him to serve near his own person, and treated him with 
a favour which was daily renewed, so that he arrived at the 
height of great wealth. When the Emperor came to the throne, xix. 2. 
he appointed him to the Treasury. 

In Winter, the loth month of the 4th year of his reign, the 
Emperor Takewo hiro-kuni oshi-tate died. The Imperial 
Prince, the Emperor' Ame-kuni oshi-hiraki hiro-niha, ad- 
dressed the Ministers, saying : — " I am young * in years, and of 
shallow knowledge. I have not yet had experience of the 
affairs of government. The Empress Yamada has a clear 
acquaintance with all matters of administration, and I pray 
you to apply to her and then decide." 

The Empress Yamada rendered humble thanks, saying : — 
" Your handmaiden has been treated with favour, far beyond 
seas and mountains. But the manifold machinery of govern- 
ment is much too difficult a charge for a woman to undertake 
it. Now the Imperial Prince honours age, and shows affection 
to the young. He treats the wise with courtesy, and all day 
long neglects his food while he attends to others. Not only 
so, but young as he is, the point comes through.^ Already he 
has at his disposal an auspicious reputation, he is of a mild 
disposition and earnest in compassionate care. I pray the 
Ministers that they will, without delay, cause him to ascend 
to the Dignity, and preside gloriously over the Empire." ' 

I2th month, 5th day. The Imperial Prince Ame-kuni oshi- 

* i.e. his being recommended to the Emperor in a dream. 
« Sic. 

' A brother had died four years before, aged seventy, and another 
just died, aged seventy-three. Kimmei is said to have died A.D. 571, at the 
age of sixty-three, or eighty-one, by another account. Evidently the 
-chronology is not yet quite satisfactory. 

* An allusion to the Chinese saying, " Talent will show itself : like an awl 
in a bag, the point comes through." Vide (}iles, p. 1309. 

* The Empress's speech is composed almost wholly of sentences from 
Chinese authors. 

38 NiHONGI. 

hiraki hiro-niha assumed the Imperial Dignity. The Empress: 
was honoured with the title of Grand Empress. Ohotomo na 
XIX. 3. Kanamura no Ohomuraji and Mononobe no Okoshi no Oho- 
muraji were made Ohomuraji, and Soga no Iname no Sukune 
no Oho-omi was made Oho-omi, all as before. 
A.D. 540. 1st year, Spring, ist month, 15th day. The officials 
petitioned for the appointment of an Empress. The Emperor 
gave command, saying : — ** Let my proper consort, Ishihime^ 
daughter of the Emperor Take-wo hiro-kuni oshi-tate,* be ap- 
pointed Empress." 

She bore him two sons and one daughter. The eldest was 
called the Imperial Prince Yata no Tama-katsu no Ohoye, the 
middle one was called Wosada Nunakura Futo-damashiki no. 
Mikoto,^ the youngest was called the Imperial Princess Kasa- 
nuhi [otherwise called the Imperial Princess Satake]. 

2nd month. A man of Pekch^ named Kwi-chi-pu came 
over as an emigrant. He was settled in Yamamura, in the- 
district of Sofu no Kami, in the province of Yamato. He was 
the ancestor of the present Kochifu ^ of Yamamura. 

3rd month. — The Yemishi and the Hayato, both bringing 
their people with them, came and rendered allegiance. 

Autumn, 7th month, 13th day. The capital w^as removed to 
Shikishima, in the district of Shiki, in the province of Yamato. 
It was accordingly called the Palace of Kanazashi in 

8th month. Koryo, Pekche, Silla and Imna all sent envoys 

together to render tribute. The men of T'sin and of Han, etc.,. 

the emigrants from the various frontier nations were assembled 

together, settled in the provinces and districts, and enrolled 

XIX. 4. in the registers of population. The men of T'sin * numbered 

' Senkwa Tenno. She was therefore his niece, daughter of his half- 
brother bv the father's side. 

- Bindatsu Tenno. 

' The traditional Japanese renderinj^ of the Corean name Kwichipu. 

* T'sin and Han are the Chinese dynasties so called. These men must 
have been recent emigrants from China to Corea, or their near descendants, 
who had not yet been merged in the general population. This statement 
throws light on Japanese ethnology. It shows that not only the upper 
classes, as appears from the " .Seishiroku," but the common people contained 
a large foreign (Chinese and Corean) element. 

KiMMEI. 39 

in all 7053 houses. The Director of the Treasury was made 
Hada * no Tomo no Miyakko. 

gth month, 5th day. The Emperor made a progress to the 
shrine of Hafuritsu' at Naniha. He was accompanied by 
Kanamura, Ohotomo no Ohomuraji; Inamochi, Kose no Omi, 
and Okoshi, Mononobe no Ohomuraji. The Emperor inquired 
of the Ministers, saying : — " How many troops would be re- 
quired to conquer Silla?^* Okoshi, Mononobe no Ohomuraji 
and the rest addressed the Emperor, saying : — ** With only a 
few soldiers it would not be easy to chastise Silla. Formerly, 
in the sixth year of the reign of the Emperor Wohodo, Pekch6 
sent envoys petitioning that the four districts of Imna, viz. 
Upper Tari, Lower Tari, Syata and Muro might be granted to 
him.'* Kanamura, Ohotomo no Ohomuraji readily agreed with 
the request contained in this petition, and granted the demand. 
In consequence of this, Silla has cherished resentment for 
many years. Its chastisement should not be lightly under- 
taken.'' Now Ohotomo no Kanamura staid in his house at 
Sumiyoshi,^ and, on the pretence of illness, did not attend 
Court. The Emperor sent Magariko, Awomi no Ohotoshi, 
courteously to make kind inquiries. The Ohomuraji humbly 
thanked the Emperor, and said : — ** T